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A.D. 1298 — A.D. 1393 


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Preface •••«•••••• ix 

Introduction ••••••••• xiii 

I. Robert of Gloucester. 

(a) Reign of William the Conqueror • • • i 

(b) Life of St. Dunstan . . • • . • 19 

II. Metrical English Psalter. 

Psalm viii 23 

Psalm xiv (xv) 24 

Psalm xvii (xviii) 25 

Psalm xxiii (xxiv) 29 

Psalm cii (ciii) 29 

Psalm ciii (civ) 31 

III. The Proverbs OF Hendyng 35 

IV. Specimens of Lyric Poetry. . 

(a) Alysoun 43 

(b) a Plea for Pity .44 

(c) Parable of the Labourers 46 

(d) Spring-time 4^ 

V. Robert Mannyng, of Brunne. 

Handlyng Synne : The Tale of Pers the Usurer . 50 


VI. William of Shoreham. page 

De Baptismo «•••••• 63 

VII. Cursor Mundi, or Cursur o Werld. 

The Visit of the Magi, and the Flight into Egypt 69, 

VIII. Sunday Homilies in Verse. 

(a) From the Homily for the Second Sunday in 

Advent 83 

(b) Homily for the Third Sunday ^fter the Octave 

of Epiphany 89 

IX. Dan Michel of Northgate. 

Sermon on Matthew xxiv. 43 , , , .98 
Pater-noster, Ave Maria, and Credo • • • 105 

X. Richard Rolle de Hampole. 

Extracts from 'The Pricke of Conscience' . .107 

XI. Laurence Minot. 

(a) Edward's Expedition to Brabant • • .126 

(b) The same, continued 131 

(c) The Landing of Edward at La Hogue . .134 


Werwolf . • • • • . .138 

XIII. Alliterative Poems. 

The Deluge .•••«••• 151 

The Destruction of Sodom 161 

XIV. Sir John Mandeville. 

(a) Prologue to the Voiage 164 

(b) The Begynnyng of Machomete . . ,168 

(c) The Contrees beyonde Cathay . . .170 



XV, William Langland, or Langley. page 

Piers the Plowman (Earliest Version, or A-text) : 

Prologus 176 

The same: Passus I 180 

The same: part of Passus II .... 186 

The same : part of Passus III • . . • 188 

The same: Passus V • • • • • 193 

XVI. John Barbour. 

The Bruce: Extracts from Book VII • . 203 

XVII. John Wyclif, and Nicholas Hereford. 

(a) Wyclif 's Translation of St. Mark's Gospel : 

cap. i-vi 215 

(b) Hereford's Translation of Psalms xiv, xxiii, 

and cii . • . • • •231 

XVIII. John of Trevisa. 

(a) Descr^)tion of Britain « . • 

(b) The Norman Invasion 

• 335 

• 243 

XIX. Geoffrey Chaucer. 

From * The Man of Lawes Tale ' 


XX. John Gower. 

Confessio Amantis: The Tale of the Three 

Coffers 270 

Confessio Amantis : Aeson regains his Youth • 274 



Glossarial Index 355 



An intimate and thorough acquaintance with a language 
is only to be acquired by an attentive study of its literature. 
Grammars and histories of literature are, at best, but guides, 
and are not always wholly trustworthy ; the statements and 
principles they contain need verification as well as illustra- 
tion, and this necessitates a certain amount of familiarity 
with the literature itself. 

In studying the latest periods of the English language 
there is no lack of materials, and the student has it in his 
power to correct, by his own reading and observation, any 
errors of fact that may occur in the text-books he uses. 

With the literature of the earlier stages'it is far otherwise; 
the printed editions of old authors are, in many cases, on 
account of their rarity or price, inaccessible to ordinary 
readers, who are thus placed completely at the mercy of 
their guides. 

Within the last few years this defect has been in some 
measure remedied by the Early English Text Society, who 
have issued many new editions and reprints at a compara- 
tively moderate cost; and it may be as well to state here, 
that the student may find amongst their publications the 
complete texts from which the extracts quoted in Sections 
IX, XII, XIII, XV, and XVI are taken; and amongst the 


publications of the Philological Society the complete text of 
Hampole's * Pricke of Conscience' (Sect. X). 

The necessarily scanty extracts which occur, even in the 
best manuals of English literature, are quite inadequate to 
convey any clear notion of the dialect, grammar, and voca- 
bulary of the writers of the Early English period, and hence 
it is that most students find their information upon the 
subject limited to a list of names of persons, places, and 
dates, and some few uninteresting details, which, even in 
these days of competitive examinations, are accepted as a 
knowledge of English literature. 

The aim of the present work is to supplement the 
ordinary text-books, and furnish students with abundant 
material for making themselves familiar with the older forms 
of English, and so enabling them to obtain a sounder 
knowledge of the language as spoken and written at the 
present day. 

The 'Specimens,' which are chronologically arranged, 
may be considered as fypes of the English spoken during 
the fourteenth century. Not long previously, the language 
had undergone many changes, owing to the loss of gram- 
matical inflexions and a simplification of syntactical struc- 
ture, and was entering upon a new phase in its history, in 
which we may trace a gradual approximation to its modem 
representative, the English of the present day. 

The extracts have been chosen so as, in most cases, to 
present continuous narratives of considerable length, and 
they embrace a variety of topics, amongst which may be 
mentioned Biblical translations, religious teaching, proverbs, 
history, and romance. 

No knowledge of the oldest English (Anglo-Saxon) is 
required before commencing the following pages, as the 
Introduction, Notes, and Glossary contain all that is neces- 
sary to enable the student to read the most difficult speci- 


mens with pleasure and profit. If the language of the earlier 
Sections seem to be too unfamiliar to the beginner, the later 
Sections may be read^rj/. 

In preparing a new edition in 1872, several modifications 
and alterations were made. Four sections at the beginning 
of Dr. Morris's edition of 1867, containing extracts from the 
English Version of Genesis and Exodus, the Owl and the 
Nightingale, the Lay of Havelok the Dane, and the Romance 
of King Alexander, were omitted, as belonging to a period 
earlier than the fourteenth century, and being more suitable 
for a volume containing Specimens of the language of the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The Section containing 
an extract from * Sir Gawayn and the Grene Knyght' was re- 
placed by a portion of Barbour's ' Bruce'; and the extracts 
from the 'Cursor Mundi' and Wyclifs Translation of St. 
Mark's Gospel were shortened. The Chaucer section, in 
the edition of 1867, contained *The Pardoneres Tale' and 
* The Prioresse Tale,' from the Harleian MS. In preparing 
the edition of 1872, advantage was taken of the recent 
publications of the Chaucer Society, to produce a new 
edition of the first part of ' The Man of Lawes Tale,' in 
which the various readings were considered, and the scan- 
sion of the lines carefully marked. 

The Notes also were carefully revised. Several of the 
remarks on etymology were transferred from the Notes 
to the Glossarial Index for the sake of greater facility of 
reference, and considerable additions made to the Notes 

The Glossarial Index was entirely rewritten, in order to 
insert the references to the passages in which the harder 
words occur. At the same time, the various parts of the 
verbs were exactly described, cross-references added to 
account for variations of spelling, and some hints as to 
the derivations of the words (partly taken from the Notes 


to the edition of 1867) were given, in as concise a form as 

The above remarks apply, as has been said, to the edition 
published in 1872. Since then, a new edition has been 
called for, and advantage has been taken of the opportunity 
to revise the whole work yet once more in the most careful 
manner. Several additions have been made to the Notes, 
but it is chiefly upon the Glossarial Index that most pains 
have been bestowed. Every one of the very numerous refer- 
ences has been verified, and more than six hundred new 
references added. The explanations of a few words have 
been amended or more clearly expressed, and every pre- 
caution has been taken to secure critical accuracy. 

Wherever a form is quoted as Anglo-Saxon, Icelandic, 
Swedish, &c., the spelling of it will be found to agree with 
that given in the Dictionaries, a list of which is given at 
P' 355* ^^^ ^is purpose, the use of pocket-dictionaries 
has often been preferred, with the express object of avoid- 
ing the citation of other than sufficiently common words. 
The student will do well to refer to the authorities indicated, 
before rejecting any of the results here given in favour of 
plausible guesses of his own. 

The result of the labour thus bestowed upon the Glossary 
will, we hope, prove useful, as supplying, within a small 
compass, a ready means of ascertaining the meanings and 
modes of use of all such words as are of most common 
occurrence in the literature of the Fourteenth Century. 

Our thanks are due to Professor Mayor, of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, for several useful notes upon the 



§ I. The Alphabet The letters employed are the same 
as those employed now, with two additions, and with some 
variations in significance. The additional letters are )> and 
5; the capitals of which are printed p and 3. Both of these 
are of frequent occurrence in early MSS. The former (]>) 
signifies th. In our modern pronunciation, we make a 
distinction between the initial sounds of thine and thirty a 
distinction which in the earliest times possibly did not exist, 
the ih in both cases being sounded soft^ as in thine ; and it 
is remarkable that we still preserve this sound in all our 
oldest and commonest words, such as thou^ ihe^ that, there, 
then, and the like^ But we often find a distinction made 
in the fourteenth century. Some scribes used ]? at the 
beginning of Jfe, pat (the, that), and the letters th at the 
beginning of thin, thikke (thin, thick). In the fifteenth cen- 
tury, this distinction was less regarded, and the symbol J> 
was gradually disused. 

* Sec Appendix I to 'Gregory's Pastoral Care/ edited for the Early English 
Text Society by H. Sweet, Esq. 


The character j has various powers. At the beginning of 
a word it is to be sounded asj/, so that yird is our modern 
yard) in the middle of a word it had a guttural sound, still 
represented in our spelling hy gh, as in li^l for lighf; at the 
end of a word it either had the same sound, or stood for «. 
In fact, the character for z was commonly made precisely 
like it, although sparingly employed ; yet we find marchaunt^ 
for marchauntz, where the 2, by the way, must necessarily have 
been sounded as s. This use of the character is French, and 
appears chiefly in French words. In early French MSS. it is 
very common, and denotes z only. 

The characters v and u require particular attention. The 
latter is freely used to denote both the modern sounds, and 
the reader must be prepared at any moment to treat it as 
a consonant. Thus the words haue^ leue, diuerse are to be 
read have^ leve, diverse) where it will be observed that the 
symbol appears between two vowels. The former is used 
sparingly (except when written _in.I>).^ce pX^Jn Southern 
MSS.), but sometimes denotes the modern k, chiefly at 
the beginning of a word. The following are some of the 
commoner examples of it, and may as well be learnt at once ; 
viz. vce or vse (use), viter (utter), vp (up), vpon (upon), 
vs (us), vr or vre (our), vche (each), vuel (for uvel, evil), and 
the prefixes vm- (around), vn- (un-), -under- (under-), and 
vi- (out-). It is common to find, even in well-edited edi- 
tions of old authors, that the z;'s and »'s are altered so as 
to suit the modem taste; but a very little attention will 
overcome the diflSculty occasioned by the old usage. 

The letter J is very rare. It is generally denoted by a 
capital /; as in lape^ leoperdie, lourney^ {ox jape^ jeopardy^ 


journey. The combination guh is common in' the Lowland 
Scottish dialect, and answers to the modem English wh and 
the Singlo-Saxon hw ; as in guhy for ze;>^, A. S. hzvi. 

§ 2. Ahhreviaiions, The most usual marks of contraction 
employed in early books and MSS. are so few that they may 
soon be learnt. The commonest are these following, their 
expansions being denoted throughout this volume by the use 
of italic letters. 

A stroke over a vowel signifies mGin\ as in m, h\ houdy ; 
meaning su/«, hi»i, hound. '■ 

An upward curl, above the line, signifies er; as in mar^^ \ 
?ue^ for man<?r, s^rue (serve). But if this symbol follows 
the letter /, it means re ; as in ^che for pr^che. It arose 
from a roughly written^, the letter r being understood, j 

A small undotted i above the line means ri, the letter r \ 
being understood, as before; hence pnce, c^st, for prmce, \ 
cnst (Christ). 

A roughly written a (to) in like manner stands for ra ; 
as in g^cej p^y, for grace, ^ray. ] 

A curl, of a form which arose from a roughly written v « 
(for u), signifies ur; as in ine, 'o, for t«me, our. I 

The reason for the upward curl after / being used for re, \ 
arose from the fact that there was already a way of writing ! 
per, viz. by drawing a stroke through the tail of the p ; as in J 
piij for p^l. Sometimes this sign stood for par ; as in pty 
for party. i 

A similar stroke, but curling, enabled the scribe to abbre- \ 
viate/r^. Thus we have^^/i?,^«^, for pr(?fite, pr(?ue. 1 

At the end of a word, the mark ^ signifies es or is ; 


and the mark ' signifies us; as in word^ for worckf or 
word/j, and y for \us (thus). 

A not very common mark of contraction is ci- for com or 
con ; as in ^^fort^ o^eil^ comfort, r^seil. 

Other examples of contraction are g or gd for quod or 
quody i. e. quoth ; J?* for Ipat ; j)™ for ^on ; and iHc, thm, for 
\esuSf 'usuta (Jesus, Jesum), where the h came from the 
Greek H (long e), and the c from the Greek C (2, s), 

§ 3. Pronunciation, On this subject the student may con- 
sult * Early English Pronunciation/ by A. J. Ellis. There is 
reason to believe that very considerable changes have taken 
place since the fourteenth century, and that the vowels were 
at that time pronounced much more like those which are 
heard in continental languages, as e.g. in German, than is 
the case at present. 

§ 4. Punctuation. As no marks of punctuation occur in 
the early MS S.,. the editors are responsible for the various 
stops introduced into the text; and the reader may, if he 
pleases, disregard or alter them. 

§ 5, Metre. The favourite metre in the fourteenth cen- 
tury was that which was made up of riming couplets, each 
line containing four accents. When perfectly regular, it 
consisted of eight syllables, as. 

Of moiith I of chil I der &nd | souk&nd || 

(Sect. II. Ps. viii. 5) ; 

but the first syllable was often omitted, as in the line imme- 
diately following, viz, 

M&de I >ou lof I in fl I ka I&nd |] 


Less regular lines admitted additional unaccented syllables. 
In this metre are written the poems illustrated in Sections 
II, V, VII, VIII, X, XVI, and XX The occasional intro- 
duction of shorter lines having only three accents, especially 
in the third and sixth lines of a stanza, produced a metre 
which was wdl suited for lines of a lyrical cast. See Sec- 
tions III, rV, and XI for examples of this. Not very dis- 
similar is the metre in Section . VI., The long lines in 
Robert of Gloucester may be compared with, the Common 
Metre in H3ann-books, as explained in the note at p. 283. 
A The scansion of Section XIX has been carefully marked, 
' and some of the less regular lines are pointed out in the 
Notes. . In Sections XII, XIII, and XV we have examples \ . 
of Allitera tive MetrCg ^whidij gevaile d in the Western part of 1 \ 
England during a long p eriod, and was indeed the only \ \ 
metre used in England previously to the eleventh century. 1 
Here no rimes are employed at all, but each line is divisible ' 
into two sections, as indicated by the inverted fuU-stop. In 
lines of the most regular type, three emphatic syllables 
occur, two in the former, and one in the latter section, which 
commence yith the same letter ,* as in 

& 6xiddes fill ^r^ely * on J>e (owes singe. (XII. 23.) 

Here the three first emphatic or loud syllables commence 
with the letter 3, whilst the last loud syllable begins with 
another letter, viz. s. 
Sometimes the number of loud syllables is increased, as in 

I* >e sliuor of >e <w4te s^nn * 8c ^ng -of >e bridde« 

{Id, 29). 

in which Jhree loud syllables commencing with s occur in 
the first sectipn. 
J^ VOL. n. b 


This metre is regulated chiefly by accent and emphasis, 
the number of syllables being not much regarded*, 


From historical testimony, and an examination of the 
literary records of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 
we learn that the English speech was represented by three 
principal dialects^. 

1. The Northern dialect, spoken throughout the Lowlands 
of Scotland, Northumberland, Durham, and nearly the whole 
of Yorkshire. Roughly speaking, the Humber and Ouse 
formed the southern boundary of this area, while the Penine 
Chain determined its limits to the west. 

2. The Midland dialect, spoken in the counties to the west 
of the Penine Chain, in the East- Anglian counties, and in 
the whole of the Midland district. The Thames formed the 
southern boundary of this region. 

3. The Southern dialect, spoken in all the counties south 
of the Thames ; in Somersetshire, Gloucestershire, and por- 
tions of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. 

There is no doubt that the Midland dialect exercised an 
influence uJ)on the Southern dialect wherever it happened to 
be geographically connected with it, just as the Northumbrian 
acted upon the adjacent Midland dialects ; and this enables 

^ Various peculiarities of this metre are discussed, and a complete list 
given of all extant English poems composed in it since the beginning of the 
thirteenth century, in an Essay on Alliterative Poetry, by the Rev. W. W. 
Skeat, prefixed to vol. iii. of * The Percy Folio MS.' ed. Hales and Furnivall, 

' See Higden's account of these dialects, pp. 240 and 343. 


US to understand that admixture of grammatical forms which 
is to be found in some of our Early English MSS» 

§ 7. These dialects^ are distinguished from each other by 
the uniform employment of certain grammatical inflexions. 

A convenient test is to be found in the inflexion of the 
plural number^ /r^j^/ tense, indicat^e m pod^ 

The Northern dialect employs ^es^ the Midland -^n^ and 
the Southern -eih^ as the inflexion for all persons of the plural 
present indicative '. 


ist pers. hop-^j^ hop-^«*, hop-^/^, we hope. 
2nd „ hop-f J, hop-^, hop-f/^, ye hope. 

3rd „ hop-f J, \i0^my Yxo^-ethy they hope. 

The inflexions of the singular number, though no absolute 
test of dialect, are of value in enabling us to separate the 
West-Midland from the East-Midland. 

The West-Midland conjugated its verb, in the singular 
number and present tense, almost like the Northern dialect. 


I St pers* hop^ hop^j*. 

2nd „ hop^j, hop^j^ 

3rd „ hop^j, hop^j. 

The West-Midland of Shropshire seems to have employed 
the Southern inflexion -est and -eih^^^^ well as -es^ in the 2nd 
and 3rd persons singular indicative. 

' The Northern, Midland, and Southern dialects are sometimes designated 
V Northmnbrian, Mercian, and West-Saxon. 
' The Northern dialect often drops th&s in the ist person. 
' This -«5 occurs also in the 2nd pi. imperative instead of -tf/Af 
* The 'H is frequently dropped in all persons. 



The East-Midland dialect, like the Southern, conjugated 
its verb in the sing, pres. indie, as follows : — 

I St pers. hop^, 
2nd „ hop^j/, 
3rd „ hop^M. 

Some of the East-Midland dialects geographically con- 
nected with the Northern seem to have occasionally employed 
the inflexion -es in the 2nd and 3rd pers. as well as --esf and 
-efL It is mostly found in poetical writers, who used it for 
the sake of obtaining an extra syllable riming with nouns 
plur. and adverbs in -es. 

The West-Midland is further distinguished from the East- 
Midland dialect in employing the inflexion 'es for -esU in the 
2nd pers. sing, preterite of regular verbs. We also find, in 
the West-Midland, the terminations -us, -ud, in place of -es, 

§ 8. The following differences between the Nor/hern and 
Southern dialects are worth noticing. 



1. -es in all persons of the -e/h in the same. 

pi. pres. indie, and 

2. -es in all persons of the -e, -es^ -eih (-th) in the same. 

sing. pres. indie. 

3. No inflexion of person in Retention of the inflexions 

the sing, or pL of the -ede^ -edest, -ede, sing.; as 

preterite indie, of regular ist lovede^ 2nd lovedest, 3rd 

verbs in -ed\ as ist loved, lovede; -en (pi.), as ist, 2nd, 

2nd iovedy 3rd loved (sing. 3rd iaveden. 
and plural). 





4. Dropping of final e in 

the pt. t. 2iid person of 
strong or irregular verbs, 
as spak, spakest; seghy 

5. Infinitives drop the final 

-en {-e)y as stng^ to sing. 

6. At for tOy as sign of the 

infinitive; e.g. at fight, 
to fight 

7. Saly suld, shall, should. 

8. Present or imperfect par- 

ticiples end in -and (or 

9. Omission of the prefix j/- 

or /- in past participles, 
e.g. broken. 
10. The final -en in past par- 
ticiples is never dropped. 

11. No infinitives in -1*, -ie, 

ox -y. 

12. No plurals in -en, except 

eghen, hosen, oxen, schoon. 

13. The plurals childer,'hre- 

ther, ktiy (ky, cows), hend. 

14. The genitive of nouns 

feminine in -es. 

2nd person, pt. t., of strong 
verbs ends in -e, as spek-e, 
spakest; se^-e, sawest. 

Infinitives retain the final -en 
or -e, as stng-en, sing-e, to 

At as a sign of the infinitive 
is wholly unknown in this 

Schal, scholde (schulde). 

Present or imperfect parti- 
ciples end in -inde (-tng). 

Retention of y- or t- in past 
participles, e. g. y-broke, y- 
broken {t-broke, i-broken). 

The final -en is often repre- 
sented by -e, e. g. y-broke 
-y-broken ; i-fare = i-faren 

Numerous infinitives in -i, -ie, 
or -y, as hatie, lovie, ponky, 

A large number of nouns 
form their plurals in -en. 

Children, brethren (brothren), 
ken (kun), honden (honde). 

The genitive of nouns femi- 
nine in -e. 




15. No genitive plural in 


16. Adjectives drop all in- 

flexions of number and 
case, except aller, alther^ 
alder ^ of all; baiher, of 

17. Definite article unin- 

flected: pat a demon- 
strative adjective, 

18. per ^ /fir (these). 

19. Zr, ik^ L 

20. ScOy sho (she). 

21. Thaty thair (thar), ihaim 

{tham) = they,their,them. 

22. Urs^yy>ur€s{yhoures),htrSy 

thair s = ours, yours, hers, 

23. Absence of the pronouns 

^a, ora = he; hine^\xiXVL 

(ace.) ; wan = whom, 

which (ace); his^hise^is) 

= them ; his {is) = her. 

24. Use of ^^/^^ = hence; 

thethen - thence; whethen 
= whence. 

25. Sum = as. 

26. At ^ to; fra = from ; til 

= to. 

27. Conj. a/ = that. 


Genitive plural in -em retain- 
ed as late as a.d. 1387. 

Adjectives retain many in- 
flexions of number and 

Definite article inflected ; pat 
{pef) the neuter of the defi- 
nite article, and not a de- 
monstrative adjective. 

pise, pes. 

hh {uch), 

Heo (hi, hue, ho). 

Hii (hiy heOy hue), here {hire, 
heore), hem {heom, huem). 

Ure (»r), eowere (^oure, ore, 
or), hire, here (heore). 

Use of the pronouns ha (a), 
hine, wan, his {hise, is), his 

Unknown in Southern dialect. 

Unknown in Southern dialect. 
Unknown in Southern dialect. 

Unknown in Southern dialect. 





I. a; as in ban (bone), Iqf 

2. 1 ; as in kin, hil (hill), pit, 

3. k\ as in hink\ so 
cloke (clutch), 
kirke (church), 
croke (cross), 
rike (kingdom). 
shrike (screech, shriek), 
sek (sack). 

sik\ as in ciske (to ask). 

4. Absence of compound 


5. qu (gw) ; as in quat (what). 
6./; as infel (fell),ya (foe). 


d\ as in hon, lof^ loo/. 

tt ; as in kun\ huly put, 

ch ; as in bench ; so 





schriche (schirche), 

zech (sech). 

ss; as in esse (to ask). 

Use of the compound vowels 

ea, eo (/V, ue)\ 
hw {wh) ; as in kwat, 
v; as in vet, vo\ 

* The Kentish dialect substitutes e for u, as ien (kin), Ae/ (hill), pet (pit). 
' The Southern dialect of Kent seems to have pronounced ea as yea, as 

we find east, eald (old), written yeasi, yeald, 

* The Kentish dialect of the fourteenth century, like the modern pro- 
Tincial dialects of the South of England, has z for s, as zinge, to sing ; zoy, 
say; zede, said. 



L Formation of Plurals : — 

1. The sufl5x -es {-ts, -ys) is for the most part the ordinary 
plural, especially in the Northern dialects. 

'US is a West-Midland variety of -es, 

Romance words form their plurals in s (or z). 

In the middle of the fourteenth century, words ending in 

a Kquid — mostly words of more than one syllable — take -s 

as the plural inflexion. 

2. In the Northumbrian dialect no plurals in -en (-fi) are 
met with, except eghen, oxen, hosen, shoon, 2Lnd/an (foes). In 
the Southern dialect -en is very common side by side with -es. 

The suflBbc -en (-«) represents (i) the eldest English -an (-n), 
as aschen, ben (bees), chirchen, eyen, sierren, ion (toes), &c. ; 
{2) -«, as heveden (heads), tren, susiren, dof^fren^ brethren, &c. ; 
(3) -a, as honden, benen, &c. ; (4) -y, as ken, kin {^cy, pi. of 
cii, cow). 

3. -e sometimes occurs (i) for -en, as myie, moupe, bene, 
blosme, &c.; (2) for -u, as brethre, childre, &c. 

4. For childre, brethre, we find childer and brether in the 
Northern dialect : de^er = dehtren « dohtru, daughters. 

5. Plurals formed by vowel change : — men,/et, tej>, ges, ky 
(kie) ; modern English, men, feet, teeth, geese, cows, &c. 

6. Some few old neuters are flexionless in the plural, as 
hors, schep, der,/olk, swin,J>ing, yr (years), hous,pund, &c 


II. Case^endings. The genuine case singular is com- 
monly -es (-!>, -ys, -us). Father, brother, moder, daughter are 
found without the genitive sign, as in the oldest English. 

In the Southern dialect (as in Robert of Gloucester) we 
find many feminine substantives forming the genitive in -f, 
as ^quene fader/ ^empresse sone/ &c. 

The genitive plural is -es (-s), but the old genitive suffix 
-me (oldest English -ena) of the n declension is often met 
"witEIn the Southern dialect, as clerk ene, o f clerks ; kyngene, 
of kings ; childrene, of children. 

The dative suffix (singular and plural) is sometimes de- 
noted by a final -e, but for the most part the nominative and 
dative have the same form. 


There are two forms of the adjective, (i) Definite (or 
Weak), (2) Indefinite (or Strong). 

The definite form is denoted by a final r, as ' the godJe 
man.* The plural is also denoted by a final e, as ^ gode 
frendes/ This e is often dropped towards the end of the 
fourteenth century. In Chaucer it disappears in words of 
more than one syllable, as * mortal batailles.^ 

The vocative case is denoted by the final e, as * 3e \ong'e 
men,' * O stronge God.' 

The Norman-French plural -es {-s) is not uncommon, 
mostly when the adjective follows the noun it qualifies, as 
^"fizXtrts princzpales,' * cosins germatns,* &c. 

A few instances of the genitive singular in ^es occurs in 
ailes, nonesy when united to k^ ; as alleskynnes = of every kind, 
noskynnes » of no kind. 

In the Northern dialect the genitive ending is dropped ; 
hence the following forms, nakin, alktn, sumktn, whatkin, &c. 



This 'kyn once belonged to the following noun as suffix, 
not to the adjective. 

The^ genitive pju ral suffix -r^ or -er {^-ra) occurs in 
(i) aire, aller, aider, alther, genitive plural of al, (2) hdrey 
genitive plural of ho = both. 

Comparison. The comparative is formed by adding 
-ere, -er to the positive. In some writers of the earlier part 
of the fourteenth century we find -or, -ur for -er. 

The superlative ends in -esie, -est; sometimes in -osL 

Adjectives and adverbs in -Itch form their comparative and 
superlative in -loker {-liker, -laker, -Inker), -lokesi {-likes t, 
-lukesl); though -fyer, -lyeslBie more common towards the end 
of the fourteenth century. 

Eldre, lengre, strengre have vowel-change as well as the 
inflexion of comparison: older, longer, stronger, are also 
found (as in Chaucer). 

Bet, leng, streng (comparatives), are mostiy used adverbially. 

Irregular Comparisons: — 


r betre, betur, better, 1 
god, I j^j^ I best 

bad, badder (Chaucer). 

\, wors, werse, ] 

orse,werre, war, j ^««*' '^°'^- 

I, 1 J mare, more, mor, 1 

f 1 r«^ «.« r °^^st, most 

J [ mo, ma, J ' 


vuel, uvel, yvel, 

muchel, mochel, 

Intel, lytel, litel, 1 

lyte, J 

Shortened forms of the comparative and superlative are — 
fer (/erre) = farther; ner {nerre) = nigher, nearer ; nest, next = 
nighest, nearest ; herre = higher ; hest, hext = highest. 

lasse, lesse, les, lest, leest 



More and most make their appearance in the formation of 
comparison, as fiust geniyl (Robert of Gloucester), more hy 
(Robert of Brunne). 

§ 12. PRONOUNS. 



Nom. Ic, ik, ich, uch, 
Gen. min {^areYy 

Nom. })U, Jk)u, 
Gen. })in*, 
I^t. 1. 




ure, ur, our. 

us, ous. 

je, ye, yhe. 

jure, your, yhour, ower. 

you, yhou, 50W, ow, ou. 





XT 1 , fhi, ho, hue, heo, he: scho, 1,.^ .^ 

Nom. he. ha. a,| — ^^j^^' 'jbut. 

Gen. his\ hire, hir, 

Dat him, hire, hir, 

Ace. hine, him, hire, hir ; is, hise, his, 

his, hit. 
him, hit, it. 
hit, it. 


Mmc. Fern, and NeuL 

Nom. hi, hii, heo, hue, hy ; })ei, })ai. 

Gen. here, hare, hire, heore, hor, her, hir. 

Dat hem, ham, hom, heom, huem ; ]>aim, ]>am, ]>eim, ]iem. 

Ace. hi, hem, ham, hom, huem ; ]>am, ]7eim, \tax ; hise, his, is. 

^ Afin, ]Mn, tnd Ats, are used as genitives with the prep, maugre ; in most 
instances they are merely possessive pronouns ; ure, ^ure, here, are genitives 
when used with an indefinite pronoun. 


Uch^ ich (I), are Southern forms; iVA, Midland; iV", iky 
Northern. / is used in the Southern dialect before «, as 
/ nere =^I ne were, I were not. 

Ha (he) ; his, is (her, them) are peculiar to the Southern 

Sco, schOy pai, paim, pam are Northern forms ; sclie, pet 
are Midland varieties. 

Ho, hit (gen.) are West-Midland forms. 

Hine is only found in the Southern dialect. 

The pronouns are often agglutinated to the verbs, as 
Ichot = Ich wot, I know ; Icholle = Ich wolle, I will ; nuly « 
ne+wule + i, I will not, &c. 


Self is added (i) to the personal pronouns in the nomi- 
native — pou self\ (2) after the dative, as Ich me self, pou pe 
self, he him self But the genitive form often replaces the 
dative, as / mi self pou pi self we ure self, &c. 

Chaucer uses the lengthened {(xraxjeluen, as / rn^eluQi^ 

His selfTzrely occurs in Old EngMsh. 

iS^^when used as a demonstrative = same, very. 


Min, pin, his, hire (hir), our {ure, vr), yire {y hour, your ^ 
ore, or), her {hir, here, hare, hor), or pair (peir), 

Min and pin are mostly shortened to mi and pi. The 
longer forms remain (i) before vowels and h, (2) when 
used after a noun, as handes mine, (3) in the plural and 
oblique cases. 

Hise is often used as the plural of his. 

In addition to the ordinary possessives we find forms 
(i) in 'S, especially in the Northern dialect; as urs, ymres^ 
pairs, &c.; (2) in -«, as our en, your en, haren, &c. 



1. pe (Definite Article).— The definite article pe is used 
without inflexion in all cases, singular and plural. 

In the Southern dialect we often find Jfane, pen (ace. 

The plural pa^ po is also in use in the fourteenth century ; 
]fo often signifies those. 

The article is often agglutinated to substantives, as 
popyniaun, the opinion ; peir^ the air. 

The ion and the toper y = ' thet on ' and ' thet o})er/ contain 
the old neuter {thcei) of the definite arti cle. 

2. This. — This is properly a neuter form : the masculine 
p es, ferawm Q__^uesJ^peos\ are rarely, met with. 

The accusative pesm^'pisne {perne^ Kentish) is sometimes 
found in the Southern dialect. 

This has for its plural thes, these, theose, thuse, thise, this, 

3. Cknupounds of -like (O. E. lie). — (i) ilk,ylk = same^; 
(2) thylke, thulke (Kentish peliiche) = the-like, such; (3) swiik, 
swuch, swich, as also sii, slik^ sic, silk » so-like, such. 

Masculine and Feminine, 

Nom. who, wo, wha, ho, Jiuo, hua, qua, quha. 
Gen. whos, wos, quas, hruas, quhas. 

A ' I whom, wham, worn, quam, huam, wam, quham. 


Nom. and Ace. what, wat, huet, quat, quhat. 
Gen. and Dat like the Masculine. 

* Ilh = i4ih, that-like, where c U the instrumental case of the base a, he, 
that; diiferent from Uh when put for eche, which is from cde = a-lik, aye- 


WhepeVy quej?er, quheper = which of two. 
Whilk, which, touch, wich, woch = which. 


That is the ordinary relative. The genitive, dative, and 
accusative of who are used as relatives. The who and the 
which are common towards the end of the fourteenth 
century ; but who is not used as a relative (in the nom. case) 
unless the precedes it. 


1. Sum, Jc?/« = some; plural sofne, sume, summe, somme, 
Som . . . som = one . . . other. 

2. Ouht, 0^ = ought, aught; nou^t, no^t, nouht, naut = nought, 
naught. Ouht-a wiht; a is a particle which has the force 
of any, every ; cf. O. E. ^ = ever, aye ; wiht = creature, thing. 

3. Man, men, me = one (like Germ, man)-, as me seiih - one 
saith. See Me in the Glossarial Index. 

4. Wha, who, whO'So = one, any one ; whaswa, whoso, whose 
= whosoever ; eiper, ayper, ouper, omper, oper = either ; neiper, 

nouper, noper = neither ^. 

5. Ech, uch, ich, ilk = each ; ever-ilk, everech, everich = 
every. To be distinguished from ilk, same ; see note on p. 

§13. VERBS. 


Weak verbs form their preterite tense by adding -ede (-de, 
"te) to the verb. The passive particle ends in -ed {-d, -/). 
The final e sometimes drops off in the preterite, leaving the 
suffix -ed (sometimes -id or -ud) as the tense-sign. 

^ The conjunctions or and nor are contracted from o\fer and noj^er. 


Indicative Mood. 


Sing. Plural. 

1. lovie, love, lovieth, loveth ; loven, love ^. 

2. lovest, loves, lovieth, loveth ; loven, loves. 

3. loveth, loves, lovieth, loveth ; loven, love ; loves. 


1. lovede, loved, loveden, lovede ; loved. 

2. lovedest, loved, loveden, lovede ; loved, 

3. lovede, loved, loveden, lovede ; loved. 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Sing, lovie, love. 

Plur. lovien, loven, love. 


Sing. lovede, loved. 

Plur. loveden, lovede, loved. 

Imperative Mood. 

Sing. love. 

p. r lovieth, loveth ; loves. 

[ love, lovie (followed by the pronoun). 

Simple Infinitive. 
lovien, lovie, loven, love. 

Gerundial (or Dative) Infinitive. 
to loviene, lovie, lovene, loven, love. 

^ See remarks on the Dialects, p. xxi. 



If , lovinde, loving ; lovende ; lovande, lovand. 

Passive Participle, 
iloved, yloved ; loved. 

The simple infinitive occurs after auxiliary verbs without 
the preposition to. It may be used as the subject or object 
of a verb. 

The gerundial infinitive is the dative of the simple in- 
finitive, and always has /o before it It is equivalent to 
Latin supines and gerunds. The gerundial infinitive is used 
in English where a supine, or a/ with the subjunctive, is 
employed in Latin, 

On the Formation of the Preterite of Weak Verbs, 

Properly speaking, the preterite is formed only by the 
suffix -de^ e in -ede being the connecting vowel which joins 
the tense-suffix to the base. 

1. In verbs with a long radical vowel this connecting 
vowel disappears, and -de only is added to the base, as in 
the following : — 

infuhtive. preterite. past part. 

dele, del-de, deled, deld 

deme, dem-de, dem-d. 

lede, led-de, lad-de, led, lad, &c* 

2. When the base ends in Id^ nd, rt, st, ht, tt, &c, then 
-de or -te represents d-de or /-/?, as in the following : — 












icest, &c. 



i often replaces d in 

the fourteenth century, as in« — \ 







(a) The suffix -d 

is changed to - 

-/ after a sharp mute 

{p, / ch, ss 

, /, &c.). 

(S) ch becomes 5 

i^gh) before /. 

(f) nch becomes j/» or in (rarely ng) before /. 

(^ ng becomes j/« 

% or in before d 

or /. 

Examples : — 

(d) kepen, 





ileft, &c. 

(3) cacchen, 





itau^t, &c. 

if) drenchen, 


idreynt, &c. 

{d) mengen, 


imeynt, &c. 


I. Strong verbs differ from weak ones in not adding any 
tense-suffix, the preterite being formed by vowel-change. 
The^gassive p^tidple _of_strongjrerbs ends in j;^«_(and by 
loss of », -^), as 


holde, heold, held, iholden, iholde. 

2« Many verbs have a distinct vowel-change for the 
preterite plural, identical with the vowel of the passive 
participle, as 


binde, ' band (bond), bunden, ibunden. 

write, wrat (wrot), writen, iwriten.. 

The 2nd person singular of these verbs has also this vowel- 
change, as thou bunde, &c. 

VOL.II. c 



3. The ist and 3rd person of strong verbs have no per- 
sonal suffixes. That of the 2nd person was originally -e, but 
-es^ often replaces it in words of the fourteenth century. 

Hence the conjugation of the preterite is as follows : — 


1. heold, held (I held), heold-en, held-en (we held). 

2. heolde, helde (thouheldest), heold-en, held-en (ye held). 

3. heold, held (he held), heold-en, held-en (they held). 

4. Both strong and weak verbs (when the stem ends in 
-/, 'dj -nd, -s) have in the 3rd person singular present indica- 
tive -/ for 'U^ or 'de/fy or even *ej>, as Aalf = holde]>, n'/ - 
ridejj, sen^ = sendef , m/ = rise)). 

5. The 2nd and 3rd person-endings are often shortened, 
as h'x/ - li3est (tellest lies) ; /el/^ = telle}). 

6. The present or active participles of all verbs end in 
(i) 'inde, -tng (Southern dialect); (2) -endey -end (Midland 
dialect); (3) -ande, -and (Northern dialect, and Midland 
dialect with Northern tendencies). 

7. Passive Participles in the Southern and Midland dia- 
lects take the prefix i oiyy as i-kept,y-ronnen. 

All preterites formed by vowel-change, and anomalous 
forms occurring in the text, will be found in the Glossary. 
Observe particularly Habben, to have; Ben^ to be; Worpe^ 
to become; Scholle (sal), Scholde (suid), shall, should; ffb/, 
Wol(kf will, would; Con, Coupe, can, could; Mowe, Mv^fe, 
may, might ; Most, Moste, must Note also that the pres. 
tense, ist and 3rd persons sing, of Wife, to wit or know, is 
Wot, and the past tense Wiste, or Wmte. 


§ 14. ADVERBS. 


Adverbs are compared by the sufl&xes -er or -re (com- 
parative) and -es/ (superlative). Bef, leng, streng, ma (mo) are 
shortened forms of the comparatives de/re, lengre, sfrengre, 
mare {more). 


A (before a consonant), an (before a vowel) most com- 
monly = on, in ; as in anihte (by night), ayr (yearly), an-ende 
(lastly), anon (in one, at once), anunder (under). 

On; as in on-rounde (around). 

In ; as in in-idel (in vain). 

Umhe (about); as in umbesiunde (at intervals)^ umqwile 
(whilom, formerly). 

Biy he (by) ; as in besides, hilife (quickly). 

To; as in to-daie, to-gedere, &c. 

For; as xnforsoope (forsooth). 

At; as in at erst (at first), ate or atte laste (lastly), atten 
ende (lastly) ; where atte = atpe, atten = at pen. 

Occasionally we find a equivalent to the oldest EngHsh of, 
as 0/ buve, above; of newe, newly; adozvn = of dune, down- 

In fact, the prefix a- may have twelve, or even thirteen, 
interpretations. We have (i) a-^qf as in adown, A.S. of 
ime\ (2) a-^on, ^ m around for on-rounde \ (3) a-«A.S. 
and', G. ent-, as in along, A.S. andlang, G. entlangx (4) a- » 
G. er-, Mceso-Goth us-, ur-, as in arise, Moeso-Goth. «r- 
reisan : (5) a- = O. Fr. es-, as in abash, from O. Fr. esbahir^ : 

* Some make this O. Fr. cs- the same as the Lat. #»-; at any rate, the 
Lat. ««- is preserved in amend, from Lat. eimndart, and in afraid, from Lat. 

C 2 


(6) a- = Fn ^ (from Lat. ad), as in avaianchsy from Fr. i valj 
Lat. fl^ z'a/ZfOT : (7) a- = Fr. a- (from Lat. a^), as in abridge, 
Fr. abr/ger, Lat. abbreviare^i (8) «- = Lat. «</, as in astrin- 
gent, from ^^ and stringer e : (9) ^- = Lat fl3, as in avert, from 
tf3 and verterex (10) a-, shortened from Gk. an (cf. an-odyne), 
as in d:3vw, from Gk. a, not, and ffvararos, depth, bottom : 
(ii) a-, used (like ah/) ss an interjection, as in a/aj, French 
h/las: (12) a-^at, as in fl^til? from «/ </<?, Matzner's Eng. 
Gram. ii. 2. 58: whilst (13) aware answers to O. E. iwar^ 
G.gewahr, making a- a substitute for^^-. 

The adverb ne, not, is sometimes agglutinated to the verb 
following; as nis^ne is, is not; na/f = ne ha}>, hath not; 
not^ne wot, know not, &c. We also find nif^ ne z/, if not. 


1. Adverbs that now end in -ly formerly ended in -iiche 
{-like). (The adjectival affix singular is -iich, -lie) 

2. Adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding a final -e, 
as soth, sooth, true ; sothe, soothe, truly \ 

3. Many adverbs are cases of nouns, adjectives, &c., e. g. 
-es (genitive) ; alles, altogether, of necessity, needs ; a^enes, 
against; amiddes, amidst; amonges, amongst; bisides, besides; 
deathes, at death, dead ; days, by day ; lives, alive ; nedes, of 
necessity ; newes, anew ; ni'^tes, by night ; togederes, together. 
Enes, ones, once ; hennes, hence ; modes, needs ; huies, twice ; 
thries, thrice, — are later forms for en-e, henn-e (hennen, heon- 
an), neod-e, twie (twien, A. S. twfwd), thrie (thrien, A. S. 
prywd). Also -um (dative), as whilom, seldum, &c. 

^ Curiously corrupted into cul- in the word advance, O.Eng. avaneg^ 
which is from the Lat. ab ante. 

^ The loss of the final -« explains the modern use of adjectives for adverbs, 
u right (for r/^A/#) = rightly; long (for longe)^z long (time). 


4. 'Other endings are 'linger as allinge, altogether; hed- 
linge^ headlong; grovltngCy on the face, prone; flatlinge^ 

5. -m (-^), abauten, about ; be/or-en, hefor-n^ before ; hteoen^ 
Iwoe^ above ; binnen^ binne, within ; wt'/k-aufen, without. 

6. -en {-e), motion from; hmnen, henne^ hence; thennefty 
thamny thenne, thence; whennen, wenen, whennty whence; 
which gave rise to the later forms with genitive affix -es^ 
as henneSj tJiennes, whennes. 

7. -deTy motion to; as in hidery thidefy whidefy hither, thither, 

Dialectical varieties : — 

1. The Scandinavian forms hethen, hence; queihen {whe- 
ihm)y whence; thethmy thence; suMy as — are not used in 
the Southern dialect. 

2. The Northern dialect prefers the prefix on-- ((?-) to^ - ; 
as on-slepey asleep ; o-baky aback ; on-roundiy around. 

3. In the West-Midland dialect we fi nd in- as an ad- 
verbial prefix, as tn-blandey together, mixedly ; in-lychey alike ; 
in-myddey inmyddeSy amidst; in-mongey in-mongeSy amongst. 
Chaucer uses in-ferty together. 

4. The Southern affix -linge becomes -linges (Sc. -lins) 
in the Northern dialect, as grovelingesy on the face, prone ; 
handlingeSy hand to hand ; hedltngesy headlong. 

5. The Northern dialect employs -gate or -gat (way) as a 
suflk, as al-gatey always ; how-gate y how-so ; thus-gatey thus 
wise; swa-gatey so-wise, in such a manner. 

6. In-withy within ; ut-withy without ; forwity before — are 
peculiar to the Northern dialect 



The Northern dialect employs y9'a for the Southern /ra«i 
\\ (vrarn). Midland yr^?, from; a/, A7, before the infinitive, for 
the Southern /o; amelj emelj for the Southern amiddes, amid. 
Mtde, mid, with, and /oppe {^at'Oppe\ oppe ^ uppe = xxp ; cf. 
O. K at'obove) above, are unknown to the Northern dialect. 


1. 1/ takes a negative form in the West-Midland dialect, 
as nif- if not. 

2. No-hut occurs in the Midland dialect for only. 

3. Warn, warm = unless ; and tho/quether = ihohquether 
(Barbour has ihe quheihtr), nevertheless — are unknown to the 
Southern dialect. 

4. Ac, but, is not found in the Northern dialect. 






L(b) Lives of Saints; see FurniTairs edition (Phil. Soc.); 
Lives of SS. Brandan and Beket (Percy Soc.) ; Popular 
Science, ed. T. Wright about 1300 

\L Mttricdl English Psalitr abont 1300 

IIL The Proverbs qf Hendyng about 1300 

IV. Lyric Poems; MS. Harl. 3353 . • . . • about 1300 

V. Eandlyng Synne; by Robert Manning, of Brunne . • 1303 
Accession of Edward n ....... 1307 

VI. /2«2^«)utPo««ts; by William of Shoreham • . • about 1320 
VII. Cursor Mundi; or. Cursor o Werld . » . . about 1330 
Pieces in Digby MS. 86 (Maximian, Dame Siriz, Vox and 

Wolf,&c.) about 1 330V 

Poem on the Times of Edward II (Percy Soc.) . . about 1320? 

Romances, &c. in the Auchinleck MS. (Bevis of Hamptoun 

Guy of Warwick ; Sir Tristram ; Seven Sages, &c.) 

Accession of Edward III 

VIIL Metrical Homilies 

Birth of William Langland 

Alisanoder ; a fragment, by the author of ' William of Palerne 
Birth of Geoffrey Chaucer 

IX. AyenbiU oflnwyt; by Dan Michel of Northgate • 

X. Prieie of Conscience ; by Richard Rolle of Hampole 
The Polychronicon (in Latin) ; by Ralph Higden . 
H. Poems concerning Edward III; by Lawrence Minot 
HI. William of Palerne; or, William and the Werwolf 
Zni. Alliterative Poems; in MS. Cotton, Nero A. x • 

XIV. Voiage and Travaile ; by Sir John Maundeville . 
Morte Arthure ; in Alliterative Verse .... 
The Gest Historyale of the Destruction of Troy; by the 

same author 

Sr Gawayne and the Grene Knight . . . , 

XV. Piers the Plowman (A'text) ; by William Langland 
Romaont of the Rose ; by Geoffrey Chaucer . • • 























about 1360 




about I 





Boke of the Dachesse ; by Geofirey Chaucer . • • • '3^9 

XVI. The Bruce; by John Barbour 1375 

Accession of Richard II ^377 

Piers the Plowman (B-text) ; by William Langland . . 1377 

XVII. Translation of the Btblfi : by John Wyclif and others . 1370-1380 
Death of Wydif 1 384 

XVIII. Translation of HigderCs Polychronieon ; by John of 

Trevisa 1387 

XIX. 77ie Ca/i/«r6ttry TVi/m; by Geofirey Chaucer , • about 1387 

XX. Confessio Amantis ; by John Gower . . - • • 1393 
Piers the Plowman (C-text); by William Langland . . 1393-1394 
Peres the Ploughman's Crede ...... about 1394 

The Complaint of the Ploughman, or the Plowman's Tale; 

by the author of the * Crede' about 1395 

Richard the Redeles ; by William Langland . • • . 1399 

Accession of Henry IV ...•••• '399 

Death of Chatfcer 1400 



A.D. 1298. 

Robert of Gloucester, a monk of the abbey of Gloucester, 
who lived in the reign of Edward I, wrote a rhymed Chronicle 
of England from the Siege of Troy to the death of Henry HI 

The contemporary MS. in the British Museum has furnished 
the present specimen of the chronicler's language, which repre- 
sents the Southern dialect of Gloucester. Robert of Gloucester 
is supposed to have been also the author of a metrical version 
of the Lives of the Saints. A few of these Lives (including the 
Life of St. Dunstan) have been printed in * Early English Poems,' 
edited for the Philological Society by F. J. Fumivall, M.A. 

The letters printed in italics are denoted in the MS. only by 
marks of abbreviation. E.g. the er in 'maistrrs' in 1. 7 is de- 
noted by an upward curl; see the Introduction. The raised 
M-stops shew where the metrical pauses occur in each line; 
they are written like ordinary full-stops in the MS. 

(A) Reign of William the Conqueror. 

From Cotton MS. Caligula A. xi. leaves 107-114. 

MvcHE a]> )>e sorwe ibe • ofte in Engelonde, 

As 56 mowe her & er • ihure & vnderstonde, 

Of moni bataile \aX. a]> ibe * & \a\. men |)at lond nome. 

Verst, as je abbe)> ihurd • ^ emp^rours of Rome, 

TOL. VL f B 


SuJ)))e Saxons & Englisse • mid batayles stronge, 5 

& su))J)e hii of Denemarch • Jxzt hulde it al so longe ; 

Atte laste hii of Normandie • ]>at maist<?rs be)) ^ut here, 

Wonne hit & holdej) ^ut • ichoUe telle in wuch manure. 

po Willam bastard hurde telle • of Haraldes suikelhede, 

Hou he adde ymad him king • & mid such falshede, 10 

Vor |?at lond him was bitake • as he wel [hit] wuste, 

To wite hit to him wel • & he wel to him truste. 

As |je hende he dude verst * & messag^rs him sende, 

pat he vnderstode him bet * is dede vor to amende, 

& J)03te on J)e grete oj) • ]>at he him adde er ydo, 15 

To wite him wel Engelond * & to spousi is do^t^ also ; 

& hulde him ^er-of vorewarde • as he bihet ek j>e kinge, 

& bote he dude bi-time he wolde * sende him o^r tidinge, 

& seche him out ar tuelf monjje • & is ri3tes winne, 

pat he ne ssolde abbe in al Engelond • an h^rne to wite him 

inne. 20 

Harald him sende word • * J)at folie it was to truste 
To such oj), as was ido • mid strengj)e, as he wel wuste ; 
Vor 3if a maide treu|?e ipli3t • to do an fole dede 
Al one priueliche • wij)0ute hir<? frendes rede, 
pulke vorewarde were uor no3t * & watloker it a^te her, 25 
pat ich suor an o)), ]>at was • [j>o] ^ al in J)i poer, 
Wi]j-owte conseil of al J)e lond • of \>mg ^at min no3t nas. 
p^r-uore nede oJ) isuore • nede ibroke was. 
& ^if J)Ou me wolt seche in Engelond • ne be ))0u nojt so 

Siker J)Ou be, Jjou ne ssalt me • finde in none hume/ 30 

po Willam hurde ))at he wolde susteini is tricherie. 
He let of-sende is kni3tes • of al Normandie, 
To conseili him in Jjis cas • & to helpe him in such nede ; 

^ Supplied from Hearne's edition. 

/. (a) reign or WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. 3 

& he gan of hor porchas • largeliche hom bede, 

As hii founde suj>j>e in Engelond • j>o it iwonne was, 35 

pe bet^re was toward him • hor h^rte uor j>is cas. 

pe due Willam is wille • among hom alle sede, 

pat four J)inges him made mest • bi-ginne |)ulke dede. 

pat Godwine, Haraldes fad^r • to de|>e let do 

So villiche Alfred, is cosin • & is felawes al-so, 40 

& uor Harald adde is oJ> ibroke • J)flt he suor mid is ri3t 

pat he wolde to is biof))e ' witie Engelond, 
& uor Seint Edward him ^ef * Engelond al-so, 
& vor he was next of is blod • & best wurj>e ]>er-to, 
& uor Harald nadde no ri^t " bote in falshede. 45 

pes |)inges him made mest • biginne J)ulke dede. 
& uor he wolde ))at alle men • iseye is trewehede. 
To j)e pope Alisandre he sende * in such cas him to rede. 
Haraldes falshede • J>o ]>e pope ysey jjere, 
& parauntre me him tolde • more ))an so J) were, 50 

pe pope asoilede & blessede • Willam, & alle his 
pat into ])is bataile * mid him ssolde iwis, 
& halwede is ban^r • ))at me at-uore him bere. 
po was he & alle his • gladdore j>an hii er were. 
So ysLt ]>is due adde * a^en heniest al ^are 55 

His barons & kni3tes • mid him uorto fare. 
To Jie hauene of Sein Walri • \>e due wende j>o 
Mid ]« men |)at he adde • & abide mo. 
Aft£r heniest ))0 hor ssipes • & hii al preste wer^, 
& [wynd] ^ hom com aft^ wille • hor seiles hii gonne arer^, 
& hiderward in ))e se • wel glad fen wei nome, 61 

So )«it bi-side Hastinge • to Engelond hii come ; 
Hom )>03te ]k> hii come alond ' ]^t al was in hor hond. 

^ 8iq>p)ied from Hearne's edition. 

B 2 


As sone as j>e due Willam • is fot sette alond, 
On of is kni3tes gradde * * hold vaste Willam nou 65 

Engelond, uor J)^r nis • no king bote J)OU, 
Vor siker J)OU be, Engelond • is nou J)in, iwis/ 
pe due Willam anon • uor-bed alle his, 
pat non nere so wod to robby • ne no man^r harm do jj^e, 
Vpe \>e lond, J)at is^ was • bote hom j>at ajen him were. 70 
Al an fourtene ni3t • hii bileuede ^r aboute, 
& conseilede of batayle • & ordeinede hor route. 
King Harald sat glad )mou • at Eu^rwik atte mete, 
So j>at ]^ com a messager • ar he adde i^ete, 
& sede, J)at due Willam • to Hastinges was ieome, 75 

& is ban^r adde arerd • & J)e contreie al inome. 
Harald anon, mid grete h^rte • corageus ynou. 
As he of nofoon ne tolde • J>ud^rward uaste he drou. 
He ne let nb^t elupie al is folc • so willesfol he was, 
& al for in J)e o]^r bataile * him vel so vair cas. 80 

po due Willam wuste • |)at he was icome so nei, 
A monek he sende him in message ' & dude as )>e sley, 
at lond, j>at him was i^iue • })at he ssolde him vp-^elde, 
eome, & dereyni J>e ri^te • mid suerd in J>e velde. 
' 3if he sede, ))at he nadde • none ri^te ^r-to, 85 

pat vpe J>e popes lokinge • of Rome he ssolde it do, 
& he wolde J)er-to stonde • al * >vi)K)ute fi^te, 
Wer Seint Edward hit him ^af • & wer he adde j>^-to ri^te. 
Harald sende him word a3en • ))at he nolde him take no lond, 
Ne no lokinge of Rome • bote suerd & ri^t hond. 90 

po hit o^er ne mi^te be • eij>^ in is side 
Conseilede & ^arkede hom • bataile uor to abide. 
pe Englisse al Jje nijt bi-uore • uaste bigonne to si^ge, 
& spende al ])e ni3t in glotonie * & in drinkinge. 

» MS. • it* ; Hcarne has • hys/ 
* After ' al' Heame inserts * dene.' 

git I 

/. (a) reign of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. 5 

pe Normans ne dude no^t so • ac criede on God uaste, 95 

& ssriue horn, ech sSter o^r • J)e wule ))e ni3t ylaste, 

& amorwe hom let hoseli * mid milde herte ynou. 

& suj)})e J)e due wij> is ost • toward })e bataile drou, 

An stou«de he gan abide • & is kni3tes rede : — 

* 3e kni^tes,' he sede, * J)at be]> • of so noble dede, 100 

pat nere neu^e ou^rcome • ne ^our^ elderne naj^emo, 

Vnder-stondeJ> of ye kynge* of Fr^znce • yat ^our^ eldeme 

dude so wo, 
Hou mi fad^ in Paris • amidde is kinedom, 
Mid prowesse of 30ur^ fad^res • mid strengj)e him ou^rcom. 
Vnderstonde]) hou 30ure elderne • ])e king nome also, 105 
& held him uorte he adde amended • Jjot he adde misdo, 
& Richard, j>flt was })0 a child • i3olde Normandie, 
pat was due herbiuore • & j^at to such maistrie, 
pot at eche 'parlement ' Jjat hq in France were, 
pat he were igurd wij) suerd • fe wule he wer^ J)ere, no 

Ne )>at }>e king of France • ne his so hardi nere, 
Ne non atte parlem^wt • yat knif ne suerd bere. 
Vnder-stonde)) ek }>e dedes • j>at ])ulke Richard dude al-so, 
pat he ne ou^com no3t kinges alone • ac wel more yer-to, 
Ac he ou^rcom J)e deuel • & adoun him caste, 115 

To-gadere as hii wrastlede • & bond is honden vaste 
Bihinde at is rugge • of such prowesse ^e f enche, 
Ne ssame je no3t J)at Harald • j>at eu^re was of lu^er 

& bi-uore 50U was uorsuore • ))at he wolde mid is taile 
Tume is wombe toward vs • & is face in bataile. 120 

Vnderstonde}) }>e suikedom • j>at is fad^r & he wro5te, 
& hii J«it mid him her^ be^ • ]>o hii to dejje bro5te 
So villiche Alfred mi cosin • & my kunesmen al-so. 

^ So in Hearne ; the MS. has ' kunde/ 


Hou mi^te in eny wise • more ssame be ido ? 

Monie, J)^t dude ))ulke dede • ^e mowe her [to day]Mse. 125 

Hou longe ssoUe hor hij^er heued • aboue hor ssoldren be ? 

Adrawej> ^oure suerdes • & loke wo may do best, 

pat me ise ^oure prowesse • fram est to J)e west, 

Vor to awreke })at gentil blod • ])at so villiche was inome 

Of vr kunesmen, vor we mowe wel * vr time is nou icome/ 

pe due nadde no3t al ised • |jat mid emest gret 131 

His folc quicliche^ • to )je bataile sscet. 

A suein, j>at het Taylefer • smot uorj) bi-uore ^r, 

& slou anon an Engliss mon • |)at a ban^r ber, 

& ef-sone anoJ)^r baneur • & J>e ))ridde almest also, 135 

Ac him-sulf ' he was aslawe • ar ))e dede were ydo. \.«,^l^>^ 

pe uerst ende of is ost biuore • Harald mid such ginne'' 

So j>ikk6* sette, fat nomon • ne mi^te come wij>inne, 

Wi]) stronge targes hom biuore • ))at archers ne dude how 

So ))at Normans were • nei to grounde ibrojt. 140 

Willam bij)05te an qwointise • & bi-gan to fie uaste, 
& is folc uorJ) mid him • as hii were agaste, 
& flowe ou^r an longe dale • & so vp anhey. 
pe Engliss ost was prout ynou • J)0 he j>is isey, 
& bigonne him to sprede • & aft^r J>en wey nome. 145 

pe Normans wer^ aboue )>e hul • )>e o^re vpward come, 
& bi-tumde hom aboue al eseliche • as it wolde be donward, 
& \>e o))^re binejje ne mi^te no3t * so quicliche vpward, 
& hii wer^ biuore al tosprad • j>at me mi3te bitwene hom 

pe Normans wer^ ]>o wel porueid • aboute in eche ende, 150 
& stones adonward slonge * vpe hom ynowe, 
& mid spares & mid flon • vaste of hom slowe, 

^ Supplied from Heame. ' Hearae has ' Al ys folc wel atyled.' 

» MS. * hom sulf.* * MS. * >ilkc* ; Heame • >yckc/ 


7. (a) reign of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. *J 

& mid suerd & mid ax * uor hii |jat vpward nome 

Ne mi^te no wille abbe of dnnt • as hii ])at donward come, 

& hor vantwarde was to -broke • J)at me mi3te wij>inne ho/« 

we«de, 155 

So |)at j)e Normans uaste ' slowe in ech ende 
Of J>e Englisse, al uor no3t • J)at Jje valeie was nei 
As heie ifuld mid dede men • as J)e doune an-hei. uvfL^'u,^ /ccw 
pe ssetare uor no^t • vaste slowe to gronde, ^ ' "^^^^^^ 
So ))at Harald Jjoru J)en eie • issote was de)>es wounde. 160 
& a knijt ]>at isei • ])at he was to de))e ibro3t, 
& smot him, as he lay binej)e • & slou him as uor no3t. 
Fram J?at it was amorwe • \>e bataile ilaste strong, 
Vor-te it was hei midou^mon • & \>at was somdel long. 
Moni was ]>e gode dunt • Jxzt due Willam ^ef aday ; 165 

Vor ))re stedes he slou • vnder him, as me say, 
Vorpriked, & uor-ar«d aboute • & uor-wou«ded also, 
& debnised a^en dedemen • ar ])e bataile were ido, 
& yit was Willames grace • J)ulke day so god, 
pat he nadde no woiwde war-j>oru • he ssedde an drope 

blod. 170 

pus, lo 1 )>e Englisse folc • vor no^t to grou«de com 
Vor a fals king, J)at nadde no ri3t • to |)e kinedom, 
& come to a njrwe lou^rd • J)at more in ri3te was. 
Ac hor nojx?r, as me may ise • in pur ri3te nas. 
& })us was in Normannes bond • j>^t lond ibro3t iwis, 175 

pat anaunt^r 5if eu^rmo • keumnge ^er-of is. 
Of J»e Normans bej) heyemew • fat bej> pf Engelonde, 
& ]« lowemen of Saxons • as ich vnderstonde, 
So yaX 36 sej> in eij>er side • wat ri3te 3e abbej> J>^rto ; 
Ac ich vnderstonde, ]>at it was • J)oru Godes wille ydo. 180 
Vor |»e wule })e men of j>is lond • pur he|)ene were, 
No lond, ne no folc • a5en hom in armes nere ; 
Ac nou su])|>e J>at ^t folc • auenge cristendom. 


& wel lute wule hulde • ]>e biheste J>at he nom, 

& tumde to sleuj)e & to prate ' & to lecherie, 185 

To glotonie, & heye men • muche to robberie ; 

As ])e gostes in auision • to Seint Edward sede, 

Wu yer ssolde in Engelond • come such wrecchede; 

Vor robberie of heiemen • vor clerken hordom, 

Hou God wolde sorwe sende • in ))is kinedom. 190 

Bituene Missehnasse & Sein Luc ' a Sein Calixtes day, 

As vel in J>ulke 5ere • in a Saterday, 

In })e 5er of grace ' as it vel al-so, 

A ]K>usend & sixe & sixti * ]>is bataile was ido. 

Due Willam was ))0 old • nyne & J)ritti ^er, 195 

& on & jjritti ^er he was ' of Normandie due er. 

po j>is bataile was ydo • due Willam let bringe 

Vaire is folc, Jwt was aslawe • an erjie J>ora alle j>inge. 

Alle J>at wolde, leue he ^ef ' ])at is fon anerjje bro^te. 

Haraldes moder uor hir^ sone • wel 5eme him bisojte aoo 

Bi messag^rs, & largeliche • him bed of ire }>inge, 

To grant! hir^ hir^ sones bodi • anerjje vor to bringe. 

Willam hit sende hire vaire inou • wiJ>oute eny J>ing ware- 

uore : 
So )>at it was }K)ra hu*e ' wi]) gret honour ybore 
To ))e hous of Waltham • & ibro^t anerj)e )>ere, ao5 

In J)e holi rode chirche • Jjat he let him-sulf rere. 
An hous of religion * of canons ywis. 
Hit was ))er vair^ an erj)e ibro^t • as it 5ut is. 
Willam |>is noble due * ]k) he adde ido al ])is, 
pen wey he nom to Londone • he & alle his, aio 

As king & prince of londe • wij> nobleye ynou. 
A5en him wi)) uair procession • ))at folc of toune drou, 
& vnd^rueng him vair^ inou • as king of ])is lond. 
pus com, lo ! Engelond ' in-to Normandies bond. 
& ye Normans ne couj^e speke ]>o * bote hor owe speche. 


I. (a) reign of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. 9 

& speke French as hii dude atom • & hor children dude 
also teche. 216 

So Jxrt heiemen of J)is lond • J>at of hor blod come, 
HoldeJ> alle })ulke speche • ]>at hii of hom nome. 
Vor bote a man conne Frenss • me telj> of him lute ; 
Ac lowe men holdej) to Engliss " & to hor owe speche 3ute. 
Ich wene ^er ne bej> in al )>e world * contreyes none, 221 
pat ne holde}) to hor owe speche * bote Engelond one, 
Ac wel me wot uor to conne • boj>e wel it is, 
Vor j)e more yaX a mon can • j>e more.wurjie he is. 
pis noble due Willam • him let crouny king 225 

At Londone a midwinter-day • nobliche ))oru alle ])ing, 
Of |« erchebissop of Euerwik • Aldred was is name ; 
P^ nas prince in al J>e world • of so noble fame. 
Of ^ heyemen of ))e lond • j>flt hii ne ssolde ajen bitwrne, 
He esste ostage strong inou • & hii ne ssolde nojt w«me, 
Ac toke him ostage god • at is owe wille, 231 

So )>at ^if eny a^en him was * huld him ]k> stille : 
Jif toward Edgar Aj)eling • eni is h^e drou, 
pat was kwide eir of ))is lond • him huld }k) stille ynou. 
So fat ))0 }>is Edgar • wuste al hou it was, 235 

pat him nas no j>ing so god ' as to [fie j>e] * cas, 
His moder & is sostren tuo * mid him sone he nom^ 
To wende a^en to j>e lond " fram wan he er com. 
A wind Jvr com ))0 in j>e se • & drof hom to Scotlonde, 
So J>at aft^r betere wind • hii moste j>ere at-stonde. 240 

Macolom king of ])e lond * to him sone hom drou, 
& vor Jie ku/ine fram wan hii come ' honoured hom ynou. 
So |)at )»e gode Margarete • as is wille to [him] com, 
Pe eldore sost^ of ye tuo • in spoushod he nom. 
Bi hir^ he adde an dorter sujjjje • }>e gode quene Mold, 245 

» So in Hearae ;' MS. * feky.' 


pat quene was of Engelond • as me a|) er ytold, 

pat goderhele al Engelond • was heo eu^re ybore. 

Vor j>oru hire com su]))>e Engelond • into kunde more. 

In J)e 5er of grace a |)0usend • & sixti J)er-to 

King Macolom spousede • Margarete so. 250 

Ac^ king Willam ^er-biuoTQ ' aboute an tuo 5er 

Wende a^en to Normandie • fram wan he com er, 

As in ))e verste ^ere • Jjat he ueng is kinedom. 

Ac sone a3en to Engelond • a Sein Nicolas day he com, 

& kni^tes of bi^onde se • & o^ men al-so, 255 

He jef londes in Engelond • \fat li3tliche come ^erto, 

pat 5ute hor eirs holde]> • alonde monion ; 

& deseritede moni kuwdemen • ))at he huld is fon. 

So |>at j>e mestedel of heyemen • ))at in Engelond be)), 

Be)) icome of ]>e Normans • as ^e nou isej). 260 

& men of religion • of Normandie al-so 

He feffede here mid londes • & mid rentes al-so. 

So ])at vewe contreies • be)) in Engelonde, 

pat monekes nabbej) of Normandie • somwat in hor honde. 

King Willam bi-))05te him ek * of ))e folc )x2t was uorlore, 265 

& aslawe ek ]k>vu him • in ))e bataile biuore. 

& ))ere as l^e bataile was • an abbeye he let rer^ 

Of Sein Martin, uor hor soulen • j)at j)^re aslawe wer^, 

& ))e monekes wel inou • feffede, wi))Oute fayle, 

pat is icluped in Engelond * abbey of ))e batayle. 270 

pe abbeye al-so of Cam * he rerde in Normandie 

Of Seinte Steuene, ))at is nou ' ich wene, a no»nerye. 

He bro3te vp moni o^r hous • of religion also. 

To bete ))ulke robberie • ))at him j)03te he adde ydo. 

& erles eke & barons • ))at he made here also, 275 

p03te ))at hii ne come no5t • mid gode ri3te ^er-to, 

> SoinHearne; MS. *At.' 

/. (a) reign of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, H 

Hii rerde abbeis & priories ' vor hor sunnes |)0, 

As Teoskesburi & Oseneye • & aboute o\fer mo. 

King Willam was to milde men ' debonere ynou, 

Ac to men ]>at him wij>-sede • to alle sturnhede he drou. 280 

In chirche he was deuout inou • vor him ne ssolde no day 

pat he ne hurde masse & matines • & euesong & ech tide. 
So var|? monye of J)is heyemen • in chirche me may yse 
Knely to God, as hii wolde • al quic to him fle, 
Ac be hii arise, & abbe)) itumd * fram J)e weued hor wombe, 
Wolues dede hii nimej) vorjj • j>at er dude as lombe. 286 

Hii todrawe]? ])e sely bondemen • as hii wolde horn hulde, 

jrwis ; 
pey me wepe & crie on hom * no mercy ^er nis. 
Vnne))e was ]>er eni hous • in al Normandie 
Of religion, as abbey * olper priorie, 290 

pat king Willam ne feffede * here in Engelonde 
Mid londes, o]>er mid rentes • j>at hii abbej) her^ an honde, 
As me may wide aboute • in moni contreye ise, 
Ware-J)oru |>is lond nede mot • ]>e pou<?rore be. 
King Willam adde ispoused • as God ^ef J)tft cas, 295 

pe erles do^t^ of Flaundres • Mold hire name was. 
Sones hii adde to-gadere • & do3tren bo|)e tuo, 
As Roberd |>e Courtehese, & Willam • ))e rede king al-so, 
Henry ))e gode king • was 3ongost of echon. 
Dojtren he adde al-so • Cecile het ]>at on 300 

pe eldoste, ^at was at Cam • nonne & abbesse. 
Constance J>e o\fer was * of Brutayne contesse, 
pe erles wif Alein • Adele ^ongost was, 
To Steuene Bleis ispoused * as God 3ef J>at cas, 
& bi him adde ek an sone • Steuene was is name, 305 

pflt su))J)e was king of Engelond • & endede mid ssame. 
Macolom king of Scotlond • & Edgar A})eling, 


pat best kunde in Engelond • adde to be king, 

Hulde hom eu^re in Scotlond • & poer to hom noma. 

To worn vpe king Willam • wanne god time come. 310 

& gret compainie of heyemen • here in Engelonde 

pat ne louede no^t king Willam • wer^ J>o in Scotlonde, 

Vor king Macolom [alle] ^ vnd<?rueng • J>at a^en king Willam 

& drou hom to him in Scotlond * & susteinede hom j>er^. 
Vor Edgar, is wiues brojj^r • was kunde eir of j>is londe, 315 
So J)at hii adde of bofe Jje londes • gret poeir sone an honde. 
At king Willam adde ibe king • voUiche \ne ^er, 
pat folc of DenemOTch * ^at J)is lond worrede er, 
GreiJ)ede hom mid gret poer • as hii dude er ilome, 
& mid )>re hondred ssipuol men • to Engelond hii come. 320 
Hii ariuede in ))e norj>contreye * & Edgar Afeling 
& king Macolom wer^ ))0 • glade ))oru alle ))ing. 
To hom hii come at Homb^r • mid poer of Scotlond, 
& were alle at o conseil • to worri Engelond. 
Hii worrede al NorJ)homb^rlond • & uorj) eu^re, as hii come, 
So j>at ])e tou« of Eu^rwik • & J)e castel ek hii nome, 326 
& monye heyemen al-so * of J>e contreie aboute. 
So j>at j>et folc binor)>e • ne dorste nour at-route. 
& j>o hii adde al iwonne * )>e contreie ^er bi-side, 
Hii ne come no uer souJ)ward • ac ]^er hii go«ne abide 330 
Bi-tuene l>e wat^r of Trente • & of Ouse al-so. 
pere hii leuede^ in hor poer • vorte wint?r wer^ ido. 
pe king Willam abod is time • vorte winter was al oute, 
& ))0 com he mid gret poer ' & mid so gret route, 
pat hii nadde no poer • a5en him uor to stonde, 335 

Ac lete ))e king ))e maistrie • & flowe to Scotlonde, 
& hom to hor owe lond • j>e Deneis flowe 2C^6. 

^ Supplied from Hearne. 

■ bi-leuede ? Hearne has * byleaede.' 

7. (a) reign of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. 1 3 

pe king destruede J>e contreie • al aboute Jje se, 

Of frut & of come • )>flt ))^r ne bileuede no^t 

Sixti mile fram ]>e se * )>at nas to grounde ibro^t. 340 

& al ]MZt )>e Deneis • no mete ne foiwde J>ere 

Wanne hii come to worn • & so J)e feblore were. 

So yai 3ute to |>is day • muche lond ^er is 

As al wast & vntuled • so it was yo destnied ywis. 

King Willam adau/itede * ])at folc of Walis, 345 

& made hom bere him truage • & bihote him & his. 

pe seuejje ^er of is kinedom • an alle soule day, 

pe quene Mold is wif deide • j>at er longe sik lay, 

In j>e 3er of grace a }K)usend • & seuenti & J?re. 

Anon in J)ulke sulue jere • as it wolde be, 350 

pe king Willam, uorto wite • })e wur]) of is londe, 

Let enqueri streitliche • |)oru al Engelonde, 

Hou moni plou-lond * & hou moni hiden al-so. 

Were in eumch ssir^ • & wat hii were wur]) j>^r-to ; 

& Jie rentes of ech tou« • & of jje wat^res echone 355 

pet worj), & of wodes ek • J)at ^er ne bileuede none, 

pat he nuste wat hii wer^ worj) • of al Engelonde, 

& wite al clene j>at worj> • J)^r-of, ich vnd^r-stonde, 

& let it write clene ynou * & J)flt sent dude iwis 

In ^ tresorie at Westmtnsfy'e * Jjer^ [as] ^ it ^ut is ; 360 

So Jjat vre kinges suj>J>e • wanne hii rauwson toke, 

Iredy wat folc mi3te jiue • hii fou«de yere in hor boke. 

per was bi king Willames daye • worre & sorwe inou, 

Vor no mon ne dorste him wij>segge ' he wrojte muche 

w[ij>] wou. 
To hom, jwzt wolde is wille do • debon^re he was & milde, 
& to hom Jwrt him wij>-sede ^ • strong tirant & wilde, 366 

Wo-so come to esse him ri^t * of eni trespas, 

^ Supplied from Hearne. 

' MS. ' wi|> him sede' ; bim being expnncted. 


Bote he payde him j^e bet • J)e wors is ende was, 

& J)e more vnri^t me ssolde him do • ac amowg oJ)^e naj>eles 

pom-out al Engelond • he huld wel god pes; 370 

Vor me mi3te bere bi is daye • & lede hardeliche 

Tresour aboute & oj?<?r god • ou^ral ap<?rteliche, 

In wodes & in o^er studes • so j>at no time nas 

pet pes bet isusteined • jjan bi his time was. 

Game of houwdes he louede inou • & of wilde best, 375 

& is forest & is wodes • & mest J)e niwe forest, 

pat is in SouJ)hamtessir^ • vor jjulke he louede inou, 

& astorede wel mid bestes * & lese, mid gret wou. 

Vor he caste out of house & hom • of men a gret route, 

& bi-nom hor lond, 3e, Jjritti mile * & more |)er-aboute, 380 

& made it al forest & lese • J)e bestes uor to fede. 

Of pou^re me[n] deserited ' he nom lutel hede. 

p^r-uore per-inne veP • mony mis-cheuing, 

& is sone was ^r-inne issote • Willam, )je rede king ; 

& is o sone, ))at het Richard • ca^te ^er is dej> al-so. 385 

& Richard, is o neueu • brec ]>ere is nekke j>^r-to. 

As he rod an honte)) • & p^r-auntre is hors spwmde. 

pe vnri^t ido to pou^remew • to such mesauntwre t«mde. 

Wo-so bi king Willames daye • slou hert oJ)<?r hind. 

Me ssolde pulte out bojje is eye • & makye him pur blind. 

Heyemen ne dorste bi is day • wilde best nime no3t, 391 

Hare ne wilde swin • J>at hii nere" to ssame ybro3t. 

per nas so heymon non ' jjat him enes wij)-sede, 

pat me ne ssolde him take anon • & to prison lede. 

Monye heyemen of j>e lond • in prison he huld strong, 395 

So yaX muchedel Engelond • jjo^te is lif to long. 

Bi^sopes A abbodes wer^ • to is wille echon, 

& jif jHZt eni him wraj>j>ede • adou» he was anon. 

* So in Heame; MS. *wcl.' 

J. (a) reign of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. 1 5 

pre sij)e he ber croune ajer • to Midewint^r at Gloucestre, 

To Witesonetid at Wcstmins/re • to Est^r at Wincestre. 400 

pulke festes he wolde • holde so nobliche, 

WiJ) so gret prute & wast • & so richeliche, 

pat wonder it was wenene it com • ac, to susteini such 

He destruede J)at pou^re folc • & nom of horn is preye, 
So j>at he was riche him-sulf * & J)at lond pou^re al out. 405 
Stume he was j>oru-out al • & heiuol & prout. 
SuiJ)e ))ikke^ mon he was • & of grete strengjje, 
Gret-wowbede & ballede • & bote of euene lengjje. 
So stif mon he was in armes • in ssoldren, & in lende, 
pat vnnej)e eni mon • mi^te is bowe bende, 410 

pat he wolde him-sulf vp is fot • ridinge wel vaste, 
Li3tliche, & ssete also • mid bowe & arblaste. 
So hoi he was of body ek * J)at he ne lay neu^re uaste 
Sik in is bed vor non vuel • bote in is de})-vuel atte laste. 
As he wolde some-time • to Normandie wende, 415 

Al jwt a^t was in E«gelo«d • he let somony in ech e«de 
To Salesburi to-uore him • J)at hii suore him alle ^ere 
To be him triwe & holde • )>e wule he of londe were. 
P^r-to he nom gret peine of hom • & fr^m Salesburi to Wijt 
He wende, & fram }>anene * to Normandie ri^t. 420 

& |« wule he was out of Engelond * Edgar Aj)eling 
(pat ri^t eir was of Engelond • & ku«de to be king)* 
Made is 3onge soster • as God 5ef J)at cas, 
Nomie in j>e hous of Romeseye * Cristine hir^ name was. 
pat folc com j)0 of Denemarch • to Engelond sone, 425 

& robbede & destruede • as hii wer^ iwoned to done, 
pat word in-to Normandie. • to king Willam com. 
So gret poer of ]>ulke lond • & of France he nom 

» MS. • Jrilkc* ; Hcarnc, • ^yckc.' 

' MS. transposes the latter parts of lines 421 and 412. 


Mid him in-to Engelond • of kni3tes & squiers, 

Speremen auote & bowemen • & al-so arblast^rs, 430 

pat hom Jjo^te in Engelond ' so muche folc neu^re nas, 

pat it was wonder war^-Jjoru • isousteined it was. 

Hii of Denemarch flowe sone ' vor hii nadde no poer, 

Ac J)et folc of bi^onde se • bileuede alle her, 

pat vnnej>e al J)at lond ' sustenance hom vond. 435 

& )>e king hom sende her & j>^r • aboute in Engelond 

To diu^rse men, to finde hom mete * more J>a» hor peer 

So ))at in ech manure • ))at lond destrued was : 
Frut & corn }^er failede • tempestes J)^r come, 
pondringe & li^tinge ek • J>at slou men ilome. 440 

Manne orf deide al agrounde • so gret qualm j>^r com ))0. 
Orf failede & eke com • hou mi3te be more wo ? 
Seknesse com ek among men • j>at aboute wide, 
Wat vor hong^r, wat uor wo • men deide in ech side, 
So |wt sorwes in Engelond • were wel mony-volde. 445 

pe king & o\er richemen • wel lute Ji^r-of tolde, 
Vor hii wolde eu^e abbe ynou • wanne J)e pou^re adde wo. 
Sein Poules chirche of Londone • was ek vor-barnd j)0. 
King Willam to Normandie • Jjo^te suj>))e atte laste. 
He sette is tounes & is londes • to ferme wel vaste, 450 

Wo-so mest bode J)eruore * & |>ei a lond igranted wew 
To a man to ber^ jx?ruore • a c^rtein rente bi ^ew, 
& anojj^r come & bode more • he wer^ inne anon, 
So )>at hii ])at bode mest * bro^te out monion. 
Nere )>e vorewarde no so strong • me bojte is out wi}> wou, 
So jjflt j)e king in such manure • sulu<?r wan ynou. 456 

po he adde iset is londes so • mid such tricherye 
So heye, & al is 6)^r |jing • he wende to Normandie, 
& Jiere he dude wowe ynou • mid slajt & robberye, 
& nameliche vpe |)e king of France * & vpe is coxnpainie, 

/. (a) reign of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, ly 

So |»at in j)e toun of Reins • king Willam atte laste, 461 

Vor eld & uor trauail • bigan to febli vaste. 

pe king Phelip of France • j)e lasse J>o of him tolde, 

& drof him to busemare • as me ofte dej> J>an olde. 

* pe king/ he sede, * of Engelond • halt him to is bedde, 465 

& lij) mid is grete wombe • at Reins, a child-bedde.' 

po king Willam hurde pis ' he made him so^wdel wroj), 

Vor edwit of is grete wombe • & suor ano« J)is oJ> : 

*Bi fe vprisinge of Ihesu Crist • 3if God me wole grace 

Vorto make mi chirchegong • & bringe me of J>is be«de, 470 
Sache wiues icholle mid me lede • & such lijt atten ende, 
pat an hondred l>ousend candlen * & mo icholle him te/ide 
Amidde is lond of France • & is prute ssende, 
pat a sori chirgegong ic^cholle him make * ar ic^ |>anne 

Vorewarde he huld him wel inou • vor to h^ruest anon, 475 
po he sey J>at feldes wew • vol of come echon, 
Al J)e contreie vol of frut • wa«ne he mi^te mest harm do, 
He let gadeiy is knijtes • & is squiers al-so, 
& Jiat wer^ is wiues • J>at he wij) him ladde. 
He wende him in-to France • & pe contreie ou^-spradde, 
& robbede & destruede • him ne mi^te no])ing lette. 481 

pe grete cit^ of Medes • suj)j)e afur^ he sette, 
Vor me ne mi^te no chirchegong • wijjoute lijte do. 
pe cit^ he bamde al clene * & an chirche al-so 
Of vr leuedi, J>at Yer-irme was * & an auwcre, Codes spouse, 
pat nolde vor no J)ing • fle out of hire house. 486 

& monimo;f & womman ek * per vel in meschawice, 
So ^t a son chirchegong * hit was to pe king of France. 
King Willam wende a3en * |)0 al l>is was ido, 
& bigan sone to grony * & to febly al-so, 490 

Vor trauail of ye voul asaut • & vor he was feble er, 
VOL. n. 


Sc p^rauntre vor wreche al-so • vor he dude so vuele J>^r. 

po he com to Reins a^en * sik he lay soney 

His leches lokede is stat ' as hor 113!; was to done, 

& iseye & sede alsa * )>at he ne mi^te ofscapie no^t. 495 

pere was sone sorwe ynou * amo»g is men ybro^t, 

& he him-sulf deol inou * & sorwe made al-so, 

& nameliche uor J>e muche wo- • jxit he adde anerfe ydo. 

He wep on God vaste ynou • & criede him milce & ore, 

& bihet, ^if he moste libbe * ]>at he nolde misdo nammore. 

Er he ssolde J>at abbe ydo * vor it was J)0 late ynou. 501 

Atte laste, j>o he isei • J>at toward is ende he drou, 

His biquide in ]>is man^e ' he made biuore is de|>, 

Willam, fe rede, al Engelond • is sone he bi-que]}, 

pe jongore, al is porchas • ac, as lawe was & wone^ 505 

Nonnandie> is eritage * he ^ef is eldoste sone, 

Rob^rd J>e Courtehese • & Henry J>e jongoste Jk) 

He biqueji is tresour • vor he nadde sones na^mo. 

He het dele ek pou^emen • muche of is tresorie, 

Vor he adde so muche of horn • inome in robberye. 510 

Chirchen he let rere al-so • & tresour he jef ynou, 

To rere vp J)e chirche of France • jwzt he bamde wij) wou. 

pe prisons he let of Engelond • deliu^ry echone, 

& of Normawdie al-SQ • J>at }^er i>e leuede none. 

po deide he in j)e jer of grace • a Jjousend, as it was, 5x5 

& four score & seuene • as God jef J>at cas. 

He was king of Engelond • four & tuenti jer al-so, 

& due ek* of Normandie • vifty jer & tuo. 

Of elde he was nyne & fifty 3er * J)0 God him 3ef such cas, 

pe morwe aft^ Seinte Mari day • J)e lat^r, ded he was, 5*0 

In ye abbey of Cam • iburr^d was j)is king; 

& Henry is jonge sone • was at is buriing, 

^ SoinHcame; MS.*er.' 

J. (b) the life of ST. DUNSTAN. 1 9 

Ac m^r of is oper sones • vor in France Jk> 

Rob^d Courtehese was • in worre & in wo ; 

& Willam sjkon so is fad^r * Engelond him bi-qiie]>, 535 

He nolde nojt abide * vorte is fad^r de|>, 

Ac wende him out of Normandie ' anon to Engelonde, 

Vorto nime hastiliche • seisine of is londe, 

pat was him ^ leu^re * ]>an is fad^r were, 

SoyaX]^r nas of is sones * bote ye jonge Henry ])ere. 530 

(B) From the ' Life of SL Dunsian.' 

The following legend of St. Dnnstan's adventure with the 
Devfl is in the same dialect as the * Reign of William the 
Conqueror' ; see p. i. 

Harleian MS. M77, leaf 51. 

Seint Dunstan was of Engelond • icome of gode more ; 
Miracle our^ Lou^d dude for )x\m ' er he wer^ ibore. 
For ]h> he was in his moder wombe ' a Candelmasse day, 
per folc was at churche ynouj • as to j>e tyme lay, 
As hi.atode mid her^ li^t ' as me do|> ^nt noo, 5 

Hew li^t aqueynte oueral • her^ non nuste hou ; 
Her rijt hit brende suy^ Wei * & her ri^t hit was oute. 
pat folc stod in gret wonder * .& also in grete doute. 
And hi speke ech to o^er • in whiche man^e hit wer^,. 
Hou hit queynte so sodeynliche * ye li^t ]>at hi ben?. 10 

As hi stode & speke yeroi ' in gret wounder echon, 
Sei»t.Dunstanes moder tap^ * afur^ wor)> anon, 
pat heo huld on hir^ bond ' heo nuste whannes hit com. 
pat folc stod & bihuld " & gret wonder )^rof nom ; 
Ne non nuste wannes hit com • bote j)urf our^ Lou^rdes grace, 
per-of hi tende her^ lijt • alle in J>e place. 16 



What was jwzt otiTi? Lou^rd Crist • J>e li^t (ram heuene sende, 

& ))at folc Jxrt stod aboute • her^ tap^res ^of tende, 

Bote of J)at holi child • Jwzt was in hir^ wombe |)er^, 

Al Engelonde scholde fe bet beo ilijt • ^at hit ibore were ? 20 

JHs child was ibore neo3e hondred jer • & f3nie & tuenti ari^t. 

After J>at ourtf suete Lou^rd • in his moder was alijt, 

pe fiirste jer of ye crouning • of Jie king Adelston ; 

His moder het Kenedride • his fader Herston. 

po J>is child was an vrj^e ibore • his freond nome J>^rto hede. 

Hi lete hit do to Glastnebury • to norischi & to fede*, 26 

To teche bi^ eke his bileue • psXer-nos/er & crede. 

pe child wax & wel ij)e5 • for hit moste nede. 

Lute ^eme he nom to ])e wordle ' to alle godnisse he drou3 ; 

£ch man ]MZt hurde of him speke ' hadde of him ioye ynou3. 

po he was of manes wit * to his vncle he gan go, 31 

pe archebischop of Cant^bury • seiwt Aldelm ))at was j)0, 

pat makede wij) him ioye ynouj • & euer^ ])e lenger^ J>e 

po he se3 of his godnisse • & of his wyse lore. 
For deynt^ \>at he hadde of him • he let lam sone bringe 35 
Bifore fe prince of Engelond • Adelstan J)e kynge. 
pe kyng him makede ioye ynou3 • & grantede al his bone, 
Of what J>inge so he wolde bidde • if hit wer^ to done, 
po bad he Inm an abbei ' ]>at he was for]> on ibro3t, 
In yt toun of Glastnebury ' yathene womde hi;?! nojt 40 
pe king grontede his bone * & aft^r him also, 
Edmund his hroyer, ^at was king * in his poer ido. 
To Glastnebury wende sone ' |>is gode man, seint Dunstan, 
po beye fe kynges him 3eue leue • Edmund & Adelstan. 
Of ye hous of Glastnebury • a gret ordeynour he was, 45 
& makede moche of gode reule * yat neuer er among hem 


» MS. • fcte.» 

/. (b) the life of ST. DUNST4N. 21 

Ac yat hous was^ furst bigonne • four hondred jer bifore, 

& eke J>reo & vyfti • er seint Dunstan were ibore. * 

For )w was ordre of monekes • er seint Patrik com, 

& er sei«t Austyn to Engelonde • brou^te Cristendom ; 50 

& sewt Patrik deide, tuo hondred • & tuo & vyfti jer, 

Aft^ J)at oui£ suete Leuedi • our^ Lou^rd her^ ber. 

Ac none monekes yer nere furst • bote as in hudinge echon, 

& as men Jwrt drowe to wyldemisse • for drede of Godes fon. 

Seint Dunstan & seint Adelwold • as our^ Lou^rd hit bisay, 

T-ordejmed to preostes wer^ • al in one day. 56 

P^-aft^r sone to Glastnebury • seint Dunstan anon wende, 

He was abbod ^er ymaked • his lyf to amende. 

& for he nolde bi his wille • no tyme idel beo, 

A priuei smyfj^e bi his celle • he gan lam biseo. 60 

For whan he moste of oreisouns • reste for werinisse, 

To worke he wolde his honden do • to fleo idelnisse. 

Serui he wolde poure men • Jje wyle he mi3te deore, 

Al ye dai for ]je loue of God ' he ne kipte of hem non hur^. 

& whan he sat at his wore yer • his honden at his dede, 65 

& his hurte mid Ihesu crist * his mouj) his bedes bede; 

So ]MJt al at one tyme • he was at yreo stedes, 

His honden yer, his hurte at God • his mou}> to bidde his bedes ; 

perfore ye deuel hadde of him • gret enuye & onde. 

tyme he cam to his smyyye • alone him to fonde, 70 

Rijt as ye Sonne wende adoun • rijt as he wo^Ttman were, 

& spac wij> him of his wore • wij> [a] la^inge cher^, 

& seide yat heo hadde wij) him * gret wore to done ; 

Treoflinge heo smot her &yer ' in anojj^r tale sone. 

pat holi man hadde gret wonder • yat heo was, & yere 75 

He sat longe & bijjo^te him • longe hou hit wer^. 

He bi)x>3te him ho hit was • he dro^ forj) his tonge, 

& leide in J>e bote fur • & spac fair^ longe, 

^ MS. ]>at ; but ' was ' makes better sense. 


Forte \t tonge was al afurf * ft 3i]>]>e, stille ynon), 

pe deull he hente bi ]>e nose ' & wel faste drou) ; So 

He tuengde & schok hir^ bi ])e nose * ]>at ]>e fur out-blaste ; 

pe deuel wrickede her & Ji^r • & he huld euer^ faste. 

He ^al ft hupte & drou^ a^e '• ft makede grislich ber^, 

He nolde for al his bijete * Jwrt he hadde icome )>er«. 

Mid his tonge he snytte hir^ nose ' ft tuengde hir^ sore, 85 

For hit was wi)>-inne |>e nyjte • he ne mijte iseo nomore. 

pe schrewe was glad ft bli)>e ynou3 * ]k) he was oat of his 

He flej ft grfldde bi |?e lifte • Jwt me hurde in-to al )>e londe : 
* Out 1 what ha)> fe calewe ido • what haj) \t calewe ido 1' 
In J)e contrdii me hurde wide • hou )>e schrewe gradde so. 90 
As god \t schrewe hadde ibeo • atom, ysnyt his nose, 
He ne hi^ede no more ]>iderward * to hele him of |>e pose. 



BEFORE A. I). 1300. 

The following extracts are from the Northumbriaft Psalter in 
the Cotton MS. Vespasian D. vii, which was written about the 
middle of the reign of Edward II. The language, however, is 
much earlier, and represents the speech of Yorkshire and the 
Northumbrian dialect in the latter half of the thirteenth century. 
This Psalter was published by the Surtees Society in 1843-7, 
together with an Anglo-Saxoh one. 

Nothing whatever is known concerning the authorship of this 
version of the Psalms ; but it was evidently made from the Latin 

The numbers of the Psdms and verse3 are the same as in the 
Vulgate. A later Version of Psaltns xiv^ xxiiik^ and cii. will be 
found in Section XVII. 

Psalm ym. 

2 Lauerd, out e Lati^^d, hou selkouth h 
Name ]>ine in alle land ]>is. 

For vpehouen es f i mykelhede 
Ouer heuens Jiat ere brade. 

3 Of mouth of childer and sotikand 5 
Made ]>ou lof in ilka land. 

For }>i faes ; )>at J>ou fordo 
pe faa, J>e wreker him vnto. 

4 For I sal se })ine heuenes hegh, 

And werkes of J>ine fingres slegh ; 10 

pe mone and stemes mani ma, 
pat ))Ou grounded to be swa. 


5 What is man, ]>at ]>ou mines of him ? 
Or sone of man, for J)Ou sekes him ? 

6 pou Kteled him a litel wight 15 
Lesse fra J>ine aungeles bright ; 

With blisse and mensk ^u crouned him yet, 

7 And ouer werkes of J>i hend him set. 

8 pou vnderlaide alle ]>inges 

Vnder his fete ])at ought forthbringes, 20 

Neete and schepe bathe for to welde, 
Inouer and beestes of J>e felde, 

9 Fogheles of heuen and fissches of se, 
pat forthgone stihes of J)e se. 

10 Lau^rd, our Lau^rd, hou selkouth is 25 

Name ]>ine in alle land )>is. 

Psalm xiv (xv). 

1 "LAVEJRDy in )>i telde wha sal wone ? 
In )>i hali hill^ or wha rest^ mone ? 

2 Whilke J>at incomes wemles, 
And ai wirkes rightwisenes ; 

3 pat spekes sothnes in hert his, 5 
And noght dide swikeldome in tung his, 

Ne dide to his neghburgh iuel ne gram ; 
Ne ogaines his neghburgh vpbraiding nam. 

4 To noght es led^ lither in his sight ; 

And dredand Lau^rd he glades right 10 

He J>at to his neghburgh sweres, 
And noght biswikes him ne deres. 

5 Ne his siluer til okir noght es giuand; 

Ne giftes toke ou^r vnderand. .. ' ' 

pat does jjese night and dai, '. < " '5 

Noght sal he be stired in au 

2/. PSALM XVII (XVIIl). 25 

Psalm xvn (xvm). is 

2 I SAL loue J)e, Lau^d, in stalworlhhede; .'; ( . .. -, '^ i- 

3 Lau^d, mi festnes ai in nede, 
And mi toflight ]>at es swa, 
And mi leser out of wa, 

Lauerd, mi helper J>at es alle, 5 

And in him ai hope I salle. 

Mi schelder, and of mi hele home. 

And mi fonger ai Jjer-fome. 

4 Louand Lauerd calle sal I, 

♦ And fra mi faas be sauf for-J)i, 10 

5 Y^^gaf me sorwes of dede ; . . ; 
Vmgriped me weeles of guede, . . ' 

6 Soreghes vmgaf me of helle ; 
Bisied me snares of dede ful felle. 

7 In mi droning Lauerd called I, 15 
And to mi God cried I witerli ; 

And he herd fra his hali kirke mi steuen, 
And mi crie in his sight in eres yhode euen. 

8 Stired and quoke J>e erthe J>are, 

Groundes of hilles todreued are ; 20 

And Jai ere stired [J>]of baim be lath, 
For J>at he es with J)aim wrath. 

9 Vpstegh reke in his ire, 

And of face of him brent |?e fire; 

Koles l^at war^ doimfalland 25 

Elindled er^ of him glouand. 

10 He helded heuens, and doune come he; 
And dimnes vnder his fete to be. 

11 And he stegh ou^r Cherubin, and flegh \zxe\ 

He flegh ou^r fetheres of windes ware. 30 

12 And he set mirkenes his lurking lang, 


His telde to be in his vmgang; 
Mirke watres J)at war^ of hewe, 
In J>e kloudes of ^ skewe. 

13 For leuening in his sight doudes schire 35 
Forthyheden, haile, and koles of fire. 

14 And Lau^rd thonered fra heueti, and heghest sire 
Gaf his steuen ; haile, coles of fire. 

15 And he sent his arwes, and skatered )>ti; 
Felefalded lettening, and dreued J)am swa. 40 

16 And schewed welles of watres ware, 

And groundes of ertheli werldf vnhiled are, 
For J)i snibbiwg, Lau^rd myne ; 
For onesprute of gast of wreth |>ine. 

17 He sent fra hegh, and vptoke me; 45 
Fra many watres me nam he. 

18 He outtoke me yaxe amang 
Fra mi faas ]>at war sa Strang, 
And fra )>a me ]»at hated ai ; 

For samen strengh|>ed ouer me war ]rtii* 50 

19 pai forcome me in daie of twinging; 
And made es Lau^d mi forhiling. 

20 And he led me in brede to be ; 
Sauf made he me, for he wald me. 

2 1 And foryhelde to me Laufrd sal 55 
After mi righ[t]wisenes al ; 

And after clensing of mi hende 
Sal he yhelde to me at ende. 

22 For waies of Lau^d yemed I, 

Ne fra mi God dide I wickedly. 60 

23 For al his domes in mi sight ere ]>a. 
And his rightwisenes noght put I me fra. 

24 And I sal be with him wemmeles. 
And loke me fra mi wickednes. 

//. PSALM XVII iXVIIl). 27 

25 And Lau^d to me foryhelde he sal 65 
After mi rightwisnes al, 

And after clennes of mi hend swa 
In sight of eghen his twa. 

26 With hali halgh bes of })e; '^^ ' -^ "^ 
With man vnderand, vnderand be. 70 

27 With chosen, and be chosen ]>ou sal; 
With il-tomed, and il-tornest al. 

28 For ]>ou meke folk sauf make sal nou ; 
And eghen of proude meke sal-tou. 

29 For ])0u lightes mi lantern bright, 75 
Mi God, mi mirkenes light. 

30 For in J)e be I ouitane fra fanding al, 
And in mi God sal I ouerfar^ ]>e waL 

31 Mi God vnfiled es his wai ; 

Speche of Lau^rd with fire es ai 80 

: Fraisted ; forhiler es he . 
Of al )>at in him hopand be. 

32 For wha God bot Lau^rd we calle ; 
Or wha God bot our God of alle ? 

33 Lau^rd, J)at girde me with might, 85 
And set vnwemmed mi wai right; 

34 pat set mi fete als of hertes ma, 
And oner heghnes settand me swa ; 

35 pat leres mi hend at fight nou, 

And mine armes als brasen bow set ]»ou. 90 

36 And ^u gaf me forhiling of hele of J)e, 
And ]>i right hand onfanged me ; 
And |>i lare in ende me rightid al, 
And ]>i lare it me lere saL 

37 pou tobreddest mi gainges vnder me, 95 
And mi steppes noght vnfest j^ai be. 

38 I sal filghe mi faas, and vmlap |>a; 


And noght ogaintome to ]>ai wane swa. 

39 I sal ]>am breke, ne stand ]>ai might ; 

pai sal falle vnder mi fete dounright, loo 

40 And ))0u girde me with might at fight in land, 
And vnderlaide vnder me in me riseand, ; 

41 And mi faas obak ]>ou gaf me nou ; 
And hatand me forlesed |>ou. 

42 pai cried, ne was ]>at sauf made ought, 105 
To Lau^d, and he herde J>am noght 

43 And I sal gnide [|>am] als dust bi-for winde likam; 
Als fen of gates owai do J>am. i 

44 Outtake fra ogainsaghes of folk ]>ou sal ; 

In heued of genge me set with al. ^. » . •. no 

45 Folk whilk I ne knewe serued to me; 
In hering of ere me boghed he. 

46 Outen sones to me lighed ]>ai, 
Outen sones elded .er }>ai ; 

And yai halted yaae ]>ai yhode 115 

Fra J)ine sties J>at eve gode. 

47 Lau^rd lines, and mi God blissed be; 
And God of mi hele vphouen be he. 

48 God J>at giues wrekes me to, 

And vnders folk vnder me so, 120 

Mi leser artou, night and dai, 
Fra mi faes ben wrathful ai, 

49 And fra in me risand vpheue sal-tou me ; 
Fra wicke man outtake me to fie. 

50 For-J>i in bh-Jies sal I to ]>e schiyue, 125 
Lau^d, and to ]>i name salm sal mi line. 

51 Heles of his king mikeland, 
And als swa mercy doand 
To his crist, yat es Dauid, 

And to his sede til in werld ]>ar wid. 130 


Psalm xxm (xxiv). 

1 Of Lan^rd es land and fulhed his; 
Er)>eli werld, and alle J)ar-in is. 

2 For ouer sees it grounded he, 
And ouer stremes graij>ed it to be. 

3 Wha sal stegh in hilk of Lau^rd winli, 5 
Or wha sal stand in his stede hall ? 

4 Vnderand of hend bidene, 
And ]>at of his hert es clene ; 

In vnnait ]>at his saule noght nam, 

Ne swar^ to his neghburgh in swikedam. 10 

5 He sal fang of Lau^d blissing, 

And mercy of God his heling. • 

6 pis es |>e strend of him sekand, 
pe face of God lacob laitand^ 

7 Oppenes your yates wide, 15 
Yhe J>at princes ere in pride ; 

And yates of ai vphouen be yhe, 
And king of blisse income sal he. 

8 Wha es he, king of blisse ? Lau^rd Strang 

And mightand in fight, Laufrd mightand lang. 20 

9 Oppenes your yates wide, 
Yhe Jjat princes ere in pride ; 
And yates of ai vphouen be yhe. 
And king of blisse income sal he. 

10 Wha es he ])e king of blisse ]>at i$se? 95 

Lau^rd of mightes es king of blisse. 

Psalm en (cm). ;, 

X Blisse, mi saule, to Lau^rd ai isise,' 

And alle ]>at with-in me er^ to hall name hissa 
2 Blisse, mi saule, to Lau^d of alle thinges, 


And nil forgete alle his foryheldinges. 

3 pat winsom es to alle }>ine wickenesses, 5 
pat heles alle ]>ine sekenesses. 

4 pat bies fra steruing J)i lif derli, 

pat crounes \fe with rew}>es and with m^rcL 

5 pat filles in godes ))i yheminges al, 

Als erne J)i yhouthe be newed sal. 10 

6 Doarid mercies Lauerd^ in land, 
And dome til alk vnright thohind. 

7 Kouthe made he to Moises his waies wele, 
His willes til sones of I[s]rael. 

8 Rewful and mildeherted Lau^rd gode, 15 
And mildeherted and langmode. 

9 Noght wreth he sal in euermore, 
Ne in ai sal he threte J>ar-fore. 

10 Noght after our sinnes dide he til vs, 

Ne after our wickenes foryheld vs J>us. 20 

1 1 For after heghnes of heuen fra land, 
Strenghjjed he his merci on^r him dredand. 

1 2 Hou mikle estdel stand westdel fra, 
Fer made he fra vs ouw wickenes swa. 

13 Als rewed es fadre of sones, 25 
Rewed es Lauerd, }>arf he wones, 

Of fa J)at him dredand be ; 

14 Fore our schaft wele knawes he, 
Mined es he wele in thoght 

pat dust ere we and worth noght. 30 

15 Man his dales ere als haV 

Als blome of felde sal he welyen awai. 

16 For gaste thurghfare in him it sal, 
And noght vndrestand he sal withral ; 

* MSI *Larued/ 

II. PSALM CU (ClXiy 31 

And knawe namare sal he 35 

His stede, vhare ]>at it sal be. 

17 And Lauerdes m^ci eure dwelland, 
And til ai our him dredeand ; 

And in sones of sones his rightwisenes, 

18 To J>as J>at yhemes witeword his; 40 
And mined sal ))ai be, night and dai^ 

Of his bodes to do ]>am ai. 

19 Lau^d in heuen grai]>ed sete hiis, 
And his rike til alle sal Lau^rd in blis. 

20 Blisses to Lau^rd with alle your might, 45 
Alle his aungels, })at ere bright ; 

Mightand of thew, doand his worde swa, 
To here steuen of his saghs ma. 

21 Blisses to Lauerd, alle mightes his. 

His hine, ]>at does ]>at his wille is. 50 

22 Blisses Lauerd, with wille and thoght, 
Alle j)e werkes J)at he wroght. 

In alle stedes of his lau^rdschipe ma, 
Blisse, mi saule, ai Lauerd swa. 

Psalm cm (av). 

1 Blisse, mi saule, Lauerd nou ; 
Lauerd, mi God, swith mikel ertou. 
Schrift and fairehed schred J>ou right; 

2 Vmlapped als klel>ing with light, 

Strekand heuen als fel with blis; 5 

3 pat hiles with watres ou^restes his; 
pat settes |>in vpsteghing kloude, 

pat gaas ouer fetheres of wyndes loude; 

4 pat makes ]>ine aungels gastes fiighand. 

And ]>in hine fire brinnand ; 10 

5 pat groundes land ou^r sta)>elne& his, 




Noght helde sal in werld of werld J>is. 

6 Depnes als schroude his hiling alle, 
Ouer hilles his watres stand salle, 

7 Fra J>i snibbing sal J>ai fle, 15 
For steuen of J>i thoner fered be ; 

8 Vpsteghes hilles and feldes doungas, 
In stede whilk ]70u grounded to ]>as. 

^£ 9 Mere set J)OU whilk ouerga ))ai ne sal, 

Ne t«me to hile jie land with-al. ao 

10 pat outsendes welles in dales ma, 
Bitwix mid hilles sal watres ga. 

1 1 Drink sal alle bestes of felde wide, 
Wilde asses in bar thrist sal abide. 

12 Quer J>a wone sal foghles of heuen, 25 
Fra mid of stanes gif sal ]>ai steuen. 

13 Fra his ouermastes hilles watrand, 
Of fruite of his werkes filled bes J)e land. 

14 Forthledand hai to meres ma, 
And gresse to hinehede of men swa,. 30 
pat J)Ou outelede fra erthe brede. 

15 And hert of man faines wyne rede, 
pat he glade likam in oyele best. 
And brede J>e hert of man sal f&st. 

16 Be fullefilled sal trees of felde ilkan, 35 
And J>e cedres of Yban, 
Whilk he planted with his hand. 

17 par^ sal sparwes be nesdand, 
Wilde haukes hous-leder of ]>a. 

18 Hilles hegh til hertes ma, 40 
And ]>e stane, bi dai and night, 
Vntil irchones es toflight. 

19 He made ])e mone in times lang ; 
pe sunne^ it knew his setelgang. 

//. PSALM cm {ciV). 33 

20 pou set mirkenessesi and made es night gode ; 45 
In it sal forthfare alle bestes of wode ; 

21 Lyoun whelpes romiand ]>at ]>ai reue swa. 
And seke fra God mete vnto |>a. 

22 Spnmgen es sunne and samened ere ]>ai, 

And in ]>ar ddhnes bilouked sal be al dai. 50 

23 Onte sal man ga vnto his werke, 
And til his wirkeing til euen merke. 

24 Hon mikeled er^, Lau^d, ]>ine werkes ma; 
Alle in wisedome made |)Ou |>a : 

Oka land fulfilled es it 55 

With J>ine aght thurgh J>i wit. 

25 pis see mikel and roimie til hende, 
par wormeSi of whilk es nan ende; 
Bestes smaller with ])e-mare. 

26 pider schippes sal ouerfare ; 60 
pis dragomi ]^t ]>oa made bifom^ 

For to plaie with him in skom. 

27 Alle fra ]>e ]>ai abide, 

pat ]k>u gif ]>am mete in tide. 

28 Giueand \t to ]>am, gedre ]>ai sal; 65 
pe oppenand ]>i hand with-al, 

Alle sal ]iai, mar^ and lesse, 
Be fulfilled with \i godenesse. 

29 pe sothlik tumand ]>i likam, 

pal sal be dreued; ]>e gast of ]>am 70 

pou salt outbere, and wane sal ]>ai, 
And in ]>air duste sal tume for ai. 

30 Outsend j>i gaste and made ]>ai sal bene» 
And new sajtou )>e face of erthe bidene. 

31 Be blis of Lau^rd in werld J>is, 75 
And faine sal Lau^rd in werkes his» 

32 pat bihaldes land, and to qwake makes it ; 

VOL. n* D 


pat neghes hilles, and |)ai smoke yhit 

33 I sal sing to Lan^d in mi lif for-]>i, 

I sal salme to mi God hou lang am I. 80 

34 Winsome to him be mi speche al, 
I sothlik in Lau^d like sal. 

35 Wane sinful fra erthe, and wik ^aX isse, 

Swa ]>at ]>ai noght be : mi saule, Lau^rd blisse. 



A.D. I272-I307. 

The following illustrations of English proverbial philosophy in 
the thirteenth century are taken from MS. Harleian 1253. They 
are printed in * Reliquiae Antiquae' (ed. Wright and Halliwell), 
vol. i. pp. 109-116, and in J. M. Kemble's appendix to 'The 
Dialogues of Salomon and Saturn' (iClfric Society), 1848. The 
dialect is Southern intermixed with some few Midland peculi- 
arities. A few readings are added from MS. Camb. Gg. i. i. 

[MS. Harl. 2253; leases 125 — ^127.] 

1 Mon J>at wol of wysdam heren, 
At wyse Hendyng he may lemen, 

pat wes Mar colues sone ; 
Gode ]>onkes & monie ])ewes 
Forte teche fele shrewes, 5 

For Jiat wes euer is wone» 

2 lesxi Crist, al folkes red, 
pat for vs alle ]iolede ded 

Vpon fe rode-tre, 
Leue vs alle to ben wys, 10 

Ant to ende in his semys I 
Amen, par charit^ ! 
* God beginning make]> god endyng;* 

QuoJ> Hendyng* 
D 2 


3 Wyt & wysdom lumej> ^erne, 15 
Ant loke J>at non oJ)er weme 

To be wys & hende ; 
For betere were to bue wis 
pen forte were^ fob & grys, 
Wher-so mon shal ende. *o 

« Wyt & wysdom is god warysoun ;' 

QuoJ> Hendyng. 

4 Ne may no mon jwrt is in londe, 
For noJ>yng |>at he con fonde, . ^ ' 

Wonen at home, & spede 25 

So fele )?ewes for te leorne, 
Ase he l>at haj) ysoht^ jeome 
In wel fele Jjeode. 
* Ase fjele J>ede, ase fele J>ewes ;' 

QuoJ> Hendyng. 30 

5 Ne bue J>i child neuer so duere, 
Ant hit woUe vnj>ewes leme, 

Bet hit oJ>er-whyle; 
Mote hit al habben is wille, 

Woltou, nultou, hit wol spille, 35 

Ant bicome a fule. 
« Luef child lore byhouej) ;' 

Quo)> Hendyng. - 

6 Such lores ase |)0U lemest, 

After JKrt J>ou sist & herest, 4® 

Mon, in J>yne jouj^e, 
Shule ))e on elde folewe, 
BoJ)e an eue & amorewe, 

& bue J>e fol couJ)e. 

* 'where' in MS.; Camb. •weti.* « MS. has 'ysojrt*; Camb. 'iiowt.* 


'Whose jong lerne]>, olt he ne lesej>;' 45 

Q«oJ> Hendyng. 

9 Me may lere a sely fode, ^' 
pflt is euer toward gode, / ^ 

WiJ> a lutel lore ; ^ / , , 65 

3ef me mil hu» for)>er teche, f * * J 
pemie is herte wol areche 
Forte leme more. 
* Sely chyld is sone ylered ;' 

Q«oJ> Hendyng. 70 

10 Jef |K)u wolt fleysh^ lust outcome, 
pou most fiht^ & fle ylome, 

WiJ> eye & wij> huerte ; 
Of fleyshlust come]> shame ; 
pah^ hit J>miche J>e body game, 75 

Hit doJ> ))e soule smerte. 
'Welfyht', jwtwelflyj);' 

Q«oJ) Hendyng. 

11 Wis mon halt is wordes ynne; 

For he nul no gle bygynne, 80 

Er he haue tezwpred is pype. 
Sot is sot, & ]Mzt is sene ; 
For he wol speke wordes grene, 
Er )>en hue buen rype. 
' Sottes bolt is sone shote ;' 85 

Q«oJ> Hendyng. 

12 Tel J)Ou neuer J>y fomon 
Shome ne teone ]Mzt ])e is on, 

pi care ne J>y wo ; 

* MS. haf • fist.* « MS. has •>»>*; Camb. « [)owh.* » MS. has • fy>t.' 


For he wol fonde, jef he may, 90 

Bo)>e by nyhtes & by day, 
Of on to make two. 

* Tel JK)U neuer \y fo ))at J>y fot akej>;' 

Q«oJ> Hendyng. 

13 3ef J>ou hauest bred & ale, 95 
Ne put fou nout al in )>y male, 

pou del hit sum aboute. 
Be )>ou fre of \y meeles, 
Wher-so me eny mete deles, 

Gest J)OU nout wiJ)-oute. 100 

* Betere is appel yjeue fen y-ete ;' 

Quof Hendyng. 

14 Alle whyle ich wes on er)>e, 
Neuer lykede me my werjje, 

For none wynes fylle ; , 105 

Bote myn & myn owen won, 
Wyn & water, stok^ & ston, 

Al goJ> to my wille. 

* Este buej> oune brondes ;' 

Q«o)) Hendyng. no 

15 Jef \e lackej> mete o)>er clof *, 
Ne make fe nout for-)>y to wro)>*, 

pah' J)OU byde bore we ; 
For he jj^rt haue|> is god ploh'. 
Ant of worldes wele ynoh, 115 

Ne wot he of no sorewe. 
' Gredy is J>e godles ;' 

Q[u]oJ> Hendyng. 

* MS. has ' clo>t/ ' wroJ>t ' ; Camb. * clo|»c/ • wrothe/ ■ MS. has • )>^p: 

' MS. has 'plo])*; Camb. 'plouh.* 


16 5ef ))OU art riche & wel ytold, 

Ne be ))0U noht^ jjarefare to bold, 120 

Ne wax ))0u nout to wilde; 
Ah ber ))e feyre in al J>yng, 
& ])OU miht habbe blessyng, 

& be meke & mylde. 

* When {>e coppe is follest, ])enne ber hire feyrest;' 

Quo)) Hendyng. 126 

• • ' • • • 

19 pah ]>ou muche )>enche, ne spek ])0U nout al; 140 
Bynd J>ine tonge wij> bonene wal ; 

Let hit don synke, j>er hit vp swal ; 
penne myht^ |jou fynde frend oueral. 

* Tonge breke]> bon, & nad hire-selue non ;' 

Quol> Hendyng. 145 

20 Hit is mony gedelyng, 

When me him 5eueJ> a lutel fyng, 

Waxen wol vn-saht '• 
Hy telle he dej> wel by me, 
]>at me ^euep a lutel fe, 150 

Ant owe]> me riht naht. 

* pat me lutel 3eueJ>, he my lyf ys on ;' 

QuoJ> Hendyng. 

a I Mon ]>at is luef don ylle, 

When )>e world goji after is wille, 155 

Sore may him drede ; 
For 3ef hit tyde so jxrt he falle, 
Men shal of is owen galle 
Shenchen him at nede. 
' pe bet J>e be, ]>e bet J>e byse ;' 160 

Q«oJ> Hendyng. 

* MS. has • no>t.' " MS. has * mj^V • MS. has * vn saj»t.' 


22 pah ))e wolde wel bycome 
Forte make houses rouio^, 

pou most nede abyde, 
Ant in a lutel hous wone, 165 

Forte )>ou fele \aX J)Ou mone* 
WiJ>-outen euel pryde. 
' Vnder boske shal men weder abide ;' 

Quo^ Hendyng. 

23 Holde ich nomon for vnsele, 170 
Oj)erwhyle )>ah he fele 

Sum)7yng ]>at him smerte : 
For when mon is in treye & tene, ''^ 

penne herej> God ys bene 

pat he byd myd herte. 175 

* When ))e bale is hest, ])enne is fe bote nest;' 

QuoJ) Hendyng. 

24 Drah' ]>yn bond sone ajeyn, 
Jef men ))e doJ> a wycke l>eyn, 

per Jjyn ahte ys lend ; 180 

So ]>at child wi))-drawe]> is bond 
From f e fur & ])e brond, 

pat haj> byfore bue brend. 

* Brend child fur dredej> ;' 

Q«o]> Hendyng. 185 

25 Such mon haue ich land my clo)>, 
pat ha)> maked me fol wro]>i 

£r hit come a^eyn. 
Ah he ]>at me ene serue]> so, 
Ant he efl bidde mo, 190 

He shal me fynde vnfeyn. 

* Selde come]> lone lahynde hom ^ 

Qiio]> Hendyng. 

» MS. • mowe.' " MS. • Dra]) * ; Camb. • drawe.* 


26 Jef ]iou trost to borewyng, 

pe shal fayle mony ]>yng, 195 

LoJ) when ))e ware ; 
3ef ])Ou haue ]>in oune won, 
penne is Jjy treye ouergon, 

Al wyJ>-oute care. 

* Owen ys owen, & oJ>er mennes ednej> / 200 

Quo]) Hendyng, 

27 pis worldes loue ys a wrecche, 
Whose hit here, me ne recche, 

pah y speke heye ; 
For y se )>^it on broker 205 

Lutel recche of J>at ofer, 

Be he out of ys e3e. 

* Fer from eje, fer from herte ;' 

Q«oJ> Hendyng. 
• • • 

29 Moni mon sei]>, were he ryche, 
Ne shulde non be me ylyche 

Tobegod&fre; 220 

For when he ha)> oht bygeten, 
Al fe fredome is for3eten 
Ant leyd vnder kne. 

* He is fre of hors }>at ner nade non;' 

QuoJ> Hendyng. 225 

• ••'•• 

32 Mon, ]Mjt munte]) ouer flod. 
Whiles )>at J)e wynd ys wod 

Abyde fayre & stille ; 
Abyd stille, ^ef )>at J)Ou may, 245 

& ]>ou shalt haue an o]>er day 

Weder after wille. 1 


* Wei abit }^\, wel may J)olye ;' 

[QuoJ> Hendyng.] 

33 P^ y telle an euel lype, 250 

Mon )>tft do)> him in-to shype 

Whil ))e weder is wod; 
For be he come to j)e depe, 
He mai wrynge hond & wepe, 

Ant be of drery mod. 255 

*Ofte rap rewej>;' 

QuoJ> Hendyng. 

39 Riche & pore, ^ongc & olde, 
Whil 5e habbej> ^t at wolde, 

Sechej) ore soule bote ; 300 

For when 3e wene)> alrebest 
Forte haue ro & rest, .1 
pe ax ys at J>e rote. 
* Hope of long lyf gyle)) mony god wyf ;' 

QuoJ> Hendyng. 305 

40 Hendyng seij> soJ> of mony Jjyng : 
lesvi crist, heuenne kyng, 

Vs to blisse brynge : 
For his sweet moder loue, 
pat sit in heuene vs aboue, 310 

3eue vs god endynge. Amen. 



ABOUT A.D. 1300. 

The following short poems are from the same MS. and in the 
same dialect as the * Proverbs of Hendyng.' They have been 
printed in * Specimens of Lyric Poetry,' edited by T. Wright, 
M.A., for the Percy Society; London, 1842. 

[From Har]. MS. 2353 » l^^f ^3> back.'] 

(A) Alysoun. 

Bytuene Mersh^ & Aueril 
When spray biginnejj to springe, 

pe Intel foul haj> hire wyl 
On hyre lud to synge ; 

Ich libbe in louelonginge 5 

For semlokest of alle l>ynge,' 
He may me blisse bringe, 

Icham in hire baundoun. 
An hendy hap ichabbe yhent, 
Ichot from heuene it is me sent, 10 

From alle wymmen mi lone is lent 

& lyht on Alysoun. 

On heu hire her is fajn: ynoh, 
Hire browe bronne, hire e^e blake, 
Wi]> lossum chere he on me loh ; 15 


Wi)> middel smal & wel ymak^; 
Bote he me wolle to hire take 
Forte buen hire owen make, 
Longe to lyuen ichulle forsake, 

k feye fallen adoun. 20 

An hendy hap, &c. 

Nihtes when y wende & wake, 25 

For-J>i myn wonges waxej> won; 

Leuedi, al for ]>ine sake 
Longinge is ylent me on. 
In world nis non so wyter mon 
\^aX al hire bounty telle con ; , 30 

Hire swyre is whittore \tn J>e swon, 

& fe3n:est may in tomie. 
An hend^, &c. 

Icham for wowyng al forwake, 
Wery so water in wore ; 

Lest eny reue me my make, , 
Ychabbe y-jymed jore. 40 

Betere is )>olien whyle sore 
pen moumen euermore. 
Ge3aiest vnder gore, 

Herkne to my roun. 
An hendi, &c. 45 

(B) A Plka for Pity. 

Wi|) longyng y am lad. 
On molde y waxe mad, 
A maide marre]> me ; 
y grede, y grone, vn-glad, 
For selden y am sad 5 


pot semly forte se ; 

Leuedi, J)OU rewe me I 
To roufe ))0U hauest me rad ; 
Be bote of J>at y bad, 

My lyf is long on )je. 10 

Leuedy of alle londe, 
Les me out of bonde) 

Breht icham in wo ; 
Haue resting on honde, 
& sent ]>ou me ]>i sonde, 15 

Sone, er fou me slo ; 

My reste is wi]) \t ro : 
pah men to me han onde, 
To loue nuly noht wonde, 

Ne lete for non of )>o. 20 


Leuedi, wij> al my miht 
My loue is on ))e liht, 

To menske when y may ; 
pou rew & red me ryht, 
To dej>e Jk)u hauest me diht, 25 

Y deje longe er my day ; 

pou leue vpon mi lay. 
Treul>e ichaue l>e plyht, 
To don J>at ich haue hyht, 

Whil mi lif leste may. 30 

Lylie-whyt hue is, 

Hire rode so rose on rys, 

pat reuej> me mi rest. 
Wymmon war & wys, 
Of ptude hue here)) )>e pris, 35 



Burde on of])e best ; 

pis wommon wone]> by west, 
Brihtest vnder bys : - ^ 
Heuene y tolde al his 

pat o nyht were hire gest. 40 

(C) Parablb. of the Labourers. 

Of a mon Matheu J>ohte, 
po he \e wynjord whrohte, 

Ant wrot hit on ys boc ; 
In marewe men he sohte, 
At vnder mo he brohte, 5 

Ant nom ant non forsoc ; 
At mydday ant at non 
^ He sende hem J>ider fol son, 

To helpen hem wij> hoc ; 
Huere foreward wes to fon 10 

So )>e furmest heuede ydon, 

Ase ))e erst vndertoc. 

At euesong euen neh, 
Ydel men ^et he seh 

Lomen habbe an honde; 15 

To hem he sayde an heh, 
fat suy})e he wes vndreh -JlTtcik 

So ydel forte stonde. 
So hit wes bistad^ 
pat nomon hem ne bad, 20 

Huere lomes to fonde ; 

Anon he was by^ad, {* ^^tx.{U...J-' 
To werk l>«t he hem lad, 
For nyht nolde he nout wonde. 


Huere hure a nyht hue noxne, 25 

He ]KZt furst ant last come, 

A peny brod & bryht ; 
pis o}^ swore alle & some, 
pot er were come wi]> lome, 

pot so nes hit nout ryht ; 50 

Ant swore somme vnsaht, 
ptft hem wes werk by-taht 

Longe er hit were lyht; 
For ryht were fat me raht 
pe mon jwit al day wraht 35 

pe more mede a nyht 

penne sei]> he ywis, 

* Why, naj) nout vch mon his ? 

Holde]> nou or pees; 
A-way I jK)u art vnwis, 40 

Tak al ]>at ]>in ys, 

Ant fare ase foreward wees. 
3ef y may betere beode 
To mi latere leode, / ^^^ Ub ^ ^ ^^ 

To leue nam y nout lees; ^^ , ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^t 45 fr U. 
To alle )>at euer hider eode ' 

To do to day my neode, 

IchuUe be wraj)))e-lees/ 

pis world me wurchej> wo, 
J\£^'h(c ^^ Rooles ase be roo, 50 

Y sik^ for vn-sete ; 
Ant moume ase men doy mo, 
For doute of foule fo, 

Hou y my sunne'may b^te. 
> MS. * d<^' 

^- - "• y .. r *i'i ^ 


pis mon ))at Matheu ^ef 55 

aAs^^-u^^^^ frfL A peny Jjot wes so bref, 
(te. fruics. ^h f4'H^ pis jrejy folk jmfete; /^^^^ ; UvV y^^ 
I V Jet he ^ymden more, / 

Ant saide he come wel ^ore, 

Ant gpnne is loue for-lete. 60 

(D) Spring-time. , 

Lenten ys come wij) loue to toune, / ^j /n A 1 K 
WiJ) blosmen & wiJ) briddes roune, 

"pat al J)is blisse biyngej) ; 
Dayes-e3es in Jjis dales, 
Notes suete of nyhtegales, 5 

Vch foul song singe)?. . 

pe Jjrestelcoc^mi fretej? 00, ^^^ 
Away is huere wynter wo, 

When woderoue springe)? ; 
/ pis foules sing^ ferly fele, y / 10 

Ant wlytef^ on Were wynter wele, \ \ij 

pat al j>e wode ryngej). ^ '^ ^^ 

pe rose jayle )? hire rode, /^ S l\AC^<j2y(^ 
pe leues on J)e lyhte wode 

Waxen al wij> wille; 15 

pe mone mande)> hire bleo, 
pe lilie is lossom to seo, ^ / 

pe fenyl & l>e fille ; ^' ^'^^^' -^<t^^ 
.''Uv'..xctJ Wowes J>is wilde drakes, 

■^ . ', \\'i'^ ' '^' Miles murgej) huere makes ; ao 

^ Ase strem J>at strike)? stille. 

jv e Mody mene)), so doj)^ mo, 
IcEotycham on of )k). 
For loue ^at likes ille. 

» MS. * doh.' 


pe mone mandej? hire lyht, 25 

So do)) ))e semly sonne bryht, 

When briddes singej? breme ; 
Deawes donkej> jje dounes, 
^ Deores wij? huere deme rounes, 

Domes forte deme ; 30 

Wormes woweJ> vnder cloude, 
Wymmen waxe}> woimder proude, 

So wel hit wol hem seme, 
3ef me shal wonte wille of on: 
pis wunne weole y wole forgon, 35 

Ant wyht in wode be fleme. 

^t^»J,w ^l)^') 

VOL. n. ^ 



A.D. 1303. 

Robert Mannyng, commonly called Robert of Brunne (from 
his birthplace, Brunne or Bourn in Lincolnshire, seven or eight 
miles from Market Deeping), was bom about a.d. 1260, and died 
about 1340. In the year a.d. 1303 he translated William of 
Waddington's *Le Manuel des Pechiez' into English, under the 
title of * Handlyng Synne.' 

Between the years 1327 and 1338, Mannyng also translated the 
French rhyming chronicle of Piers (or Peter) de Langtoft into 
English verse, at the request of Dan Robert of Malton, prior of 
the Gilbertine order, of which Mannyng was a canon. 

The following tale, from * Roberd of Brunne's Handlyng Synne/ 
which was edited for the Roxburghe Club by F. J. Furnivall, 
M.A. (London, 1862), is here printed from the manuscript. 

The Tale of Pers the Usurer. 

[Harleian MS. 1 701, leaf 37, hachJl 

Seynt lon^, )>e aumenere, 5575 

SeyJ? Pers was an okerere. 

And was swyj^e coueytous. 

And a nygu» and auarous, 

And gadred pens vnto store, 

As okerers don^ aywhore. 5580 


Befyl hyt so vp-on a day 

pat pore men sate yn J>e way, 

And spred her^ hatren on her^ barme 

A^ens |?e sonne J>at was warme, 

And rekened ))e custome houses echon^, 5585 

At whych })ey had gode, and at whyche non^ ; 

per^ J)ey hadde gode, \ey prised weyl, 

And )>eK l>ey hadde noght, neu^r a deyl. 

As )>ey spak of many what, 

Come Pers for)? yn J>ar gat, 5590 

pan seyd echon^ J)at sate and stode, 

* Her^ com)) Pers Jjat neu^r dyd gode/ 
Echon^ seyd to o\er jangland, 

pey toke neu^r gode at Pers hand ; 

Ne non^ pore man nen^r shal haue, 5595 

Coude he neu^r so weyl craue. 

One of hem began to sey, 

* A waiour dar y wyj? 30W ley 

pat y shal haue suw gode at h)Tn, 

Be he neu^r so gryl ne grym.' 5600 

To j>at waiour l>ey grauwted alle. 

To 5yue hym a ^yft, ^yf so my3t befalle, 

pys man vp-sterte and toke )>e gate 

Tyl he com at Pers ^ate ; 

As he stode stylle and bode l>e quede, 5605 

One com vftXh an asse charged vftXh brede; 

pat yche brede Pers had boght. 

And to hys hous shuld hyt be broght 

He sagh Pers come Ji^r-w^'ti-alle, 

pe pore j>oght, now aske y shal. 5610 

* Y aske J)e suzw gode, pur charyte, 
Pers, 5yf l>y wyl be.' 

Pers stode, and loked on hym 

E 2 


Felunlyche with y^en grym. 

He stouped down to seke a stone^ S^^S 

But, as hap was, )>an fonde he none. 

For J>e stone he toke a lofe. 

And at ^ pore man hyt drofe. 

pe pore man hente hyt vp belyue, 

And was ^eroi ful ferly blyj^e. 5620 

To hys felaws faste he ran 

WiU |je lofe, J>ys pore man. 

* Lo/ he seyd, * what y haue 
Of Pers 3yft, so God me saue !' 

* Nay,' j?ey swore by here Jjryft, 5625 

* Pers 5aue neu^r swych a ^yft.' 

He seyd, * je shul weyl vndyrstonde 

pat y hyt had at Pers honde ; 

pat dar y swer^ on jje halydom 

Her^ before 50W echon^/ 5630 

Grete merueyle had fey die 

pot swych a chau^ice my^t hym befalle. 

pe Jjrydde day, ]>us wr3rte hyt ys, 

Pers fyl yn a grete syknes ; 

And as he lay yn hys bedde, 5635 

Hym )K)ghttf weyl J^at he was ledde 

W/tA one J)at aftyr hym was sent 

To come vn-tio hys lugement. 

Before )^ luge was he broght 

To jelde acouate how he hadde wroght; 5640 

Pers stode ful sore adrad^ 

And was a-b^shed as [a] mad, 

He sagh a fende on )« to party 

Bewreyyng hym ful feiwily ; 

Alle hyt was shewed hym before, 5645 

How he had lyued syn he was bore ; 


And namely eu^ry wykked dede 

Syn fyrst he coude hym-self lede ; 

Why he hem dyd, and for what chesiw, 

Of alle behouejj hjnm to ^elde a resowf. 5650 

On ))e toujj^r party stode men fill bry^t, 

pat wulde haue saned hym at her^ Tny% 

But )jey myght^ no gode fynde 

pat my3t hym saue or vnbynde. 

pe feyre men seyd, ' what ys to rede ? 5655 

Of hym fynde we no gode dede 

pat God ys payd of, — but of a lofe 

pe whych Pers a[t] )>e pore man drofe ; 

3yt 3aue he hyt wi'tA no gode wylle, 

But kast hyt aftyr h3an wtxh ylle ; 5660 

For Goddys loue 3aue he hyt no3t, 

Ne for almes-dede he hyt had jjoght. 

NoJ>eles, J>e pore man 

Had J>e lofe of Pers l>an/ 

pe fende had leyd yn balawice 5665 

Hys wykked dedes and hys myschauwce ; 

pey leyd )« lofe ajens hys dedys, 

pey had no^t elles, )>ey mote nedys. 

pe holy man telle)> vs and seys 

pat ))e lofe made euen peys. 5670 

pan seyd )>ese feyre men to Pers, 

* 3yf l>ou be wys, now |)OU leres 

How Jiys lofe j>e helpej> at nede 

To tylle \iy soule wi't^ almes-dede.* 

Pers of hys slepe gan blynke, 5675 

And gretly on hys dreme gan J>ynke, 

Syghyng witA ipomyng chere, 

As man |?at was yn grete wer^, 

How J)at he acoup.ed was 


With fendes fele for hys trespas, 5680 

And how })ey wulde haue dampned hym |:ew, 

3)^ mercy of I^ju Cryst ne were. 

Alle |?ys yn hys herte he kast, — 

And to hym-self he spak at J^e laste, — 

* pat, for a lofe, yn eueyl wylle, 5685 

Halpe me yn so grete perel, 

Moche wide hyt helpe at nede 

W/U gode wyl do almes-dede.' 

Fro fat t)nne J>an wax Pers 

A man of so feyre maners, 5690 

pat no man my^t yn h)nn fynde 

But to |je pore bojje meke and kynde ; 

A mylder man ne my3t nat be, 

Ne to l>e pore more of almes fre ; 

And reuful of herte also he was, 5695 

pat mayst ))0U here lere yn Jjys pas. 

Pers mette vp-on a day 

A pore man by })e way, 

As naked as he was bore, 

pat yn )je see had alle lore. 5700 

He come to Pers l>ere he stode. 

And asked hym sum of hys gode, 

Sumwhat of hys clojjyng. 

For J)e loue of heuene kyng. 

Pers was of reuful herte, 5705 

He toke hys kyrtyl of, as smert, 

And ded hyt on ))e man aboue. 

And bad hym were hyt for hys loue ; 

pe man hyt toke and was ful blyj>e ; 

He 3ede and solde hyt asswyjje. 5710 

Pers stode and dyd beholde 

How )>e man jje kyrtyl solde, 


And was farwilbi ferly wrojje 

pat he solde so sone hys clo}>e ; 

He myjt no longer for sorow stande, 5715 

But ^ede home fill sore gretand ; 

And seyd, * hyt was an euyl sygne, 

And fat hym-self was nat dygne 

For to be yn hys preyere, 

perfor nolde he J>e kyrtyl were/ 5720 

Whan he hadde ful long grete, 

And a party ))^rof began lete ; — 

For comiwlych aft3nr wepe 

Fal men sone on slepe, — 

As Pers lay yn hys slepyng, 5725 

Hym jK)ght a feyre sweuenyng. 

Hym J>oght he was yn heuene ly^t, 

And of God he had a syght 

Syttjmg yn hys kyrtyl clad, 

pat ))e pore man of hym had, 5730 

And spak to hym ful myldely : — 

* Why wepest ))OU, and art sory ? 
Lo, Pers,' he seyd, * l>ys ys l>y cloth. 
For he solde hyt, were })OU wroth ; 

Know hyt weyl, ^yf J>at l>ou kan, 5735 

For me })OU 3aue hyt j>e pore man ; 

pat J>ou 3aue hym yn charyt^, 

Eu^ry deyl )k)u 5aue hyt me/ 

Pers of slepe oute-breyde. 

And Jjoght grete wvwder, & se))en seyd, 5740 

* Blessyd be alle pore men, 
For God almy^ty louej) hem ; 

And weyl ys hem J)at pore are her^, 

pey are wi't^ God bo))e lefe and der^, 

And y shal fonde, by nyjt and day, 5745 


To be pore, ^yf j>at y may.' 

Hastly he toke hys kateyl, 

And ^aue hyt to pore men echedeyL 

Pers kalled to hym hys clerk 

pat was hys notarye, and bad hym herk: — 5750 

* Y shal )>e shewe a pryuj^, 

A )>yng ))at ])Ou shalt do to me ; 

Y wyl J)at J)Ou no man hyt telle; 
My body y take )>e here to selle 

To sum man as yn bondage, 5755 

To lyue yn pouert and jn seruage ; 

But ))Ou do jjus, y wyl be wroth, 

And )>ou and ]>yne shal be me loth. 

3yf J>ou do hyt, y shal \>e ^yue 

Ten pownd of gold wel witA to lyue; 5760 

po ten pownd y take )>e hew, 

And me to selle on bonde manew; 

Y ne recche [not] vn-to whom, 
But onlych he haue J>e crystendom ; 

pe raunsun ]>at ]>ou shalt for me take, 5765 

parfore ]k)u shalt sykemes make 
For to 3yue hyt blejjely and weyl 
To pore men eu^ deyl. 
And wiUholde ^erof no }>yng, 

pe mountou«s of a ferjjyng.' 5770 

Hys clerk was wo to do J;at dede, 
But only for manas and for drede. 
^[For drede Pers made hym hyt do, 
And dede hym plyghte his trouthe )>er-to. 
Whan hys clerk had made hys othe, 5^75 

Pers dede on hym a foule clothe ; 

^ Lines 199-204, being omitted by the Harleian MS., are supplied from 
Mr. Fumivall's edition. 


Vnto a cherche boJ>e J^ey ^ede 

For to fulfylle hys wyl yn dede.] 

Whan fat )>ey to J)e cherche com, 

' Lorde I ' ^oght |)e clerk, * now whom 5780 

My^t y fynde, Jjys yche sele, 

To whom y my3t selle Pers wele?' 

pe clerk loked eu^ry where, 

And at J>e last he knew where 

A ryche man [was] |>at er had be 5785 

Specyal knowlych eii^r betwe, 

But |>urgh myschau/2ce at a kas 

Alle hys gode y-lore was ; 

* 3ole' l>us J>at man hyghte, 

And knew l>e clerk wel be syghte. 5790 

pey spak of olde a-queyntau«ce. 
And 3ole tolde hym of hys chau«ce. 

* 3e,' seyde Jje clerk, ' y rede )>ou bye 
A man to do )>y marchau»dye, 

pat )>ou may St holde yn seruage 5795 

To restore weyl j>yn dammage.' 

pan seyd Jole, * on swych chaffare 

Wulde y feyn my syluer ware.' 

pe clerke seyd, ' lo one here, 

A trew man an a dubonur^, 5800 

pat wyl serue l>e to pay, 

Peyneble, al l>at he may. 

'Pers' shalt })0u calle hys name. 

For hym shalt )jou haue moche frame. 

He ys a man ful gracyous 5805 

Gode to wy«ne vn-to J>yn hous, 

And God shal ^yne )>e hys blessyng. 

And foysyn, yn alle Jjyng/ 

pe clerk 3aue alle hys rau«su» 


To )>e pore men of J)e toiw, — 5810 

Plenerly, alle fat he toke, 

WyJ)helde he nat a ferjjyug noke. 

pe emp^rour^ sent hys messageres 

Alle aboute for to seke Pers, 

But })ey ne my3t neu^ her^ 5815 

Of ryche Pers, l>e tollers, 

Yn what stede he was nome, 

No whydyrward he was become ; 

No J)e clerk wuld telle to none 

Whydyrward J>at Pers was gone. 1 5820 

Now ys Pers bycome bryche^ ^ kyw^-v^-U \^^^ \ 

pat er was bofe stoute and ryche. / 

Alle j>at eu^r any man hym do bad, 

Pers dyd hyt with hert glad. 

He wax so mylde and so meke, 5825 

A mylder man J>urt no man seke ; 

For he meked hym-self ou^r skyle 

Pottes and dysshes for to swele. 

To grete penau«ce he gan hym take, 

And moche for to fast and wake, 5830 

And moche he loued )>olmodnesse 

To ryche, to pore, to more, to lesse. 

Of alle men he wuld haue doute, 

And to here byddyng mekly loute ; 

Wulde )>ey bydde hym sytte or stande, 5835 

Eu^r he wulde be bowande ; 

And for he bare hym so meke and softe, 

Shrewes mysdede hym ful ofte, 

And helde hym folted or wode 

For he was so mylde of mode. 5840 

And J)ey l>at wer^ hys felaus 

Mysseyd hym most yn her^ sawes ; 


And alle he suflfred here vpbreyd, 

And neiu?r naght a3ens hem seyd. 

3ole, hys lorde, wel vndyrstode 5845 

pat al hys grace and hys gode 

Com for ))e loue of Pers 

pat was of so holy maners; 

And whan he wyst of hys bount^, 

He kalled Pers yn pryuyt^ : 585° 

' Pers/ he seyd, * })OU were wiirj>y 

For to be wurscheped more l>an y, 

For ))0U art weyl wi'tA lem, 

He shewejj for Jje grete vertu ; 

parfor y shal make j)e fre, 5855 

Y wyl }>at my felaw Jjou be/ 
par-to Pers granted noght 
To be freman as he besoght ; 
He wnlde be, as he was ore, 

Yn l>at seniage for eu^rmore. 5860 

He Jjanked l>e lorde myldely 

For hys grete curteysy. 

Sy)jj>en I^ju, J)urgh hys myjt, 

Shewed hym to Pers syjt, 

For to be stalworJ>e yn hys fondyng 5865 

And to hym haue loue-longyng. 

* Be nat sorowful to do penauwce ; 

Y am wi't^ Jje yn eu^ chau«ce ; 
Pers, y haue mynde of l>e, 

Lo, here }pt kyrtyl l>at l>ou jaue for me ; 5870 

parfor grace y shal }>e sende 

Yn alle godenesse weyl to ende/ 

B)rfyl J>at seriauwtes and squyers 

pat wer^ wunt to seme Pers, 

Went yn pylgrymage, as yn kas, 5875 



To J>at cuntr^ J>ere Pers was. 
3ole ful feyre gan hem kalle, 
And preyd hem home to hys halle. 
Pers was Jjere, J>at yche sele, 

And eu^rychone he knew hem wele. 5880 

Alle he serued hem as a knaue, 
, j ^-^at was wunt here seruyse to haue. 
., T ^ ' But Pers nat jyt [)ey 'knew, 

For penauwce chauwged was hys hew ; 
Nat for))y J)ey behelde hym fast, 5885 

And oftyn to hym here yjen l>ey kast, 
And seyd, ' he J>at stonte here 
Ys lyche to Pers toUere/ 
He hydde hys vysege al J)at he my^t 
Out of knowlych of here syjt ; 5890 

- Nojjeles J)ey behelde hym more 

And knew hym weyl, al Jwtt wer^ Jjore, 

And seyd, ' 5ole, ys ^one jjy page? 

A ryche man ys yn }>y seruage. 

pe emp^rour^ boJ>e fer and nere 5895 

HaJ? do hym seche J)at we fynde her^/ 

Pers lestned, and herd hem spekyng, 

And J)at J)ey had of hym knowyng ; 

And pryuyly a-wey he nam 

Tyl he to l>e porter cam. 5900 

pe porter had hys speche lore, 

And heryng also, syn he was bore ; 

But J>urgh J)e grace of swete I^ ju 

Was shewed for Pers feyre vertu. 

Pers seyd, ' late me furj> go,' 5905 

pe porter spak, and seyd * 30.' 

He ])at was def, and doumbe also, 

Spak whan Pers spak hym to. 


Pers oute at J)e ^ate wente, 

And J>edyr ^ede, )>ere God hym sente. 5910 

pe porter ^ede vp to j)e halle, 

And jjys merueyle tolde hem alle ; , , ; ■ '' / 

* How J>e squyler of J)e kechyn, /V (P '^ ' 

Pers, j>at haji woned here-yn, 

He asked leue, ry^t now late, 5915 

And went furj? out at ))e jate. 

Y rede 30W alle, ^euej) gode tent, 

Whederward l>at Pers ys went. 

W/ltA lesvL Cryst he ys pryu^, 

And J)at ys shewed weyl on me. 5920 

For what tyme he to me spak, 

Out of hys mouJ> me jK)ght[e] brak 

A fla/nme of f3rre bryght and clere, 

pe flau/nme made me bo]>e speke and her^ ; 

Speke and here now bojje y may, 5925 

Blessed be God and Pers to day I' 

pe lorde and ))e gestes alle, 

One and o\er )>at were yn halle, 

Had merueyle J>at hyi was so, 

pat he my^te swych myracle do. 5930 

pan asswy))e Pers })ey soght, 

But al here sekyng was for no^t; 

Neu^ Pers J>ey ne fou«de, 

Nyjt ne day, yn no stounde ; 

For he )>at toke Ennok and Ely, 5935 

He toke Pers, furgh hys mercy, 

To reste wiUoutyn ende to lede. 

For hys meknes and hys gode dede. 

Take ensample her^ of Pers, 

And parte)? with ^ pore, 3e okerers, 5940 

For 30W shal neu^r come loye wi^A-yn«e, 


But 56 leue fyrst })at synne ; 

And 5yue to almes })at yche J))aig 

pat je haue wune wy}) okeryng. 

Now with God leue we Pers ; 5945 

God 3yue vs grace to do hys inaners ! 


A.D. 1307— 1327. 

William of Shoreham, so called from Shoreham, near Ot- 
ford (about four miles and a half from Sevenoaks), was originally 
a monk of the Priory of Leeds, in Kent, but was appointed vicar 
of Chart-Sutton by Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1320. 
He translated the entire Psalter into English prose about the 
year 1327. His short poem *De Baptismo' (a copy of which is 
contained in * The Religious Poems of William de Shoreham,' 
edited for the Percy Society by T. Wright, M.A., London 1849) 
is here copied from the Additional MS. 17,376 in the British 
Museum. The dialect of course is Southern. 

De Bapiismo, 

1 Cristendom his }>at sacrament 
pat men her ferst fonge]> ; 

Hit openeji ous to ]je heuene blisse 
pat many man after longe}> 

Wei sore; 5 

For who })at entrej) })er, 
He his sauff euere-more. 

2 Nou ferst ich wille telle 50U 
Wet may be Jje materie, 

Wer-inne cristning may be mad^, 10 
pat bringej) ous so merie 

To honoure. . .. 

Hi^t mojt be do ine kende water, v^-^^\^\.'■t.^l^A, 

And non o]>er licour. 


3 per-fore ine wine me ne may, 15 
Inne sijjere ne inne pereye, 

Ne ine })ing jiat neuere wat^r nes 
porj cristning man may reneye, 

Ne inne ale ; 
For Jjei * hi^t were water ferst, 20 

Of water ne]> hit tale. 

4 Ne mede, ne for})e, no o})er Kcour 
pat chaungej> wateres kende, 

Ne longe|> nau^t to cristendom, 

pa^ some foles hit wende 25 

For wete ; 
For suich is kendeliche hot, 
pajt })er no feer hit ne hete \ 

5 Ac water is kendeliche cheld, 

paj hit be warmd of fere ; 30 

per-fore me mey cristni ]>er-inne, 
In whaut time fal]>e a 3ere 

Of yse; 
So mey me naujt in ewe ardaunt, 
pat ne|> no wateris wyse. 35 

6 Al-so me may inne sealte se 
Cristny wel mitte beste ; 

And eke inne o]>ere sealte watere, 
Bote me in to ' moche keste * 

Of sealte ; 40 

For jef })at water his kende lest, 
pat cristning stant te-tealte. [^.^ ^^» j^^\A v>. 

» MS. '^ie/ » MS.'heute/ 

' MS. ' into.' * MS. • keschtc' 


7 Ac 5yf yer were y-mengd licour 
Ojjer wid kende watere, 

Ich wo5t wel J)rinne to cristnye 45 

Hit nere nefur ]je betere ; 

Ac wonde ; 
For bote jjat water his kende haue, 
)>at cristnynge may nau^t stonde. 

8 In water ich wel \>e cristny her 50 
As Gode him-self h3rt di3te ; 

For mide to wessche nis noJ>ynge 
pat man comeji to so li^te, 

In londe ; 
Nis non }>at habben hit ne may 55 

pat habbe hit wile founde. 

9 pis be}>e Jie wordes of cristning 
Bi J>yse Englissche costes : 

* Ich cristni jie ine ye Uader name, 

And Sone and Holy Gostes' — 60 

And more, 

* Amen I' wane hit his ised })ertoe, 
Conferme|> yet |>er-to-fore. 

10 pe wordes scholle be ised 

Wij>e-oute wane and eche ; 65 

And onderstand^ hi mo^e ^ bi sed 
In alle manere speche 

Ine lede; 
pat euerich man hi sigge mcqe' 
And cristny for nede. 70 

* MS. *morc.' 
VOL. n. F 


11 Ac 3if man scholde i-cristnid be 
P^t ne]i none 'dea]>es signe, 

pe pope forte cristny hyne 
So nere nau^t te digne 

pe leste ; 75 

per-fore hi be)) in cherche brou3t, 
To cristny of ye preste. 

12 Ac he ]iat ^if so large water 
pe fend fram ous te reaue, 

In nede for to cristny men, 80 

5ef alle men ileaue 

7^/ AtfeUe; 
Olepi me mot hym depe ine j>e water, 
And eke )>e wordes telle. 

13 And wanne hi cristneb ine )>e foun^t, 85 
pe prestes so fries duppe]>, 

In j>e honur of }>e Trinity, 
Ac gode jeme kepe]> 

pe ned, 
On time a clo]ie. ]>at water ikest, 90 

Ac ope J)e heuede te bede. 

14 Ac water ikest an o}>er loue ^ 
Cristne]> ]>e man alyue, 

Ac hit his sikerest in ]>e heeued 

per be)) )?e wittes fyue ; 95 

Wei, bro})er, 
Ne non ne may icristned be, 
Ar je his boren of moder. 


15 3et gret peryl hy vndergojie 

pat cristne|> twyes enne, 100 

Ojier* to jeue asent })er-to, 
Ojjer for loue of kenne 

For-hedeJ), Co ^ ^- cui ^ ( <> 
Wanne child arijt cristnyng he}>, 
And }>at ojjer nau^t for-bedeji. 105 

16 Bote hi jiis conne, hit his peril 
To |>ise medewyues ; 

For ofte children scheawi]> quike, 
I-bore to schorte lyues, 

And deyej); iro 

Bote hi arijt i-cristned be, 
Fram heuene euere hi weyeji. 

17 Ac jif J)at child icristned his, 
Ac ^ me fot, as * me hit weneji, 

pise habbe}) forme Jier-of 115 

A Latin |>at ham geinej) * i\ ^^ L> ^-^ I •-. / u » 

Te depe; 
And ich schel seggen hit an Englisch, 
Nou j)er-of neme ^e kepe; 

18 pe prest take)> J>at ilke child / ^ 120 
In his honden by-thuixte, ^^ ; ^ ' ^ 

And seijjj * ich ne cristni |>ei nau3t, 
Jef ))Ou ert icristned, 

Eft-sone ; 
Ac 5yf J)OU nart, ich cristni })e ;* 125 

And de|> ]iat his to donne. 

» MS. «Orer/ ■ MS. 'At.' 

•MS. 'at/ * MS. • genie))/ 

F 2 

t .. y 


19 Ac * 5et j)er bej) cristnynges mo, 
Ac no man ne may dijtti ; 

For Hi be)) Godes grace self, 

Men of gode wil to rijti ^ 130 

And Wynne, 
Wanne hi wolde icristned be, 
And mo^e ' mid none ginne. 

20 pat on.his cleped cristning of blode, 

Wanne suche blede)> for Criste ; 135 

pat o})er of )>e Holi Gost, 
pat moje mid none liste 

Be icristned ; 
And deyej) so, wanne hi be)) deede, 
In heuene hi be)) igistned. 140 

21 pe children atte cherche dore 
So be)) yprimisined; 

And |)at * hi beejje eke atte fount 
Mid oylle and creyme alyned, 

Alfayllej); 145 

Hi^t wor})e)) ^ cristnyng, 
And })at child J)er-to hit auailleji. 

I MS. * At/ * At the end of the line is written the word * inc.* 

» MS. * more.' * For * )»t' we perhaps ought to read * but.' 

s * worcheK is written at the side in the MS. 




ABOUT A.D. 1320. 

The * Cursor Mundi' is a metrical version of Old and New 
Testament history, interspersed with numerous mediaeval legends. 
It is of great length, and has never yet been [printed. It seems 
to have been a very popular book with our forefathers, and one 
MS. has the following rubric : — 

* This is the best book of all. 
The Course of the World men do it call.' 

There are several MSS. of this work, but the Cottonian MS. 
Vespasian A. iii., in the Northumbrian dialect, has furnished the 
following extract. 

The Visit of the Wise Men, and the Flight into Egypt. 

Fra he {Christ) was bom })e dai thritteind, 

]>ai offerd him, ]>aa kinges heind. 

Wit riche giftes jiat |>ai broght. 

pat ^ he was bom bot })at yeire noght, 

And sum sais bot ]>e nest yeire 5 

Fpluand, and sum wit resun sere 

Sais, [tua] yere efter jiai com. 

lohn Gilden-moth sais wit J>is dome, 

pat he fand in an aid bok^ 

pis kinges thre jjar wai. })ai tok 10 

^ We should perhaps read * Yet.' 


A tuelmo[n]th ar })e natiuit^, 

For elles moght not kinges thre 

Haf raght to ride sa ferr ewai, 

And com to Crist ]>at ilk dai. 

He sais ]iat in j^e bok he fand 15 

Of a pr^het of Estrinland, 

Hight Balaam, crafti and bald, 

And mikel of a stem he tald, 

A Sterne to cum jiat suld be sene, 

Was neu^r nan suilk be-for sua scene. 20 

Vs telles alsua lohn Gildenmoth 

Of a folk ferr and first vncuth, 

Wo»nand be })e est occean, 

pat bi-yond }>am ar woxmand nan. 

Amang squilk was broght a writte, 35 

O Seth })e name was laid on it ; 

O suilk a stem ))e writt it spak, 

And of }>ir offerands to mak. 

pis writte was gett fra kin to kin, 

pat best it cuth to haf in min, 30 

pat at )ye last ]>2d ordeind tuelue, 

pe thoghtfulest amang )>am selue. 

And did ]>am in a montain dem, 

[Biseli] to wait Jje stem. 

Quen ani deid o })at dozein, 95 

His sun for him was sett again. 

Or his neist J>at was fere. 

Sua J>at eu^ Jjan ilk yere 

Quen J>air corns war in don, 

pai went in-to \ai montaine son, 40 

par J>ai ofFerd, praid, and suank, 

Thre dais nojjer ete ne dranc ; 

pus thorn ilk oxspring ]>ai did. 


Til at ))e last })is stem it kyd. 

pis ilk stem ]iam come to warn, 45 

Apon Jjot mont in forme o barn. 

And bar on it liknes of croice, 

And said to jiaim wit man[ne]s woice, 

pat |>ai suld wend to luen land. 

pai went, and tua yeir war wakand. 50 

pe stem we«t forth-wit, Jnrt })am ledd, 

And ferlilic ]>an war |>ai fedd, 

pair scrippes, quer fal^ rade or yode, 

pain failed neu^r o drinc ne fode. 

pir kinges rides forth |>air rade, 55 

' pe stem alwais |>am forwit glade. 

pai said, ' far we nu to yond king, 

pat sal in erth haf nan ending ^ ; 

pis king we sal be offrand nu, 

And honur him wit tmthes tm ; 60 

Al |>e kinges o ]>is werld 
>^. For him sal be quakand a« ferd.* 

pai folud o |>is stem ])e leme, 

Til |)ai come in-to lemsalem ; 

Bot fra )»ai come )»ar als-suith, 65 

pe stem it hid and can vnkyth, 

Thora j>e might of sant Drightin, 

For Herods * sak his wijierwin. ^ • 
(psS'wfit Jjof-qffejjer Jje kirtges nqght, 

Bot wCTid haf mnden Jjaf })ai soght. 70 

pai toke ]>air gesting in ))e tun, 

And spird him efter vp and dun ; 

Bot j>e burgeses o j>e cit^ 

Thoght ferli quat \\s thing suld be ; 

* MS. • na ncnding/ • MS. • Horods/ 


pai asked quat }>ai soght, and ]>ai 75 

Said, ' a blisful child, par fai, 

He sal be king of kinges all/, 

To hend and fete we sal him fell/ ; 

Sagh we an ^ stem Jj^t ledd us hidir/ 

pan jiai gedir J^am to-gedir, 80 

And spak hir-of wit gret wondring ; 

And word cuw til Herod })e kyng, 

pat par was suilk kynges cwmmxm, 

And in ]>at tun gesteni»g had mimmxxn* 

Quen he })is tij^and vndir-stod, 85 

Him thoght it noJ>er fair na god, 

For wel he wend, fat ful o suik, 

To be put vte of his kingrike ; 

And did he suith to-samen call 

pe maist/rs of his kingrik all, 90 

And fraind at }>aim if ]>ai wist, 

Quar suld he be born, ]>at Crist, 

pat suld J>e king of lues be. 

pai said, * in Bethleem lude.' 

For ye prophet had written sua, 95 

And said * J>ou Bethleem luda, 

pof JTOu be noght |>e mast cit^, 

pou es noght lest of dignity ; 

O })e sal he be bom and bred, 

Mi folk of Isro/l sal lede.' xoo 

Herod J>aa kings cald in dern. 

And spird }>am quen }>ai sagh ye stem; 

* Gais,' he said, ' and spirs well gem; 

And quen yee funden haf j>e barn, 

Cvms again and tels me, 105 

For wit wirscip I will him se.* 

1 MS. 'na.' 


' Sir/ J>ai said, * jiat sal be yare.' 

Quen |>ai went in )»air wai to far, 

And left Herod, })at fals felun, / . ^ 

pe stem fai sagh be-for J>am bon; ;^»r .<'^^^^^ no 

And herbi semis, sua thine me, 

Sagh nan it bot ]>a kinges thre ; * 

Bituix ]>e lift a» |>e erth it glade, 

Sua fair a stern was neuer made ; 

Right fra |>e tun of lerusalem 115 

It ledd ]>am in-to Bethleem ; 

Vte ouer |>at hus ]>an stode |>e stem, 

par lesus and his moder wern. 

pai kneld dun and broght in hand, 

Ilkan him gaf wor]>i offrand. 120 

pe first o |>am |>at lasp^r hight, 

He gaf him gold wit resu» right, 

And ^at was for to sceu takning 

O kynges all ]Mzt he was kyng. 

Melchior him com jiair neist — 125 

Heid he was, bath Grodd and prist—- 

Wit recles forwit him he fell, 

pat agh be brint in kire to smell; 

It es a gum * Jwrt cums o firr. 

Bot Attropa gaf gift o mir, 130 

A smerl o selcuth bittumes, 

pat dedman cors wit smerld es. 

For roting es na better rede; 

In taken he man was suld be dede. 

O ]iir thre giftes, sais sum bok, 135 

At ans all thre he tok, 

Ful suetlik, wit smiland chere, 

Biheild ]>aa giftes riche and dere. 

1 MS. * gun/ 

74 vn. CURSOR mundi. 

loseph and Maria his spuse, 

Ful fair J>ai cald )>am til huse, 140 

Fair })ai * did })air conrai dight ; 

Wit ))e child war })ai Jjat night 

Wit-vten pride ; j?e soth to tell, 

Had jiai na bedd was spred wit pell; ^ 

Bot |)at Jjai faand, wit-vten wand, kx^o^ v <- ^^"^ 145 

pattok and "thanked Godd his sand; 

Ful fain war })ai, fai sua had spedd. 

paa kinges thre ar broght to bedd, 

Thre weri kinges o J)air wai, 

pe feirth a child, wel mare fan })ai ; 150 

pat wist J)ai wel and kyd wit dede, 

Ful wel he wil })am quit J)air mede. 

pai had in wil ^t ilk night, 

To torn be Herods als J)ai hight, 

Bot quils Jjai slepand lai in bedd, 155 

An angel com J>at })am for-bedd 

To wend J)am bi him ani wai, 

(For he was traitur, fals in fai), 

A'noJ)er wai )>at J>ai suld fare. 

pe morun quen )>ai risen ware, 160 

And )>ai had honurd })ar J>e child, 

pai tok )>air leue at Mari mild. 

And thanked loseph curtaisli 

O fair calling and herbergeri ; 

paa kinges ferd a-no|>er wai. 165 

Qum l>at Herods herd })er-of sai, 

Ful wrath he wex, ^at wrangwis ki«g, -^ 

And herd him driuen al til hejjing. ^* r ^ ^ ; . ' 

He sett his waites bi )>e stret, 

If J)ai moght wit )>aa kinges mett, 170 

1 MS. * 3ai.' 


He cof^miandid son ]>ai suld be slan, 

If J>ai moght oJ)er be ou^r-tan. 

Bot Godd wald not ])ai mett ]>axn wit ; 

pai ferd al sauf in-to ]>air kyth. 

Quen Herods sagh he moght not sped, . / 175 

Sua wa was him Jjat he wald wede ; i^^iiAa t^ c ^ ^^--^ 

For J>at his wil sua moght not rise, 

He thoght him wenge on o|)er wise. ' ^ ^ '''y * 

He made aj^urueance in hi, -.^v 

pat mani saccles suld it bij ; vv^ .,< tt^- w ig© 

For he moght find nan wit sak, 

On )»e sakles he suld ta wrake. 

Qua herd eu^r ani slik - 

Purueance sa fill o suike, 

pat for })e chesun of a bam , ^ 185 

Sua mani wald Jwrt war for-farn ? 

He co/Timandid til his knyghtes kene 

To sla J>e childer al be-dene, / v 

Wit-in j>e tun of Bethleem ; 

And vtewit mani barntem . loo 

Did he sacclesli o lijf, * '• 

Ful waful made he mani wijf. 

Wit-in J>e land left he noght an 

O tua yeir eild, \ai he ne was slan ; 

Tua yeir or less, I tel it yow, 195 

For sua he wend to sla I^ju ; 

All for noght can he to striue, 

Moght he noght I^.m bring o Hue 

Ar he self wald, )»at mighti king ; 

To ded it moght naman hhm bring, 200 

And not yeitt J)an \ai he ne suld rise, 

Al at his aun deuise. , , ^ . r . - - '- '• 

It was a mikel sume o q^oin '' 

76 vn. CURSOR mundi. 

O }>aa childer |>at war slain ; 

An hundret fourti four thusand 205 

Thorn les\x com to lijf lastand. 
Bot seuen dais for- wit, we rede, 
At Herod had gert do J)is dede, 
par Joseph on his sleping lai, 

An angel ]>us til him can sai : 210 

' Rise vp, losep, and busk and ga, -', - • ><^vi| 
Maria and )»i child al-sua, 
For yow be-houes nu all thre 
In land of Egyp[t] for to fle ; 

Rise vp ar it be dai, 215 

;' vvv ■ ; . i . X vi ^L And |olus forth Jje wildrin wai ; 

Herod, Jnrt es j)e child ^ fa, 
Fra nu wil sek him for to sla; 
pare sal yee bide stil wit \t bam, 
Til })tft I eft cum yow to warn.' 220 

Son was loseph redi bun, 
Wit naghtertale he went o tun, 
Wit Maria mild, and ]>air mein^, 
A maiden and }>air suanis thre, 
pat seruid ]>am in |iair semis ; 225 

Wit }>aim was nan bot war and wis ; 
For SCO rad, ]>at moder mild. 
And \n hir barm sco ledd hir child. 
Til ]>ai come at a coue was depe ^. 
par pai }>am thoght to rest and slepe ; 230 

par did })ai Mari for to light, 
Bot son ]>ai sagh an vgli sight. 
Als }>ai loked ]>am biside, 
Vte o ]>is coue })an sagh fai glide 
Mani dragons, wel sodandi ; 235 

^ MS. < clild.' So also ' clilder' in 1. 188. * MS. * dipe.' 


pe suanis j>an bi-gan to cri. - -v .\ ^ 

Quen lesus sagh ]>am ^lopnid be, • " J 

He lighted of his moder kne, 

And stod a-pon |iaa bestes grim, 

And ]>ai ]>am luted vnder him. 240 

pan com j>e pr<?pheci al cier 

To dede, ]>at said es in Sauter : 

' pe dragons, wona«d in )iair coue, 

pe Lauerd agh yee worthli to lofe *.' 

Issus he went be-for ]iam ]>an, 245 

Forbed ]>am harm do ani man. 

Maria and loseph ne-for-]>i 

For fe child war ful dreri ; 

Bot lesu^ ansuard j^aim onan : 

' For me drednes haf nu yee nan, 250 

Ne haf yee for me na barn-site, 'u. ^ "\ • : » < . r » "v? 

For I am self man al parfite. 

And al j^e bestes )>at ar wild 

For me most be tame and mild.' 

Leon yode )>am als imid, 255 

And pardes, als ]>e dragons did, 

Bifor Maria and loseph yede, 

In right wai ]>am for to lede. 

Qum Maria sagh ]>aa bestes lute \ 

First SCO was gretli in dute, 260 

Til lesus loked on hir bHth, 

And dridnes bad hir nan to kith. 

' Moder,' he said, ^ haf )>ou na ward, 

Noj>er o leon ne lepard. 

For ]>ai com noght vs harm to do, 265 

Bot ]>air semis at serue vs to.' 

Bath ass and ox []>]at wit ]>am war, 

MS. * lufe' ; fee L 332. * MS. * dute ' ; see 1. 240. 


And bestes ]>at ]>air hamais bar 

Vte lerusalem, j>air kyth, 

pe leons mekli yod j>am wit, 270 

Wit-vten harm of* ox or ass, 

Or ani best ]>at wit ]iam was. 

pan was fulfild J)e pr<?phed, 

J>at said was thoru leremi, 

' Wolf and we))er, leon and ox, 275 

Sal comen samen, and lamb and fox/ 

A wain j)ai had J)air gere wit-in, 

pat draun was wit oxen tuin. 

Forth J)air wai j)ai went fra j)an, 

Wit-vten kithing of ani man. 280 

Maria forth ]>am foluand rade, 

Gret hete in wildemes it made ; 

O gret trfluail sco was weri, 

A palme-tre sco sagh hir bi ; 

loseph SCO said, ' fain wald I. rest, 285 

Vnder j)is tre, me thine wer best.' 

* Gladli/ said he, * J)flt wil resun ;' 
Son he stert and tok hir dun. 
Quen SCO had sitten j>ar a wei, / 

Sco bihild a tre was hei, 290 

And sagh a frut ]>ar-on hingand, 
Man clepes palmes in )KZt land. 

* Joseph,' SCO said, * fain wald I ete 
O J)is frut, if I moght gete ;' 

' Maria, me thine ferli o j^e 295 

pat se ))e gret heght o j)is tre ; 
pe frut hu suld man reche vnto, 
pat man his hand mai to nan do ? 
Bot I site for an o^r thing, 

1 MS. * or.* 


pat we o water has nu wanting ; 300 

Vr water puraeance es gan, / ^ ,--v. i -* . , ,. 

And in j>is wildernes es nan, 

NaJ)er for vs, ne for vr fee, // c • 

Ne for nan of vr mein^/ 

lem^ satt on his moder kne, 305 

Wit a ful blith cher said he, 

* Bogh j>ou til vs suith, j)Ou tre, 

And of j>i frut j)OU giue vs plent^/ 

Vnnethe had he said ]>e sune, 

Queti ]>e tre it boghed dune, 310 

Right to Maria, his moder, fote, 

J)e crop was euening to fe rote, 

Q«m all had eten frut i-nogh, 

Yeit it boghud dun ilk bogh, 

Til he wald comand it to rise, 315 

pizt gert it lute in his semis. 

To \i3X tre ]ian spak I^^ : 

' Rise vp,' he said, * and right Jje nu, 

I wil J)Ou, fra nu forward. 

Be planted in min orcherd, 320 

Amang mi tres o paradise, 

pot )>ou and ]>ai be of a prise; 

Vnder J)i rote j>ar es a spring, 

I wil \aX vte )>e wat^r wring ; 

Mak vs a well, for mine sake, 325 

pat all mai plenty o wat^r take/ 

Wit j>is stert vp fe tre stedfast ; 

Vnder J)e rote a well vte-brast. 

Wit strand suete, and clere, and cald; 

All dranc i-nogh, ilkan ]>at wald, 330 

Wit all ]>e bestes in j^at place, 

pai loued ai Drightin of his grace. 


Apon J)e morn, que» it was dai, 

And j>ai ware busked to ])air wai, 

lesus him turnd to j)e tre, 335 

And said, * ]>o\i palme, I comand |>e, 

pat o j)i branches an be scorn, 

And wit mine angel hej)en born, 

To planted be in paradise, 

par mi fader mirthes es/ 340 

Vnnethes he had J)is word spoken. 

An angel com, a bogh was broken, 

And born awai it was alson ; 

His comanmewt was noght vndon, 

pe bugh til heuen wit him he bar. 345 

pal fell in suun, al ]H2t ])ar war, 

For angel sight l)ai fell dun mad ; 

lesus j>an said, * qui er yee rade ? ^ ; ^ ;» • 

Quer it es sua, yee wat it noght , 

pat handes mine j>is tre has wroght ? 350 

And I wil nu ^is ilk tre 

Stand in paradis, to be 

To mi santes in sted of fode, 

Als in J)is wai to yow it stode/ 

SiJ>en forth j)ai ferd j)air wai, 355 

And loseph can to lesn sai, 

* Lau^rd, ]>is es a mikel hete, 
It greues vs, it es sua grete ; 
If )k)u redes ^t it sua be. 

We wil |)e wai ga be J)e se, 360 

For J)ar es tuns in for to rest, 
pat wep] to ga me thine it best* 

* loseph, nu dred )>e noght I sai, 
For I sal mak ]>e scort ]>i wai, 

pat )k)U on thritt^ dais long 365 


lom^s sal haf bot a dai-gang.' 

Als ]iai togedir talked sua, 

pai loked j>am on-ferriDw fra, 

And sun began ]>ai for to see 

O land of Egypt sum cit^. 370 

pan [)>]ai wex ful glad and blith, 

And come ]>am till a citd suith ; 

par ]>ai fand nan o ]>air knaing, 

pot ]iai cuth ask at ]>air gesting. /< ( 

In JHit siq«gr )>ai come to tun, t {.-x^^ ^ ^\ ' ** ■" 375 

Was pmstes at |>air temple bun 

To do j>e folk, als J)ai war sete, 

Ma sacrifies to j)air maumet. i^^ j t 

Bot Maria ner was gesten j)ar, 

To se J>at kirck hir sun sco bar ; 3^o 

Quen SCO was cuwmen jwzt kirck wit-in, 

Man moght a selcuth se to min, 

pat al ]>air idels, in a stu/^d, 

Grouelings fel vnto \e grund, 

Dun at j)e erth all^ war j>ai laid. 385 

pan come J)e pr^pheci was said, — 

' Q«wi he,' it sais, * j>e Lau^rd sal 

Cum til Egypt ^, j)air idels all 

Sal fall dun, als l)ai war noght, 

pe quilk J)ai wit j)air handes wroght/ 390 

O j)at tun was a lau^rding, 

Quen him was tald o j)is til>ing, 

He gadir[d] folk and duelled noght, 

And to J)e temple he J)am broght ; 

For to wreke j>am was he bun, 395 

pat |)us did cast ]>air goddes dun. 

• f 

* MS. • egypti. 
VOL. 11. 


Quen he j)am sagh in temple lij, 

Hijs godds and his maumentri, 

He com to Maria wit-vten harme, 

par SCO hir child bar in hir arme ; 400 

Honurand for-wit him he fell, 

And til his folk ]>us he can tell : 

* pis child, if he ne war Godd Almight, 

Vr godds had standen al vpright ; 

Bot for he es Godd mighti sene, 405 

Vres ar fallen don be-dene ; 

Quai dos or goddes or mai do ger, 

Bot we ne wark ^ )je wisliker ; 

pe wrick * of him sua mai we dred, 

Als wittnes on vr eldres dede, 410 

Hu it be-tide to Pharaon, 

Wit al his folk he was for-don ; 

For j>ai wald noght apon him tni, 

Sua ful o might and o v^rtu, 

Al ]>ai dmnd in ]>e se ; 415 

I tru on him, alsua do yee/ 

Was noght a temple ox-(\uax in tun, 

pat J>ar ne fel sum idel dun. 

1 MS. * wrick.' « MS. • wark/ 




ABOUT A.D. 1330. 

The following portions of some curioxis Homilies and Tales, 
in the Northumbrian dialect, illustrating mediaeval preaching, are 
taken from * English Metrical Homilies,' edited by John Small, 
,M^., Edinburgh, 1863, from a MS. in the Library of the Royal 
College of Physicians at Edinburgh. The extracts have been 
compared with MS. Gg. 5. 31 in the Cambridge University 

(A) From the Homily for the Second Sunday in Advent, 

[Ihe Signs of the Doom."] 
Pages 25-33. 

Box for Crist spekes of takeninge. 

That tithand of this dom sal bringe, 100 

Forthi es god that I you telle 

Sum thing of thir takeninges snelle^ : 

Sain Jerom telles that fiften 

Ferli takeninges sal be sen 

Bifor the day of dom, and sal 105 

Bkan of thaim on ser dai fal. 

The first dai, sal al the se 

Boln and ris and heyer be 

1 Camb. • fcUtf.* 

G 2 

84 VIII, (a) homilies in verse. 

Than ani fel of al the land, 

And als a felle ^ up sal it stand ; i lo 

The heyt thar-of sal passe the felles 

Bi sexti fot, als Jerom telles ; 

And als mikel, the tother day, 

Sal it sattel and wit away, 

And be lauer than it nou esse, 115 

For water sal it haf wel lesse. 

The thride dai, mersuine and qualle 

And other gret fises alle' 

Sal yel, and mak sa reuful ber 

That soru sal it be to her. 120 

The ferthe day, freis water and so 

Sal bren als fir and glouand be. 

The fift day, sal greses and tres 

Suet blodi deu, that grisli bes. 

The sexte day, sal doun falle 125 

Werdes werks, bathe tours and halle. 

The seuend day, sal stanes gret 

Togider smit and bremly bete. 

And al the erthe, the achtande day, 

Sal stir and quae and al folc flay ^ 130 

The neynd day, the fels alle 

Be mad al euin wit erthe salle. 

The tend day, sal folc up crep, 

Als wod men, of pittes dep. 

The elleft day, sal banes rise 135 

And stand on graues thar men nou lies. 

The tuelft day, sal sternes falle. 

The threten(i day, sal quek * men dey alle, 

* CamV. * hylle.' ' Camb. * othir fys, gret and small.' 

' Camb. ' flay'; printed text * slay.' * Camb. omits * quek.' 


Wit Other ded men to rise, 

And com wit thaim to gret asise. 140 

The faurtend day, at a schift 

Sal bathe brin, bathe erthe and lift. 

The fifetende day, thai bathe 

Sal be mad newe and fair ful rathe ; 

And al ded men sal vp rise^, 145 

And cum bifor Crist our iustise. 

Than sal Crist dem als king ful wis, 
And ger the sinful sare grise ; 
Sa grisli sal he to thaim be. 
That thaim war leuer that thai moht fie 150 

Fra that dom that he sal dem 
Than al this werd ; sa bes he brem 
Till thaim that sinful cumes thar, 
And forthi sal thai gret fulP sar, 
And say, * alias, that we war born ! 155 

Shamlic haf we us self forlorn/ 
Than salle thair wike dedes alle 
Stand and igaines thaim kalle. 
And with thair takening ber witnes 
Of thair sin and thair wiknes. 160 

Of mikel soru sal thai telle. 
For Satenas wit feres felle, 
To bind thaim he sal be fill snelle, 
And bremli draw thaim till helle, 
Thar thai sal euermare duelle, 165 

And wafullic in pines welle, 
And endeles of soru telle. 

This bes thair dom that her in sin 
Ligges, and wil thair sin noht blin ; 

' ' Tp' in 1. 145, and * full' in 1. 154 are supplied from Camb. 

86 vin. (a) homilies in verse. 

Bot wald thai think on domes dai, 170 

Thaim bird lef thair plihtful play. 

Alias ! alias I quat sal thai say 

Bifor him, that miht-ful may^, 

Quen al the men that was and esse 

Sal se thair sines mare and lesse^ 175 

And al the angeles of the heuin, 

And ma fendes than man mai nefen ? 

Igain-sawe may thar nan be, 

Of thing that alle men may se. 

Of this openlic schauing 180 

Hauis Godd schawed many tak£n]ing, 

Of a tak[n]ing2 that I haf herd telle, 

That falles wel til our godspelle. 

Narracio, \^ale of a MoniJ] 

A blak munk of an abbaye 
Was enfermer of all, I herd say', 185 

He was halden an hali man 
Imange his felaus euerilkan ; 
An cloyster monk loued him ful wel. 
And was til him ful speciel, 

For riuelic togider drawes 190 

Faithe lufreden god felawes*. 
Fel auntour that this enfermer 
Was sek, and he that was til him der 
Com to mak him glad and blithe. 
And his lufredene til him to kithe ; 195 

He asked him hou he him felid, 

* Camb. * tbzt all« myghtes may.' 

* Camb. 'takynjmg*; but 'takyng* in the previous line. 
' Camb. * Was in a farmory, als I hard say.' 

* Camb. * Faythcfiillf frendes & felaus.' 

Vlll. (a) TALIE^ OF A MONK. 87 

And he his stat alle til him telld, 

And said, ' fill hard fel I me, 

To dede I drawe, als ye mai se/ 

His felau was for him sary, 200 

And praied him ful gem forthie. 

That yef Godd did of him his wille, 

That he suld scheu his stat him tille. 

This seke monk hiht to com him to, 

Yef he moht get lef thar-to : 205 

* I sal,' he said, * yef I may, 

Com to the, my stat to say.' 

Quen this was sayd, he deyed son, 

And his felau asked his bon, 

And prayed Godd, for his mercye, a 10 

That he suld schew him openly, 

Other wakand or slepand, 

Of his felaw state* sum tithand. 

And als he lay apon a niht. 

His felaw com wit lemes liht, 215 

And tald him bathe of heuin and helle. 

And he prayed he suld him telle 

His state, and he said, * wel far I 

Thoru the help of our Lefdi, 

War scho ne hafd ben, I hauid gan 220 

To won in helle wit Satan/ 

His felau thoht herof ferly. 

And asked him quarfor and qui. 

And sayd, ' we wend alle wel that thou 

Haued ben an hall man til nou : 225 

Hou sal it far of us kaytefes. 

That in sin and foil ly[r]es, 

Quen thou, that led sa hali life, 

^ Camb. omits * state.' 

88 VIII. (a) homilies in verse. 

Was demed tille hell for to drife ?' 

Quen this was said, the ded ansuerd, 230 

And tald his felaw hou he ferd, 

And said, * son, quen I gaf the gaste, 

Till my dom was I led in haste, 

And als I stod my dom to her 

Bifor Jesus, wit dreri cher, 335 

Of fendes herd Ic mani upbrayd. 

And a boc was bifor me layd, 

That was the reuel of sain Benet> 

That Ic hiht to hald and get. 

This reul thai gert me rapli rede, 240 

And als I red, sar gan I drede, 

For ouerlop moht I mac nan; 

Bot of the clauses euerilkan 

Yald Ic account, hou I thaim held, 

And my consciens gan me meld ; 245 

It schawed thar ful openlye 

That I led mi lif wrangwislie. 

For in the reul es mani pas, 

That than igain me casten was, 

Quar-thoru almast haued I thare 250 

Ben demid til helle for to fare. 

Bot for I lufed wel our Lefdye 

Quil I lifd, Ic hafd forthie 

Ful god help thar, thoru hir mercy. 

For scho bisoht Crist inwardlie 255 

That I moht in purgatorie 

Clens mi sin and mi folye. 

Forthi hop I to far fill welle, 

For mi soru sal son kele ; 

Forthi, my frend, I prai the, 260 

That thou ger felaus prai for me/ 


Quen this was said, awai he went, 

And his felawe ful mikel him ment, 

And efter this siht mani a dai 

Gert he for his sawell prai. 265 

(B) A Homily for the Third Sunday after the Octave of 


l^Jbe Miraculous Stilling of the tempest on the Sea of Galilee i\ 

Pages 134—144. 

Sain Matheu the wangeliste 

Telles us todai, hou Crist 

Schipped into the se a time, 

And his decipelis al wit him. 

And quen thair schip com on dep, 5 

Jesu seluen fel on slep, 

And gret tempest bigan to rise, 

That gert the schipmen sar grise. 

Thai wakned Crist, and said yare, 

* Help us, Lauerd, for we forfare *.' 10 

And Crist, als mihti Godd, ansuerd 

And said, * foles, qui er ye fered ?' 

Als qua sai[d], * Godd es in this schip. 

That mai wel saue this felauschip.' 

And Crist comanded wind and se 15 

To lethe, and fair weder [to] * be. 

An sa fair weder was in hie. 

That al his felaues thoht ferlie, 

And said, ' quatkin man mai this be ? 

Til him hues bathe winde and se.' 20 

» Printed * sofare*; Camb. * fore fare.* ' * to' supplied from Camb. 


This es the strenthe of our godspelle, 
Als man on Ingelis tong mai telle. 

Al hali kirc, als thine me, 
Mai bi this schippe takened be, 
That Crist rad in and his felawes, 25 

Imang dintes of gret quawes. 
For schip fletes on the flode, 
And hali kirc, wit costes^ gode, 
Fletes abouen this werldes se, 
Flouand wit sin and caitift^ ; 30 

God cresten men er hali kirc, 
That Goddes wil wille gladli werc» 
This schip ful gret wawes kepes ; 
And Crist tharin gasteli slepes, 
Quen he tholes god men and lele, 35 

Wit wic men and fals dele^ 
That betes thaim wit dede and word 
Als se-bare betes on schip-bord. 
For wit ensampel, mai we se 
That al this werld es bot a se, 40 

That bremli bares on banc wit bale. 
And gret fisches etes the smale. 
For riche men of this werd etes 
That pouer wit thair trauail getes. 
For wit pouer men fares the king 45 

Riht als the quale fars wit the elringe'. 
And riht als sturioun etes merling, 
And lobbekeling etes sperling, 
Sua stroies mare men the lesse, 
Wit wa and werldes wTangwisnes ; 50 

And schathe, that lesse tholes of mare 

* Camb. * gostes.* * Camb. * Wyth wykcd men and fals to dclL 

• Camb. *herynge.* 


Smites als storm of se fill sare. 

And forthi that Crist tholes this, 

Ite sembeles that he slepand is ; 

Bot thai that thol thir strange stowres, 55 

Thai waken Crist and askes socoures 

Wit orisoun, that es prayer, 

That wakenes Crist, and gers him her 

Al thair wandreth and thair wrake. 

And wit his miht he geres it slake. 60 

For rihtwis cristen man praier 

Es til Jesus sa lef and dere. 

That quat-sa-euer we ask tharin, 

And we be out of dedeli sin, 

Our Lauerd grauntes^ it us son, 65 

Yef sawel hel be in our bon. 

For yef we prai God that he 

Grant that igain our sawel be, 

Us au to thine na ferlye 

Thoh Godd it warnes ouertlye. 70 

For bi ensampel mai we se 

That praier mai unschilful be ; 

Als ef thou prai Godd that he 

Apon thi fais venge the ; 

Thi praier es igain his wille, 75 

Forthi wil he it noht fulfiUe ; 

Or yef thou prai efter catele. 

That es igain thi sawel hele ; 

Or efter werdes mensc and miht, 

That geres foles fal in pliht ; 80 

Or ef thou praye him that he lethe^ 

Thi fandinges and thi wandrethe, 

* Printed • granntcs.' * Printed • leche*; Camb. * leth/ 


That dos in-to the sawel gode, 

Yef thou it thol wit milde mode. 

Wit resoun mai thou Godd noht wite, 85 

Yef he the silc askinges nite ; 

For yef he graunt the thi schathe, 

Thou war noht lef til him, bot lathe. 

Forthi es godd that we him praye 

Thing that our sawel hele mai ; 90 

For ar we bigin our prayer, 

Wat he quarof we haf mister. 

Bot for our godspel spekes of se, 
Quarbi this werld mai bisend be, 
Forthi wil I schaw other thinges, 95 

That er apert biseninges 
Bituixe this wlanc^ werld and se, 
This werldes welth to do fle. 
Bi salte water of the se 

Ful gratheli mai bisend be 100 

This werldes welth, auht, and catel, 
That werdes men lufes ful wel ; 
For salte water geres men threst, 
And werdes catel geres men brest. 
The mar thou drinkes of the se, 105 

The mare and mar threstes the'; 
And ai the richer that man esse, 
The mar him langes efter riches. 
And in se dronkenes folc fill fele, 
And sua dos men' in werdes catele ; 1 10 

For water drunkenes the bodie, 
And catel the sawel gastelie ; 
For catel drawes man til helle, 

* Camb. 'wankyU/ • Printed 'ye.' 

' * men' supplied from Camb. 

VIII. (b) tale of a usurer. 93 

Tha^^ttri wormes er ful felle, 

And of thir wormes wil I telle 115 

A tal, yef ye wil her mi spelle. 

Narracio. [Tale of a Usurer,] 

An hali man biyond the^ se 
Was bischop of a gret cit^ ; 
God man he was, and Pers he hiht, 
And thar bisyd woned a kniht, 120 

That thorn kind was bond and thralle, 
Bot knihthed gat he wit catalle^ 
This catel gat he wit okering, . 

And led al his lif in corsing ; OiM.i'^A " m.^^'U^^'-'C^./ 
For he haunted bathe dai and niht 125 

His okering, sine he was kniht, 
Als fast as he did bifore, 
And tharwit gat he gret tresore. 
Bot Crist, that boht us der wit pine, 
Wald noht this mannes sawel tine, 130 

Bot gaf him graz himself to knaw, 
And his sin to the bischop schaw. 
Quen he him schraf at this bischop, 
This bischop bad him haf god hop, 
And asked him, yef he walde tac 135 

Riht penanz, for his sinful sac. 
* Ful gladli wil I tac,' he said, 
The penanz that bes on me laid ;' 
And the bischop said, ' thou sal mete 
A beggar gangand by the strete ; 140 

And quat-als-euer he askes the, 
Gif him ; this sal thi penanz be/ 

^ * the' supplied from Camb. 

' Camb. ' catalle'; printed copy 'catelle.' 


94 VIII. (b) homilies in verse. 

And ful wel paid was this kniht, 

For him thoht his penanz ful liht. 

And als he for ham ward, he mette 145 

A beggar that him cumly grette, 

And said, * lef sir, par charit^, 

Wit sum almous thou help me.' 

This kniht asked quat he wald haf ; 

* Lauerd,' he said, * sum quet I craue/ 150 

* Hou mikel,' he said, * askes thou me ?' 

* A quarter, lauerd, par charit^/ 
This kniht granted him his bone, 
And gert met him his corn sone. 

This pouer man was will of wan, 155 

For poc no sek no hauid he nan, 
Quarin he moht this quete do ; 
And forthi this kniht said him to, 

* This quete I rede thou selle me, 

For ful pouer me thine the/ 160 

The pouer said, * layth thine me 
To selle Goddes charity, 
Bot len me sum fetel ^ tharto, 
Quarin I mai thin almous do/ 
And he ansuered and said, * nai,' 165 

For al that this beggar moht sai. 
And said, * this corn^ thou selle me, 
For fetil wil I nan len the/ 
The beggar moht na better do, 
Bot said this com igain him to, 170 

And toe thar-for fif schilling. 
And went him forthe on his begging. 
Quen this corn to the kniht was said, 

* Camb. • vessel!/ • • com* supplied from Camb. 

vni. (b) tale of a usurer. 95 

He did it in an arc to hald, 

And opened this arc the thrid daye, 1 75 

And fand tharin, selcouthe to saye, 

Snakes and nederes thar he fand, 

And gret blac tades gangand, 

And arskes, and other wormes felle, 

That I kan noht on Inglis telle. 180 

Thai lep upward til his visage, 

And gert him almast fal in rage, 

Sa was he for thir wormes ferde ; A . 

Bot noht forthi that arc he speride, (lJl^'<:XrM..d^ 

And to the bischope in a ras 185 

He ran, and tald him al ^ his cas. 

The bischop sau that Godd wald tak 
Of this man sin wrethful wrac. 
And said, * yef thou wil folfille 
Wit worthi penanz Goddes wille, 190 

And clens wit penanz riht worthi 
Al thi sinnes and thi foli, 
I red that thou self the falle 
Nakid imang tha wormes alle, 
No gif thou of the self na tale, 195 

Bot bring thi sawel out of bale, 
Thoh tha wormes thi caroin gnawe, 
Thi pynes lastes bot a thrawe; 
And than sal thi sawel wende 
To lif of blis, witouten ende/ 200 

This okerer was selli radde 
To do that this bischop him badde, 
Bot of mercy haft he god hop, 
And gem he prayd the bischop, 

1 * al' supplied from Camb. 

g6 viiT. (b) homilies in verse. 

And said,' * lef fader, I prai the, 205 

That thou prai inwardli for me, 

That God gif me his graz to fang. 

One my bodi, this penanz Strang/ 

The bischop hiht this man lelye, 

To prai for him riht inwardlye. 210 

This man went ham, thoh he war rad, 

And did als his bischop him badde ; 

For imang al thir wormes snelle, 

Als nakid als he was bom, he felle. 

Thir wormes ete that wreche* manne, 215 

And left nathing of him bot ban. 

The bischop went in-to that toun, 
Wit clerkes in processioun, 
And come into this knihtes wanes, 
And soht ful gem his hali banes, 220 

And til this forsaid arc he yod. 
And opened it wit joiful mod. 
And riped imang tha wormes lathe, 
Bot nan of thaim moht do him schathe, 
And forthe he gan tha banes draw, 225 

And thai war als quite als snaw. 
Quen al tha banes out tan ware 
Tha wormes gert he brin ful yare. 
And bar thir bannes menskelye, 
^»v"C» i^ vvwjtiii^ And ferterex l thaim at a nunrye ; 230 

Thar Godd schewes mirakelle and miht. 
And gifes blind men thar siht ; 
And croked men thar geres he ga, 
And leches seke men of wa, 
And schewes wel, wit fair ferlikes, 235 

* Printed • wrcthc* ; Camb. • wreched.' 

vni. (b) homilies in verse, 97 

That thas banes er god relikes. 
This tal haf I nou tald here, 
To ger you se on quat maner 
That the mar catel that man haues, 
The mar and mare his hert craues ; 240 

And namlic thir okerers, 
That er cursed for thair aferes ; 
Bot yef thai her thair lif amend, 
Thai wend til wormes witouten end, 
That sal thaim reuli rif and rend 245 

In helle pine witouten end. 
That wist this bischop witerlye, 
And forthi did he quaintelye, 
Quen he gert wormes ete this man, 
To yem his sawel fra Satan. 250 

For wormes suld his sawel haf rended, 
Quar-sa-euer it suld haf lended, 
Yef he no hauid wel ben scriuen, 
And his caroin til wormes giuen. 
Bot for his fleis was pined here, 355 

His sawel es now til Godd ful dere, 
Thar it wones in plai and gamen, 
Godd bring us thider alle samen. Amen I 

TOL. n. 



A.D. 1340. 

In the year 1340, Dan Michel of Northgate (Kent), 'a brother 
of the cloister of St. Austin of Canterbury,* translated into Eng- 
lish the French treatise * Le Somme des Vices et des Vertus* by 
Frere Lorens(A.D. 1279), under the title of * The Ayenbite of 
Inwyt* (Remorse of Conscience). This work is preserved in the 
Arundel MS. 57, which also contains two short Sermons, prob- 
ably turned into the Kentish dialect by the same writer. 

These Kentish productions are the most valuable specimens 
which have been preserved of the Southern dialect in the 
fourteenth century. They were edited for the Early English 
Text Society by Dr. Morris in 1866, with the title, * Dan 
Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt, or Remoi*se of Conscience.' 

The following Sermon was known in English long before Dan 
Michel's time. A thirteenth-century version of it, entitled 
* Sawles Warde,* is printed in * Early English Homilies' (ed. 
Morrs, Early English Text Society, 1867), at p. 245. 

Sermon on Matthew xxiv. 43. 

[See Morris's edition, p. 263.] 

UoR to sseawy J;e lokynge of man wy)>-i«ne. Jjellyche 
ane uorbysne / oure Ihord i^ju crist zay)>. * pis uorzo}>e 
ywyte)?. )jet yef ))e uader of )?e house wyste huyche time 
])€ jjyef were comynde : uor-zoJ>e he wolde waky / and nolde 


na5t )>olye ))et me dolue his hous.' Be J?ise uader of house 5 
me may onderstonde / \>e wyl of skele. to huam be-longe)? 
moche mayn^. pontes, and his besteriinge. wyt. and dedes / ^vvM^vtv^rw* 
ase wel wy)?-oute : ase wy|)-inne. J?et is to zigge / huych 
mayn^ / to moche slac / and wylles-uol ssel by : bote yef 
J)e like uaderes jtefhe^e hise stray ny / and ordayny. Vor 10 f/^l/in^,^ 
zojje yef he hym a lyte of his bysyhede wyjj-dra^J? : huo r. 

may zigge / hou ])05tes. e^en. earen. tonge. and alle o)?re 
wyttes: become)) wylde. Hous. is inwyt / in huychen ]>e 
uader of house wone)>. ))e hord of uirtues gaderej>. Vor 
huych hord: J>et ilke zelue hous ne by y-dolue / he3lyche 15 
he wake)), per ne is na^t on jjyef: ac uele. ac to eche 
uirtue: ech vice wayte)>. paries he^lyche by )>e jjyeue: is 
onderstonde ))e dyeuel. a-ye huam and his kachereles / j^e 5^ cl^ va-*. i 
ilke zelue uader / jja^les yef he ne were na^t o nlosti : his f ^j ^ , 
hous mid gr^ate strengj^e wolde loky. pe uader of ))e house / 20 
ate uerste guoinge in : he zette sle5j)e / to by doreward. 
)>et y-knau|) huet is to uorlete : and huet ys to wylny. huet 
uor to bessette out of )?e house, huet uor to onderuonge 
into )?e house. Nixt )?an : ha zette streng))e. )?et ])e vyendes/ 
)»et sle3))e zent to zygge / to keste out : strengjje wy]>dTO^e, ))et 25 
his uoule lostes wyjj-dro^e : and wy)?-zede. Ri^tnesse uorzo))e 
ssel zitte amydde / ]>et echen his o^en yef[). Hueruore: 
huyche time ])e |?yef is comynde / me not. ac eche tyme 
me ssel drede. pise zuo y-di3t : na^t longe to )?e wakynde 
ye slep of zenne benymj). Vor al jjet lyf is to waky. Zome 30 
messagyers sle5))e ssel lete in. )?et zome ))inges mo3e telle / 
J>et me may a-waki myde. pus ]>e messagyer of dya))e acse)) 
inguoynge : he is onderuonge. Me him acse)? huo he ys. 
huannes he com)), huet he he)) yso^e. He ansuere)). he 
ne may na^t zigge : bote yef jjer by he^liche clom. Huych 35 
y-graunted : }?us he begyn)). * Ich am drede / and be- 
t>enchinge of dyaj)e. and dyaj) [is] comy[n]de : ich do you to 

H 2 


wytene.' Sle5|)e spec)) uor alle. and acse)). 'And huer is 
nou |)e ilke dya)>. and huanne ssel he come V Drede zay]?. 
40 * Ich wot wel ))et he ne abyt na^t to comerie / and nye^ 
he is. ac jjane day / o)?er jjane tyme of his comynge : ich 
not.' Sle5|)e zay)>. * And huo ssel come myd hyre?' Drede 
zayjj. *A j>ouzend dyeulen ssolle come mid hire, and 

ibrenge mid ham / greate bokes / and bernynde hokes / 
jA5 and chaynen auere/ Sle5J)e zayj). * And huet wyllej) hy do 
mid alle )?an?' Drede zayj). * Ine J?e bokes bye)? y-write 
a^f-j^ kktt^^^^ ^ ze«nen of men. and hise brenge)? / )>et be ham hi 
f mo^e ouercome men. of huychen )>e zewnes )>erinne bye)> 

1) *^^ y wryte. )>et bye)) to hare ri^te. Hokes hi brengej) / ))et J)0 
'^ 50 fct bye)> to hare ri3te ouercome)> : hire zaulen be streng)>e : 
of )?e bodye dra^e)? out. and hise bynde)? mid )?e chaines / 
and in to helle hise dra^e)).' Sle^jie zayj). * Hua«nes 
comste?' Drede zay|). *Vram helle.' Sle3|>e zayj). *And 
huet is helle. and huet yse3e ))e ine helle?' Drede zayj). 
55 * Helle is wyd / wy))-oute metinge. dyep / "wy)>-oute botme. 
Vol of brene on-]>olyinde. Vol of stenche / wy[)j]oute com- 
parisoun. per is zor3e. J?er is jjyestemesse. )>er ne is non 
ordre. )?er is groniynge wyj)-oute ende, J)er ne is non 
hope of guode. non wa«trokiynge of kueade. Ech )>et 
6o }>erinne is : hate|) him zelue : and alle o)?ren. per ich yze^ 
alle manyere tormens. ])e leste of alle / is more J)a«ne alle 
', J)e pynen jjet mo^e by y-do ine ))ise wordle. per is wop. 
^ ' ^ ' ( and grindinge of tej). j)er me gej) uram chele in to greate 
* K. v> hete of uere. and buojje onjioljande. pere alle be uere / 
J55 ssolle by uorbemd. and myd wermes ssolle by y-wasted / 
; and najt ne ssolle wasti. Hire wermes / ne ssolle najt 
sterue. and hare ver ne ssel neure by ykuenct. No rearde 
ne ssel ))er by y-hyerd / bote, wo : wo. wo hy habbej) : 
and wo hy gredej?. pe dyeules tormentors pyne)>. and to- 
70 gydere hy bye)) y-pyned. ne neure ne ssel by ende of pyne : 



ojjer reste. pellich is helle / an a JTOUsend zy})e worse. 
And J)is ich yze^ ine helle / and a |;ousendzi|?e more worse. <rT;^;vw 
pis ich com uor to zygge you.' Sle^t'e zayj>. * God wet ssolle 
we do. Nou brojjren and zostren y-h yre^ my red. and yuej) 
youre. Bye]> sle^e. an wake)? ine youre bedes / porueynde 75 
guodes. najt onlyche beuore gode : ac be-uore alle men.' 
polemodness zayj). * Do we to worke godes nebsseft / ine 
ssrifte / and ine zalmes : glede we hym. bye)) sobre / and 
wakyej? / uor youre uo J?e dyuel / ase J>e lyoun brayinde 
ge)> aboute ))an : ))et he wyle uor-zuel3e.' Streng))e zay)). go 

• WyJ>stondeJ) hym : stronge ine byleaue. Bye)) glede ine 
god. CloJjeJ) you mid godes armes. ))e hauberk of ry^t. ))ane 
sseld of beleaue. nyme}? )>ane helm of he\\>e, and \>e holy 
gostes zuord: J)et is godes word' Ry5[t]nesse zay|). 

* Lybbe we sobreliche. ryljtjuollyche an bonayrelyche. So- 85 
brelyche : ine ous zelue. ry^tuollyche : to oure emcristen. . 
bonayrelyche : to god. ))et we nolle)) \>et me do to ous 
zelue: ne do we hyt na3t to o))ren. and )?et we wylle)> jjet 
me do to ous zellue : do we hit to o))re men. and uor zo]>e \>et 
is ri^t.' Sle3))e zay)). * per is anojjer wy))-oute jje gates uayr. 90 
and gled. hit )?ing)) )>e[t] he bre[n]g)) glednesse.' Ry3[t]- 
nesse zay)). * onderuonge)) hym. be cas he ous ssel gledye. 
uor J)es ilke uerste : gratlyche he ous he)> y-mad of-dret.' 
Sle3))e zay)) to )?e messagere. * Guo in. and huo )?ou art. 
and hua/ines ))0u comst. and huet )>ou best yzo^e : zay 95 
ous.' pe messagyr zay)). * Ich am loue of lyue eurelest- 
ynde. an wylnynge of )?e contraye of heuene. Yef ye me 
wyllej) y-here : habbej) amang you. clom / and reste. Najt ^J^ 
uor zoJ)e amang gredynges and noyses: ych ne may by 
yherd.' Rt3[t]uolnesse zay)). * Yef we longe godes drede / ico 
and be-))enchinge of dyajje were stille : ry^t hit is / ))et ]>e 
spekinde / wel more we by stifle.' Wylningge of ))e lyue 
wy))-oute ende / zayj). * peruore bye)) stifle / and yhere)) 



myd wylle. Ich come uram heuene. and jjelliche J)inges 

105 ich y-ze^ ))er. J;et no man ne may dyngneliche zigge. 
pa3les zomjjyng ich wylle zigge : ase ich may. Ich yze3 
god. ac be ane sseawere ine ssede. 

Ich yze5 )>e ilke onspekynde / an on-todelinde magestd 
of ))e holy trinyt^. be-gynnynge / ne ende ne he)). Ac and 

no ly3t j)er-inne wonej) / J)et me ne may na^t come to. Yt2l/?i 
J>o ly^te byej) y-j>orsse mine e^en / and |;e zy3|?e J>yester. 
Hyt ouergej) uorzoJ)e alle wyttes / and alle zy3j)es. Jje ilke 
bry3[t]nesse. and j)e ilke uolnesse. pa3les a lytel ich yzej 
oure Ihord iesu crist / ine ri3t half zittinde. ]>et is to zygge : 

115 ine |?e lyue wy)?-oute ende regnynde. pa3 he ouer alle 
s.'V-iAf.t^ ssep|)es by zuo uayr: bet ine hi;« wylne}> j)e angles to 
zyenne. Yet nou ])e wounden and Jje toknen of j)e pas- 
sion he he)? ine his bodye. huermyde he ous bo3te. be-uore 
j)e uader uor ous stant uor to bydde. Ich y-zej nyxt iesu 

120 crist J>e ilke blisfoUe mayde / and moder ]>e ilke zodes^ / 
and oure Ihordes iesu cristes / myd alle worjjssipe and 
reuerence / y-nemned marie / ine )>e wonderuoUe trone 
zittynde / aboue alle )je holy ordres of angles / and of 
men: an-he3ed. hire zone iesus uor ous byddinde. and to 

125 huam hi is uol of merci. Ac ])e ilke wonderuolle magest^ / 
and J>e bri3tnesse of j)e moder / and of j)e zone : ich ne 
my^te na3t longe jjolye / ich wente myne zi3))e uor to yzi / 
Jje ilke holy ordres of ])e gostes: J>et stonde}? beuore god. 
of huichen jje eurelestinde holynesse of }?e z[^\>e of god / 

»3oan of |>e loue. ne hit ne ssel lessi : ne hit ne ssel endi / 

.» wi^vt;ac cure wexe and blef[). Ac na3t Jje ilke degrez / and 

dingnetes / heryinges alsuo / huyche hyre makyere by 

bere|> no man* uollyche ))enche / ne na3t ne may by ynoj 

to telle, perefter j)e profetes ich y-ze3. and ])e patr/arkes 

J 35 wonderlyche glediynde ine blisse. uor j)et hy yze3en ine 

* * godes ' or * zones *? • Probably • may' should be supplied here. 

/ ' /V -^^r. SERMON ON MATTHEW XXIV. 4Q. lO^ 

goste : uolueld hy yzej). J>et ine longe anoy onderuynge / 
vbetouet of blysse wyj)-oute ende chongeden. Ich y-zej 
J>e aposties ine tronen zittynde. ])e tribz / and )>e tongen / , 
alle preste. and of poure / and of zyke: zuo blisuolle and p''" 
holy / of oure Ihord iesu crist / and zuo he3e / ynoj 140 
alneway ich am wondrinde. Ich y-ze^ / ac uollyche ich 
ne my[3]te al yzy / ye innumerable uela^rede of ))e holy 
martires / mid blisse and worJ>ssipe / y-corouned. Jjet be ])e 
pinen of J)ise time / huyche hi beren to yo blisse / jjet wes 
ysseawed ine ham: hy come jjerto. Hyre holynesse / and 145 
hyre blysse : long time ich me lykede. Ich yze^ to ])e 
blyssede heape of d-^wfessours. amang huam / men apostles / 
and techeres / )>et holy cherche mid hare techinge wereden. 
and alsuo uram alle heresye / wy[)>]-oute wem habbej) 
yclenzed: sseawe)). and hy uele habbe)> y-ta^t. ssynej) ase 150 
sterren / ine eurelestynde wy[))]-oute ende. per hye\> 
Monekes J)et uor claustres / and uor strayte cellen. wel 
moche / an clyerer |janne J)e zonne: habbej> wonyinges. 
Vor blake and uor harde kertles / huyter j?ane |)e snaw. 
and of alle zofthede / and nesshede / clo))inge habbej) an. 155 
Vram hare e3en / god wypej) alle tyeres. and J>ane kyng 
hy ssolle ysy ine hys uayrhede. Alast / to }ie uela3rede of 
maydynes ich lokede. of huychen / blysse / ssepj>e / agray- 
|>inge / and melodya. huyche none mannes speche : dingne- 
lyche may telle. And hy zonge jjane zang: jjet non ojjer 160 
ne may zynge. Ac and ])e zuete smel ine hare regyon / 
zuo zuete ys: J>et alle manyre zuete smelles ouercomj). 
And to hare benes: oure Ihord arist. to alle o)?ren: 
zittinde he Ihest.* Slejjje zay)>. *Hyt lykej) jjet ))0u zayst. 
Ac uor of echen of ))e holy ordres / wondres j)0u best 165 
y-zed : we byddej) jjct })Ou zigge ous / huet is hare dede 
in mennesse / and huet is |>e f^uers[ac]ion of uelajrede : 
zay ous.' pe wylny[n]gge of )?e lyue wyJ)-oute ende zayj>. 


* Vor zojje ich wylle zygge. pe dede of alle ine mennesse / 

1 70 ys zeueuald. Hy lybbej). hy smacke)>. hy louyej?. hy byej> 
glede. hy heryej). hy byej) zuyfte. hy bye]> zikere/ Sle5j)e 
zay)). * paj ich zomdel Jjis onderstonde : uor ham ]jet 
lhesteJ>/of echen zay/ Wylnynge of ])e lyue wy[j)]-oute ende 
zayj>. * Zuo by hyt. Hy lybbej) be lyue wyjj-oute ende. 

»7S wyJ>-oute enye tyene. wy[j)]-oute enye lessinge. wyJ>-oute enye 
wyjistondynge. Hyre lyf is }ie zy5J)e and ))e knaulechynge 
of ]>e holy trinyt^. ase zayj) oure Ihord iesus. ])is is j)et lyf 
wyJ)-oute ende / Jjet hy knawe ])e zo]>e god / and huam J>e 
zentest iesu crist and )>eruore ylyche hy byeJ) / uor hy 

180 y-zyej) : ase he is. Hy smackej) ))e redes and j)e domes of 
god. Hy smacke]> J>e kendes / and J)e causes / and Jje 
begynny[n]ges of alle Jjynges. Hy louyeJ> god wy|)-oute enye 
comparisoun. uor ]>et hy wytej> huerto god his hej) y-bro3t ^j c 
uor]). hy louyej) ech ojjren : ase ham zelue. Hy byeJ) glede 

185 of god onzyginde. hy byeji glede of zuo moche of hare 
o^ene holynesse: and uor ])et ech loue]> o]?ren ase him 
zelue. ase moche blisse heJ) ech of oJ)res guode: ase of 
his 03ene. peruore by ziker / uor eurych hej> aseuele 
blyssen : ase he he]> uela^es. and aseuele blissen to echen : 

'90 ase his o^ene of alle. and Jjeruore eureich more loue]> 

wyJ>oute comparisoun god: jjet hym and oJ>re made / 

yaxme him zelue / and alle oJ>re. More hy byej> glede 

y wyJ)-oute gessynge of godes holynesse : )>anne of his ojene / 

> and of aile offerfiij'd hym. Yef J)anne on onneape nymj) 

195 al his blisse. hou ssel he nyme zuo uele and zuo manye 
blyssen? And J^eruore hit is yzed. guo into ])e biysse of 
))yne Ihorde. na3t ))e blisse of ))ine Ihorde / guo in to j)e. 
uor hy ne may. perefter / hy heriej) god wyjj-oute ende / 
wyJ)-oute werynesse. ase hyt is y-wryte. Lhord / y-blyssed 

200 by J>o J>et wonyej) ine J;yne house / in wordles of wordles : 
ssoUe [hy] herye J>e. Zuyfte hy byej. uor huer J>et }ie gost 


wyle by: uorzofe ))er is jjet body. AUe hy bye)? my[3]t- 
uolle. Zykere hy bye)> of zuyche lyue. of zuo moche 
wysdome. of zuo moche loue. of zuo moche blysse. of 
zuyche heryinge. of zuyche holynesse. ))et non ende. non 205 
lessynge. non uallynge doun ssolle habbe. Lo alyte ich 
habbe yzed lo you. of ))an j)et ich yzej ine heuene. Na3t 
uor zojje ne may zigge / ase ich yze^ / ne na^t ase hy 
byej) : ne my^te ysy.' Sle3|)e zayj?. * Vorzojje ine heuene 
we onderstondej) J)et J;ou were, and zoj) j)ing ]>er )?ou yse3e. 210 
and zoJ> J>ou best y-zed.' Strengj)e zayj>. * Huo ssel ous 
todele uram cristes loue? tribulacion. o)?er zor3e. and oj)re. 
zykere byeJ). uor no}?er dyaj> / ne lyf. and oj)re.' Ry5t zay|). 
' DoJ> out pane uerste messagyer. hyt ne is na3t ri3t yet he 
bleue ine ye house / myd ye ry3tuolle. Vor ry3[t]uolle 215 
loue : dey out drede.' StrengJ;e zayj). * guo out drede. you 
ne sselt na3t by ine oure stedes.' Drede zayj). * Huet 
habbe ich mis-do^, ich uor guode zede.' Temperancia 
zayJ). * Bro)>[r]en and zostren / ich zigge to you. nawmore 
smacky / ))a»ne be-houe)). ac smacke to sobret6, pou drede / 220 
guo out myd guode wylle. yole J>ane dom / yet rijt hey 
y-demd. be auenture ye my3t eft by onderuonge. yef 
wyh\ynge of lyf wyjj-oute ende / oferhuyl let of.' pe 
makyere zay)>. pus / )>us / nou ssel enrich hys heuynesse / 
ssake a- way / uram drede / to j>e loue of J>e heuenelyche 225 
contraye him-zelue wende. Zuo by hit. 

[The following interesting extracts are from the same work ; 
see Morris's edition of the ' Ayenbite of Inwyt,' p. 362.] 

Pafer Nosier, 

Vader oure y^t art ine heuenes / y-hal3ed by ]f\ name, 
cominde ))i riche. y-wor))e ]f\ wil / as ine heuene : and ine 

^ MS. repeats * do' thrice, with a point after it each time. 


erj>e. bread oure echedayes : yef ous to day. and uorlet ous 
oure yeldinges : ase and we uor-letej) oure yelderes. and ne 
230 ous led na3t : in-to uondinge. ac vri ous vram queade. zuo 
by hit. 

Aue Maria. 

Hayl Marie / of jjonke uol. Ihord by mid )?e. y-blissed 
|)0u ine wymmen. and y-blissed ])et ouet of J?ine wombe. 
235 zuo by hit. 


Ich leue ine god / uader almi^ti. makere of heuene / and 
of erj)e. And ine iesu cr/st / his zone on-lepi / oure Ihord. 
))et y-kend is / of )>e holy gost. y-bore of Marie Mayde. 
y-pyned onder pouns pilate. y-nayled a rode. dyad, and 

24,0 be-bered. yede doun to helle. j)ane jjridde day a-ros uram j)e 
dyade. Stea3 to heuenes. zit a)?e ri3t half of god J)e uader 
al-mi^ti. J>annes to comene he is / to deme j)e quike / and J>e 
dyade. Ich y-leue ine j)e holy gost. holy cherche general- 
liche. Me«nesse of hal^en. Lesnesse of ze«nes. of ulesse 

245 arizinge. and lyf eurelestinde. zuo by hyt. r 



ABOUT A.D. 1340. 

Richard Rolle de Hampole, commonly called Hampole, 
was (according to some) an Augustine monk of the Priory of 
Hampole, about four miles from Doncaster; but he seems 
merely to have lived in that neighbourhood as a hermit. He 
died in the ye^r a.d. 1349. He was the author of a metrical 
version of the Psalms, with a Commentary, portions of the Book 
of Job, and some very excellent prose treatises, as yet inedited. 
About 1340 he wrote, both in English and Latin, a poem called 
* The Pricke of Conscience.' The English version of this poem, 
in the Northumbrian dialect, has been edited from ' MSS. in the 
British Museum, by Dr. Morris, for the Philological Society, 
London 1863. The: following selections are taken from the 
Cotton MS. Gaiba E. ix. 

The Pricke of Conscience, 

[The Wretchedness of Math Btrtb,] 
[Lines 432—439.] 

Alle mans lyfe casten may be, 

Prmcipaly, in J)is partes thre, 

pat er thir to our vndirstandyng, 

Bygynnyng, midward, and endyng. 435 

per thre partes er thre spaces talde 

Of 1)6 lyf of ilk man, yhung and aide. 


Bygynnyng of mans lif, J)flt first es, 
Contenes mykel wrechednes ; 

[Lines ^64 — 509.] 

And [when pian] was bom til })is werldys light, 

He ne had nouther strenthe ne myght, 465 

Nouther to ga ne yhit to stand, 

Ne to crepe with fote ne with hand. 

pan has a man les myght |)an a beste 

When he es born, a«d es sene leste ; 

For a best, when it es born, may ga 470- 

Als-tite aftir, and ryn to and fra; 

Bot a man has na myght |>ar-to, 

When he es born, swa to do ; 

For J>an may he noght stande ne crepe, 

Bot ligge and sprawel, and cry & wepe. 475 

For vnnethes es a child born fully 

pat it ne bygynnes to goule and cry ; 

And by J>at cry men may knaw ))an 

Whether it be man or weman, 

For when it es born it cryes swa ; 480 

If it be man, it says * a, a,' 

pat ))e first letter es of |)e nam 

Of our forme-fader Adam. 

And if ))e child a woman be, 

When it es born, it says • e, e.' 485 

E es }>e first letter and J>e hede 

Of ))e name of Eue jj^t bygan our dede. 

parfor a clerk made on J)is manere 

pis vers of metre jxjt es wreten here : 

Dicenks E uel A quoiquot nascuniur ah Eua. 490 

* Alle l)as,' he says, * \a\. comes of Eue, 

pat es al men jjat here byhoues leue, 


When J)ai er born, what-swa |jai be, 

pai say outher " a, a," or " e, e." ' 

pus es here J>e bygynnyng 495 

Of our lyfe sorow and gretyng, 

Til whilk our wrechednes stirres vs, 

And Jjarfor Innocent says j)us : 

Omnes nasctmur eiulantes, vi nature nostre mtseriam 

He says, ' al er we bom gretand. 
And makand a sorowful sembland, 
For to shew J)e grete wrechednes 
Of our kynd J>at in vs es.' 505 

pus when J>e tyme come of our birthe, 
Al made sorow and na mirthe ; 
Naked we come hider, and bare, 
And pure, swa sal we hethen fare. 

[Lines 528—555.] 

pus es a man, als we may se, 

In wrechednes borne and cayteft^, 

And for to life here a fon dayse, 530 

parfor lob J>us openly sayse : 

Homo natus de muliere^ breui uiuens tempore^ repleiiir 

multis misertjs. 
He says, * Man )w2t bom es of woman, 
Lyfand short time, to ful fild es J>an 535 

Of many maners of wrechednes.' 
pus says lob, and swa it es. 
Alswa man es borne til noght elles 
Bot to trauayle, als lob yhit telles : 
Homo nascitur ad lahorem^ sicut auis ad uolaium. 
He says, * Man es born to trauaile right 
Als a foul es to |)e flight.' 


For littel rest in J>is lyf es, 

Bot gret trauayle and bysynes; 545 

Yhit a man es, when he es born, 

pe fendes son, & fra God es lorn, 

Ay til he thurgh grace may com 

Til baptem and til cristendom ; 

pus may a man his bygynnyng se 550 

Ful of wrechednes and of caytiftd 

[The Middle of Man's Life.] 

pe tether part of ))e lyf, men calles 

pe mydward, aftir Jj^t it falles, 

pe wilk recces fra ))e bygynnyng 

Of mans lyfe vn-til Jie endyng. 555 

[Man is like a Tree,"] 
[Lines 662 — 707.] 

A man es a tre, Jwzt standes noght hard, 

Of whilk ye crop es turned donward, 

And J)e rote to-ward ]>e firmament, 

Als says Jie grete clerk Innocent. 665 

Quid est homo^ secundum formam^ nisi quedam arbor 
euersa^ cuius radices sunt crines ; truncus est 
caput cum collo ; stipes est pectus cum aluo, rami 
sunt ulne cum tibiis ; frondes sunt digiti cum 
articulis ; hoc est folium quod ck uento rapitur^ et 
stipula [que] a sole siccalur. 

He says, * What es man in shap bot a tre 

Turned vp Jiat es doun, als men may se ? 

Of whilk \>e rotes, J)at of it springes, 

Er ))e hares J)at on ))e heued hynges; 675 

pe stok, nest Jie rot growand, 

Es ))e heued with nek folowand ; 


pe body of J)at tre |)arby 

Es })e brest with Jie bely ; 

pe bughes er J)e armes with J)e handes, 680 

And ))e legges, with }^e fete J>at standes ; 

pe braunches men may by skille calle 

pe tas and })e fyngers alle ; 

pis es J)e leef y&t hanges noght faste, 

pat es blawen away thurgh a wynd-blaste, 685 

And J)e body alswa of j.c tre, 

pat thurgh ))e son may dried be.' 

A man J)at es yhung and light, 

Be he neuer swa stalworth a«d wyght, 

And comly of shap, lufly and fayre, 690 

Angers and yuels may hym appayre, 

*And his beut^ and his streng[t]h abate. 

And mak hym in ful wayk state, 

And chaunge alle [his] fayre colour, 

pat son fayles a«d fades, als dos ]>e flour. 695 

For a flour J)at semes fayre & bright >, 

Thurgh stormes fades, & tynes jje myght /^ ; ^ , .-, 

Many yuels, angers, and mescheefes, 

Oft comes til man Jiat here lyues, 

Als feuyr, dropsy and launys, 700 

Tysyk, goute and other maladys, 

pat hym mas streng[t]h & fayrnes tjme, 

Als grete stormes dose a flour to dwyne ; 

parfor a man may likend be 

Til a flour jiat es fayre to se, 705 

pan, son aftir j)at it es forth broght, 

Welkes a«d dwynes til it be noght. 



[^Length of Man's Life J] 
[Lines 728 — 829.] 

In J)e first bygynnyng of J)e kynd of man, 

Neghen hundreth wynt^r man lyfed j^an, 

Als clerkes in bukes hers witnes ; 730 

Bot sythen by-com mans lyf les, 

And swa wald God at it suld be ; 

For-whi he sayd )>us til Noe : 

Non permanebit spiritus metis in homine in eiernum, 

quia caro esty erunt dies illius centum viginti 


* My gast/ he says, ' sal noght ay dwelle 
In man, for he es flesshe and felle ; 

Hys days sal be for to life here 740 

An hundreth and twenti yhere.' 
Bot swa grete elde may nane now bere, 
For sythen mans lyfe bycom shortere, 
For-whi J)e co^wplection of ilk man 
Was sythen febler J>an it was jjan; 745 

Now es if alther-feblest to se, 
parfor mans life short byhoues be ; 
For ay J>e langer J>at man may lyfe, 
pe mare his lyfe sal hym now griefe, 
And ))e les hxm sal thynk his lyf swete, 750 

Als in a psalme says ))e pr(?phete : 
Si autem in poieniatihus ociogynta anniy ei amplius 
eorum labor et dolor* 

* If in myghtfulnes four scor yher falle, 

Mare es jjair swynk a«d sorow with-alle,' 755 

For seldom a man J)at has \2X held 
Hele has, and hi;w-self may weld ; 
Bot now falles yhit shorter mans dayes, 


Als lob, |)e haly man, ]>us says : 

Nunc paucitas dierum meorum finietur hreui, 760 

* Now/ he says, ' my fon days sere 

Sal enden with a short tym here.' 

\pld Jge,] 

Fone men may now fourty yhere pas, 
And foner fifty, als in somtym was 3 765 

Bot als tyte als a man waxes aide, 
pan waxes his kynde wayke & calde, 
pan chaunges his complexcion 
And his maners & his condicion ; 
pan waxes his hert hard and heuy, 770 

And his heued feble and dysy ; 
pan waxes his gast seke and sare. 

And his face rouncles, ay mare & mare ; l./ f » 

His mynde es short when he oght thynkes, J^^-^ / ; ; 

His nese ofte droppes, his hand stynkes, 775 \^ 

His sight wax[es] dym j)at he has. 
His bak waxes croked, stoupand he gas ; 
Fyngers and taes, fote & hande, 
And alle his touches er tremblande. 
His werkes forworthes ^at he bygynnes ; 780 

His hare moutes, his eghen rynnes ; 
His eres waxes deef, and hard to here, 
His tung fayles, his speche es noght clere ; 
His mouthe slauers, his tethe rotes^ 
His wyttes fayles, and he ofte dotes ; 785 

He es lyghtly wrath, a«d waxes fraward, 
Bot to turne hym fra wrethe it es hard ; 
Hesouches & trowes sone a thyng, 
Bot fill late he turnes fra ]>at trowyng ; 
VOL. n. ^ i M^ jpl I 


He es couatous and hard haldand, 790 

y ^ f \ His chere es drery a«d his sembland ; 

/' ur\.A.AS f>y^ \ jjg gg swyft to spek on his manere, 

tr-A^ t bKU^ ^^^ latsom and slaw forto here ; 

He prayses aid men and haldes )>a/» wyse, 
And yhung men list hi/« oft despyse ; 795 

He loues men J)at in aid tyme has bene, 
-^- ^dfC-'Vv.*'' J He lakes Jia men J)at now er sene ; 

He es ofte seke a«d ay granand, 
And ofte angerd, awd ay pleynand ; 
AUe ))ir, thurgh kynd, to an aid man falles, 800 

pat clerkes pr^pertes of eld calles. 
Yhit er )>ar ma )>an I haf talde, 
pat falles to a man )>at es aide. 
pus may men se, wha-so can, 
What j)e condicions er of an aid man. 805 

[The End of Man's Life.] 

pe last ende of mans lyfe es hard, 

pat es, when he drawes to ded-ward. 

For when he es seke, and bedreden lys, 

And swa feble ))at he may noght rys, 

pan er men in dout and noght certayn 810 

Wethir he sal euer couer agayn. 

Bot yhit can som men, Jiat er sleghe, 

Witte if he sal of Jiat )^el deghe 

By certayn takens, als yhe sal here, 

pat byfalles when ))e ded es nere ; 815 

pan bygynnes his frount dounward falle, 

And his browes heldes doun wyth-alle ; 

pe lefte eghe of hym |)an semes les 

And narower Jian \>e right eghe es ; 

His nese, at ))e poynt, es sharp & smalle, 820 


pan byg}Tmes his chyn to falle ; 

His pouce es stille, with-outen styringes, 

His fete waxes calde, his bely clynges. 

And if nere }>e dede. be a yhung man, 

He ay wakes, a«d may noght slepe J>an ; 825 

And an aide man to dede drawand 

May noght wake, bot es ay slepand ; 

Men says, al J)ir takens sere 

Er of a man j)at J)e dede es nere. 

[The World, Lines 1211 — 1292.] 

pe world here who-so wille 

Vn-to four thinges may liken by skille. 

First J>e world may lykend be, 

Mast properly, vn-to j^e se ; 

For )>e se, aftir }>e tydes certayn, 1215 

Ebbes and flowes, and falles agayn, 

And waxes fnl ken, thurgh stormes J)^t blawes. 

And castes vp and doun many gret wawes ; 

Swa castes \q world, thurgh fauour, 

A man to riches and honour ; 1220 

And fra l)at agayn he castes hym doun 

Til pouert and to tribulacioun. 

And J)a er J)e grete stormes kene, 

A«d J>e wawes, Jiat in J>e world er sene. 

Yhit may J>e world here, J>at wyde es, 1225 

Be likend to a wildernes, 

pat ful of wild bestes es ^ sene, 

Als lyons, libardes, & wolwes kene, . 

pat wald worow men bylyue, ^ ' t-^^' 

A«d rogg J>am in sonder and ryue; 1230 

» MS. • er.' 

I 2 


Swa ))e world es ful of mysdoers. 

And of tyrauntes )>at men ofte ders, 

pe whilk er bisy, nyght and day, 

To nuye men in alle )>at J)ai may. 

pe world alswa may lykend be 1235 

Til a forest, in a wilde cuntr^, 

pat es ful of thefs a^d outlawes, 

pat, commonly, til forestes drawes, 

pat haldes pases, & robbes and reues 

Men of )yat ]>ai haue, & noght (yarn leues; 1240 

Swa es J>e world here J>ar we duelle, 

Ful of thefs, J)at er deuels of helle, 

pat ay vs waytes, and er bysy 

To robbe vs of our gudes gastly. 

pe world may yhit, als yhe sal here, 1245 

Be lykend, on jie fierth manere, 

To a feld ful of batailles 

Of enemys, jxjt ilk day men assayles. 

For- why here we er, on many wyse, 

Alle vmset with sere enmys, 1250 

And, speciali, with enmys thre, 

Agaynes wham vs by-houes armed * be : 

pa er }>e world, J)e fende, our flesshe, 

pat, to assayle vs here, er ay freshe ; 

And )>arfor byhoues vs, day and nyght, 1255 

Whilles we lif here, agayn ]>am fight 

pe world, als clerkes vnderstandes, 

Agayn vs fightes with twa handes, 

With jje right hand & j)e left ; J)ere twa 

May be-taken bathe wele and wa; 1260 

pe right hand es welthe, als I halde, 

And ]>e left hand es angre calde ; 

^ MS. * armeud.' 


For \>e world assayles sum men awhile 
With j)e right hand, J)am to bygile, 
pat es welth, als I sayde before, 1265 

Of worldly riches and tresore ; 
And assayles men, nyght and day, 
With }>e left hand, )>am to flay, 
pat es, with angre and tribulacion, 
And pouert 2nd p^rsecucion, 1270 

pe whilk per clerkes J)e left hand calles 
Of J)e world, )>at ofte sythes falles. 
Bot with )>e world comes dam fortone, 
pat ayther hand may chaung sone ; 
For sho turnes obout ay hir whele, 1275 

Vp and doune, als many may fele ; 
When sho hir whele lates obout-ga, 
H. s.^-^ Sho turnes sum doune fra wele to wa, 
p ^* - ^ JKa, eft agaynward, fra wa to wele ; 

pus turnes sho obout oft hir whele, 1280 

pe whilk J>ir clerkes noght elles calles, 

Bot happe or chaunce, )>at sodanli falles, 

And ))at men haldes here noght elles, 

Bot welthe and angre in whilk men dwelles. 

parfor worldly happe es ay in dout, 1285 

Whilles dam fortune t«mes hir whele about. 

Angre men dredes a^d walde it fle, 

And in welthe men wald ay be ; 

Bot parfit men, ^at Jiair lif right ledes, 

Welthe of Jie worlde ay flese and dredes ; 1290 

For welthe drawes a man fra ))e right way 

pat ledes til ]>e blisse |>at lastes ay. 


[Lines 141 2 — 1473.] 

pe life of )>is world es ful vnstable, 

And ful variand and chaungeable, 

Als es sene in contrarius manere, 

By ))e t)anes and vedirs a«d sesons here. 1415 

For ))e world & worldis life to-gider 

Chaunges and turnes oft hider & )>ider, 

And in a state duelles ful short while, 

Vnnethes J)e space of a myle. 

And for-)>i )>at \>e worlde es swa vnstable, 1420 

Alle J)at men sese J;ar-in es chaungeable ; 

For God ordayns here, als es his wille, 

Sere variaunce, for certayn skille, 

Of ))e tyms, and wedirs, and sesons. 

In taken of ^ worldes condicions, 1435 

pat swa vnstable er and variande, 

pat ful short while may in a state stande. 

For God wille men se, thurgh swilk takens sere. 

How vn- stable )>is world es here, 

Swa ))at men suld mare drede and be abayste 1430 

Ouer-mykel in )>e world here to trayste. 

Ofte chaunges J>e tymes here, als men wele wate, 

Als )>us ; now es arly, no>y es late. 

Now es day, now es nyght, 

Now es myrk, now es light ; 1435 

And ))e wedirs chaunges a«d ))e sesons, 

pus aftir ))e worldes condicions ; 

For now es cald, now es hete, 

Now es dry, and now es wete ; 

Now es snaw, hail, or rayn, 1440 

And now es fair wedir agayn ; 


Now es J)e wedir bright and shynand, 

And now waxes it alle domland ; 

Now se we J>e lyfte clere and faire, 

Now gadirs mystes a«d cloudes in j)e ayre. 1445 

Alle Jjer variance to vnderstande, 

May be takens of |)is worid swa wariande ; 

And yhit er J)ar other ma takens sere 

Of ^e vnstablenes of J>is lif here. 

For now es mirthe, now is mumyng, 1450 

Now es laghter, and now es gretyng; 

Now er men wele, now er men wa, 

Now es a man frende, now es he faa ; 

Now es a man light, now es [he] heuy, 

Now es he blithe, now es he drery ; 1455 

Now haf we ioy, now haf we pyn, 

Now we wyn, & now we tyn ; 

Now er we ryche, now er we pur, 

Now haf we or-litel, now pas we mesur ; 

Now er we bigg, now er we bare, 1460 

Now er we hale, now seke and sare ; 

Now haf we rest & now trauail. 

Now we fande our force, now we fail ; 

Now er we smert, now er we slawe, 

Now er we hegh, now er we lawe ; 1465 

Now haf we ynogh, now haf we noght, 

Now er we a-bouen, & now doun broght ; 

Now haf we pees, now haf we were, 

Now eese vs a thyng, now fele we it dere ; 

Now lofe we, now hate ; now saghtel, now strife. 1470 

per er ye maners here of J;is lyfe, 

pe whilk er takens of vnstablenes 

Of J>is worldis lyfe, l)at chaungeable es. 


[Death. Lines 1818—1829.] 

Four skilles I fynd writen \n som stede, 

Why men suld specialy drede ]>e dede ; 

An es for J)e dede-stoure swa felle 1820 

pat es mare payne Jian man can telle, 

pe whilk ilk man sal fele with-in, 

When J)e body and J>e saule salle twyn. 

Another es for j)e sight })at he sal se 

Of deuels, ]>at about hym |>an sal be. 1825 

pe thred es for the acount )>at he sal yheld 

Of alle his lyf, of yhouthe and elde. 

pe ferth es, for he es vncertayne 

Whether he sal wend til ioy or payne. 

[Lines 1836— 1 851.] 

First aght men drede \e ded in hert, 

For \e payn of )>e dede })at es swa smert, 

pat es ))e hard stour at })e last ende, 

When J)e saule sal fra J>e body wende ; 

A doleful party ng es J>at to telle, 1840 

For {)ai luf ay to-gyder to duelle ; 

Nouther of Jiam wald other for-ga, 

Swa mykel lof es by-twen Jiam twa ; 

And )>e mare jxjt twa to-gyder lufes, 

Als a man and his wyfe ofte primes, 1845 

pe mare sorow and murnyng 

By-houes be at )>air departyng. 

Bot J)e body and J)e saul with })e lyfe 

Lufes mare samen Jian man and his wyfe, 

Whether jjai be in gude way or ille, 1850 

And J>at es for many sere skylle. 


[Lines 1884 — 1929.] 

Dede wil na frendshepe do, ne fauour, 

Ne reu^rence til kyng, ne til emp^rour, 1885 

Ne til pape, ne til bisshope, ne na prdate, 

Ne til nan other man of heghe estate, 

Ne til religiouse, ne til na seculere, 

For dede ouer al men has powere. 

And thurgh |>e dede hand al sal pas, 1890 

Als Salamon says, \>3X wyse was : 

Communionem mortis scito. 

* Knaw J)Ow,' he says, * J)at J)e dede es 

Comon to al men, bathe mare & les/ 1895 

pus sal dede visite ilk man. 

And yhit na man discryue it can, 

For here \yues nan vnder heuen-ryke, 

pat can telle til what Jie ded es lyke. 

Bot )>e payn of dede )>at al sal fele 1900 

A philosopher J>us discriued wele ; 

For he lykend mans lyf til a tre 

pat war growand, if it swa mught be, 

Thurgh a mans hert & swa shuld sprynge, 

pat obout war lapped with fe hert strynge, 1905 

And ))e croppe out at his mouth ^ mught shote, 

And to ilk a ioynt war fested a rote ; 

And ilk a vayne of J)e mans body 

Had a rote festend fast j)ar-by, 

And in ilk a taa and fynger of hand 1910 

War a rote fra fat tre growand, 

And ilk a lym, on ilk a syde. 

With rotes of })at tre war occupyde ; 

» MS. * mught.* 


Yf J)at tre war tite pulled oute 

At a titte, with al J)e rotes oboute, 1915 

pe rotes suld J>an rayse |?ar-with 

Ilk a vayn & ilk a synoghe and lith. 

A mare payne couthe na man in hert cast 

pan l)is war, als lang als it suld last; 

And yhit halde I |>e payne of dede mare, 1920 

And mare Strang & hard J>an J)is payn ware. 

pos a philosopher, when he lyfed, 

pe payn of ^ dede here discriued. 

parfor ilk man, als I byfor sayde, 

Aght to drede ]>e bitter dedes brayde, 1925 

For bathe gode & ille sal it taste ; 

Bot ille men aght drede it maste. 

For dred of ded mast pyps wyth-in 

A man Jjat here es ful of syn. 

[Lines 2216—2233.] 

pe secund skil, als byfor es redde, 

Why J)e dede es swa gretely drede, 

Es for J)e grisly syght of fendes 

pat a man sal se, when his lyf endes. 

For when J)e lyf sal pas fra a man, 2220 

Deuels sal gadir obout hym j)an, 

To rauissche Jje saul with J)am away 

Tyl pyne of helle, if J)ai may. 

Als wode lyons l)ai sal J>an fare 

And raumpe on h)an, and skoul, & stare, 2225 

And grymly gryn on hym a«d blere, 

And hydus braydes mak, hym to fere. 

pai sal fande at his last endyng 

Hym in-to wanhope for to bring, 


Thurgh thretynges ^aX l)ai sal mak, 2230 

And thurgh ]>e ferdnes J)at he sal tak. 
Ful hydus sightes Jjai sal shew hym, 
pat his chere sal make grisly and grym. 

[Lines 2300 — 231 1.] 

For J)ai er swa grisely, als says ^ buke, 2300 

And swa blak and foule on to loke, 

pat al J)e men here of mydlerd 

Of J)at sight mught be aferd ; 

For al J)e men here of J)is lyfe 

Swa grysely a sight couth noght descryfe, 2305 

Ne, thurgh wyt, ymagyn ne deme, 

Als l)ai sal in tyme of dede seme ; 

Ne swa sleygh payntwr neu^r nan was, 

pogh his sleght myght alle other pas, 

pat couthe yimgyn of J)air gryslynes, 2310 

Or paynt a poynt aftir Jjair liknes. 

[Lines 2334—2355.] 

Bot I wille shew yhow a party 

Why })ai er swa foul and grisly ; 2335 

For sum tyme, when J)ai war bright angels 

Als J)a er J)at now in heuen duels, 

Fra J)at blisful place, thurgh syn, ]>ai felle, 

And bycome J)an foule deuels of helle, 

And horribely defygurd thurgh syn, 2340 

pat J)ai war wyth fild, and hardend ))arin. 

For war ne syn war, Jjai had ay bene 

Bright aungels, als J)ai war first sene ; 

And now er fai made foule awd vgly 

T[h]urgh fylyng of ))air syn anly ; 2345 


pan es syn mar foule & wlatsome 

pan any deuel |)at out of helle may come ; 

For a thyng es fouler ))at may file, 

pan ))e thyng j>at it fyles, & mare vile ; 

parfor says clerkes of grete cu«nyng, 2350 

pat syn es swa foule and swa grisly thyng, 

p^t if a man mught properly se his syn 

In )>e kynd lyknes J)at it falles be in, 

He shuld for ferdnes titter it fle 

pan any deuel J)at he mught se. 2355 

[Lines 2364—2373.] 

Syn J)e deuel l)us has tane his vglines^ 

Of J>e filth of syn, })at swa filand es, 2365 

pan aght J>e saul of synful with-in 

Be ful foule, ))at es alle sloterd in syn. 

parfor a man aght, war-so he wendes, 

Mare drede syn \2Ji \t syght of fendes, 

pat sal aper til hjnm at his dede-day ; 2370 

Bot his syn he sal se fouler j^an j^ay. 

Of whilk he wald noght hym right shrife, 

Ne repent hym here in his lyfe. 

[Heaven, Lines 7813 — 7824.] 

Alk manere of ioyes er in fat stede. 

pare es ay lyfe with-outen dede; 

pare es yhowthe ay with-outen elde, 7815 

pare es alkyn welth ay to welde. 

pare es rest ay, with-outen trauayle ; 

pare es alk gudes ]?at neuer sal fayle ; 

* MS. «vngline8.' 


pare es pese ay, with-outen stryf ; 

pare es all^ manere of lykyng of lyfe ; ^820 

pare es, with-outen myrknes, lyght ; 

pare es ay day and neuer nyght, 

pare es ay somer fulL? bryght to se, 

And neuer mare wynter in fat contre. 



A.D. 1352. 

Laurence Minot lived and wrote about the middle of the 
fourteenth century. He composed eleven poems in celebration 
of the following battles and exploits of King Edward III : — 
The Battle of Halidon Hill (1333) ; the taking of Berwick; two 
poems on Edward's expedition to Brabant (1339); the Sea-fight 
of Swine at the mouth of the West Scheldt (1340) ; the Siege of 
Toumay (1340); the Landing of Edward at La Hogue (1346); 
the Siege of Calais (1346); the Battle of Neville's Cross (1346); 
the Sea-fight with the Spaniards off Winchelsea (i35t>); and the 
Capture of Guisnes (1352). 

These poems, all in the Northumbrian dialect, are printed in 
* Political Poems and Songs relating to English History,' vol. i., 
edited by T.Wright, M.A. (for the Record Commission), London 
1859. The extracts comprise the two poems on the expedition 
to Brabant, and part of that on the landing at La Hogue. 

Political Songs, 
[From Cotton MS. Galba E. ix.] 


How Edward \>e king come in Braband, 
And tohe homage of all ^ land. 

God, J>at schope both se and sand, 
Saue Edward, king of Ingland, 
Both body, saul and life. 
And grante him ioy withowten strif 1 

XI. (a) political songs. 127 

For mani men to him er wroth, 5 

In Fraunce and in Flandres both : 

For he defendes fast his right, 

And farto lesu. grante him might. 

And so to do both night and day, 

pat yt may be to Goddes pay. Ia^Icu^ x,^ \.i* 10 

Oure king was cumen, tre[w]ly to tell. 

Into Brabant forto dwell ; 

pe kayser Lowis of Bauere, 

pat in J)at land J>an had no pere, 

He, and als his sons two, 15 

And ojjer princes many mo, 

Bisschoppes and prelates war J)are fele, 

pat had ful mekill weridly wele. 

Princes and pople, aid and jong, 

Al J)at spac with Duche tung, 20 

All J>ai come with grete honowre, 

Sir Edward to saue and socoure, 

And pr^ferd him, with all J>ayre rede, 

Forto hald ))e kinges stede. 

pe duke of Braband, first of all, 25 

Swore, for thing ))at might bifall, 

pat he suld both day and night 

Help sir Edward in his right, ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^, /, ,^ / , / _ / ' , 

In toun, in feld, in frith and fen. *' ' ' •• > ' . ' 

pis swore J>e duke and all his men, ^ 30 

And al )>e lordes l)at with him lend, U^- J ' '^ 

And |>arto held fai vp J^aire hend. 

pan king Edward toke his rest. 

At Andwerp, whare him liked best ; 

And J)are he made his mon^ playne, 35 

pat no man suld say J)are-ogayne. 


His mon^, J>at was gude and lele, 

Left in Braband ful mekill dele ; 

And all ]>at land, vntill |>is day, 

Fars l>e better for J)at iornay. 40 

When Philip ]>e Valas herd of ))is, 

parat he was ful wroth i-wis ; 

He gert assemble his barounes, 

Princes and lordes of many tonnes. 

At Pariss toke fai l)aire counsaile, 45 

Whilk pointes might J)am moste availe ; 

And in all wise J)ai J)am bithoght 

To stroy Ingland, and bring to noght 

Schipmen sone war efter sent, 

To here j>e kinges cumandment ; 50 

And J)e galaies men also, 

pat wist both of wele and wo. 

He cu/«and J>an J)at men suld fare 

Till Ingland and for no thing spare, 

Bot brin and sla both man and wife, 55 

And childe, ))at none suld pas with life. 

pe galay men held vp j)aire handes. 

And thanked God of l)ir ti))andes. 

At Hamton, als I vnderstand, 

Come j)e gaylayes vnto land, 60 

And ful fast ]>ai slogh and brend, 

Bot noght so mekill als sum men wend. 

For, or ))ai wened, war J)ai mett 

With men ])at sone ]7aire laykes lett. 

Sum was knokked on J)e heuyd, 65 

pat ^e body ]?are bileuid ; 

XI. (a) political songs. 129 

Sum lay stareand on |)e sternes, 

And sum lay, knoked out Jjaire hemes ; 

pan with ^2in was none oJ)er gle, 

Bot ful fain war ))ai J>at might fie. 70 

pe galay men, J)e suth to say, 

Most nedes turn anojier way ; 

pai soght J)e stremis fer and wide, 

In Flandres and in Seland syde. 

pan saw j)ai whare Cristofer stode, 75 

AtjArmouth, opon J>e flude, 

pan wen[te] fai J)eder all bidene, 

pe galayes men, with hertes kene, 

Viij. and xl. galays, and mo, 5-/^-/ ^ ' /, ^.^ ..,^ /(..-^.M^ ,. 

And with Jjam als war tarettes two, ' / 80 

And ojjer many of galiotes, ^ ir ' ^'^^'^ ) 

With grete noumber of smale botes ; "" t ^f. f f 

All l)ai houed on J>e flode 

To stele sir Edward mens gode. 

Edward oure king J)an was noght j^ere, 85 

Bot sone, when it come to his ere. 

He sembled all his men full still, 

And said to J)am what was his will. 

Ilk man made him redy ))en. 

So went }>e king and all his men 90 

Vnto })aire schippes ful hastily, 

Als men J)at war in dede doghty. 

pai fand ]>e galay men grete wane, k.^^, -^^^Lct^ 

A hundereth euer ogaynes ane ; 7 ./ ^ ^ . „ ^ 

pe Inglis men put l)am to were '^ 95 

Ful baldly, with bow and spere ; ^ /• -^ 

VOL. n. K 



pai slogh ]>are of ))e galaies men 

Euer sexty ogaynes ten ; 

pat sum ligges ^it in ])at mire 

All heuidles, with-owten hire. 100 

pe Inglis men war armed wele, 

Both in yren and in stele ; 

pai faght ful fast, both day and night, 

Als lang als ])am lasted might. 

Bot galay men war so many, 105 

pat Inglis men wex all wery ; 

Help ))ai soght, bot )>are come nane, 

pan vnto God fai made J)aire mane. 


Bot sen J>e time fat God was born, 

Ne a hundreth jere bifom, no 

War neuer men better in fight 

pan Ingliss men, whils l)ai had myght. 

Bot sone all maistri gan ])ai mis ; 

God bring J)aire saules vntill his blis ! 

And God assoyl l)am of Jjaire sin, 115 

For J>e gude will l)at J)ai war in I Amen. 

Listens now, and leues me, 

Who-so lifes, ))ai sail se 

pat it mun be ful dere boght 

pat l)ir galay men haue wroght 120 

pai houed still opon J)e flode, 

And reued pouer men J)aire gude ; 

pai robbed, and did mekill schame, 

And ay bare Inglis men ])e blame. 

Now lesus saue all I^gland, 125 

And blis it with his haly hand I Amen. 


Edward, oure cumly king, 
In Braband has his woning. 
With mani cumly knight; 
And in \?X land, trewly to tell, 
Ordanis he still forto dwell 
To time he think to fight. 

Now God, J)at es of mightes maste, 

Grant him grace of }^t Haly Gaste, 

His heritage to win ! 

And Mari moder, of mercy fre, ,0 

Saue oure king and his menj^ 

Fro sorow and schame and syn 1 

pus in Braband has he bene, 
Whare he bifore was seldom sene, 
Forto pr^e Jjaire iapes ; Wtx. ^ U 
Now no langer wil he spare, 
Bot vnto Fraunce fast will he fare, 
To confort him with grapes. 

Furth he ferd into France, 
God saue him fro mischance 
And all his ciuwpany I 
pe nobill due of Braband 
With him went into Jjat land, 
Redy to lif or dy. 

pan ])e riche floure-de-lice ,. 

Wan l)are ful litill prise. 

Fast he fled for ferde ; 

pe right aire of \>2it cuntr^ 

Es cumen, with all his knightes fre, 

To schac him by \>e herd. ^^ 

K 2 



Sir Philip J>e Valayse, 

Wit his men in })0 dayes, 

To batale had he thoght ; 

He bad his men ]>am puruay 

With-owten lenger delay, 35 

Bot he ne held it noght. 

He broght folk ftil grete wone, 

Ay seuyn oganis one, 

pat ful wele wapnid were ; 

Bot sone whe[n] he herd ascry 40 

pat king Edward was nere J>arby, 

pan durst he noght cu»i nere. 

In J>at morni[n]g fell a myst. 

And when oure I[n]gliss men it wist, 

It changed all ))aire chere ; 45 

Oure king vnto God made his bone, 

And God sent him gude confort sone, 

pe weder wex ful clere. 

Oure king and his men held ]>e felde 

Stalwortly, with spere and schelde, 50 

And thoght to win his right, 

With lordes, and with knightes kene 

And ojjer doghty men bydene, 

pat war ful frek to fight. 

When sir Philip of France herd tell 55 

pat king Edward in feld walld dwell, 

pan gayned him no gle ; 

He traisted of no better bote, 

Bot both on hors and on fote 

He hasted him to fle. 60 

U-\ji ^ f'^. 

XI. (b) political songs. 133 

It semid he was ferd for strokes, 

When he did fell his grete okes 

Obout his pauilyoune ; 

Abated was ]>an all his pride, 

For langer ))are durst he noght bide, 65 

His bost was broght all dounc. 

pe king of Beme had cares colde, 

pat was ful ^ hardy and bolde 

A stede to vmstride, 

pe king als of Nauerne, . 70 

War faire feld in be ferene, ^ u. .i. " f. • i . ^ r 

paire heuiddes forto hide. 

Aiid leues wele, it es no lye, 

pe felde hat Flemawgrye 

pat king Edward was in, 75 

With princes fat war stif ande bolde, 

And dukes ^aX war doghty tolde 

In batayle to bigin. 

pe princes, fat war riche on raw, 

Gert nakers strike and tru/;zpes blaw, 80 

And made mirth at faire might; 

Both alblast and many a bow 

War redy railed opon a row. 

And ful frek forto fight. 

Gladly fai gaf mete and drink, 85 

So fat fai suld f e better swink, 

pe wight men fat far ware. 

Sir Philip of Fraunce fled for dout, 

And hied him hame with all his rout; 

Onward, God giff him care I 90 

» MS. * fur.* 


For ))are l)an had fe lely flowre 
Lorn all halely his honowre, 

5,^^X , ,^^.^ Pat^ogat fled for ferd ; 

Bot cure king Edward come ful still, 

When |)at he trowed no harm him till, 95 

And keped hhn in fe berde. 


How Edward ai Hogges vnto land wan. 
And rade tburgb^ France or euer be blatL 

Men may rede in Romance right 

Of a grete clerk J)at Merlin hight ; 

Ful many bokes er of him wreten, 

Als J)ir clerkes wele may witten ; 

And 5it in many pnud nokes 5 

May men find of Merlin bokes. 

Merlin said fus with his mowth. 

Out of ))e north into J>e sowth 

Suld cu»i a bare ouer ))e se, 

pat suld mak many man to fie ; 10 

And in J)e se, he said ful right, 

Suld he schew ful mekill might ; 

And in France he suld bigin. 

To mak J)am wrath J)at er |>arein, 

Vntill l)e se his taile reche sale, 15 

All folk of France to mekill bale. 

pus haue I mater forto make, 

For a nobill prince sake ; 

Help me God, my wit es thin ; 

Now Laurence Minot will bigin. ao 

» MS. • tlurgh.* 


A bore es broght on bankes bare, 

With fill batail bifor his brest ; 

For lohn of France will he noght spare 

In Normondy to tak his rest, 

With princes ))at er pr<?per and pr^t, 25 

Alweldand God, of mightes maste, 

He be his beld, for he mai best, 

Fader, and Sun, and Haly Gaste. 

Haly Gaste, fou gif him grace 

pat he in gude time may bigin, 30 

And send to him both might & space 

His heritage wele forto win ; 

And sone assoyl him of his sin, 

Hende God, J)at heried hell. 

For France now es he entred in, 35 

And Jjare he dightes him forto dwelL 

He dwelled J)are, ])e suth to tell, 

Opon ))e coste of Normondy. 

At Hogges fand he famen fell, 

pat war all ful of felony ; 40 

To him })ai makked grete maistri, 

And pr(?ued to ger J)e bare abyde. 

Thurgh might of God & mild Man, 

pe bare abated all J)aire pn'de. 

Mekill pride was bare in pr^e, 45 


i^>i^<f>- Both on pencell and on plate. 

When J>e bare rade with-outen rese 

Vnto Cane Jje^jaythest gate. Kr ^j^t^^ ^ ij-^k^'^^ 

pare fand he folk bifor J)e'5ate 

Thretty thowsand stif on stede. 50 

Sir lohn of France come al to late ; 

pe bare has gert )>aire sides blede. 



He gert [l>am] blede, if J>ai war bolde, 
For J)are was slayne and wounded sore 
Thretty thowsand trewly tolde, 55 

t\t yyi^K^i^K^ Of pitaile was l>are mekill more ; 

Knightes war })arc wele two score 
pat war new dubbed to l)at dance ; 
Helm and heuyd fai haue forlore, 
pan misliked lohn of France. 60 

More misliking^ was fare Jien, 

For fals treson alway l)ai wroght; 

£ot fro ])ai met with Inglis men. 

All l)aire bargan dere })ai boght 

Inglis men with site ])am soght, 65 

And hastily quit ])am ])aire hire. 

And at ))e last forgat ])ai noght, 

pe toun of Cane J?ai sett on fire. 

pat fire ful many folk gan fere, 

When J)ai se brandes o-ferrum flye ; 70 

pis haue J)ai wonen of |?e were, 

pe fals folk of Normundy. 

I sai 50W lely how J>ai lye 

Dongen doun all in a daunce ; 

paire frendes may ful faire forJ)i 75 

Pleyn J?am vntill lohn of France. 

Franche men put J>am to pine 

At Cressy, when J)ai brak Jje brig, 

pat saw Edward with both his ine, 

pan likid him no langer to lig; 80 

» MS. * misliling/ 


Ilk Inglis man on o]?ers rig, 
Ouer })at water er j?ai went ; 
To batail er jjai baldly big, 
With brade ax and with bowes bent 

With bent bowes ]?ai war ful bolde, 85 

Forto fell of })e Frankisch men ; 

pai gert tham Kg with cares colde, 

Ful sari was sir Philip |)en. 

He saw J>e toun o-ferrum bren, 

And folk for ferd war fast fleand ; 90 

pe teres he lete ful rathly ren 

Out of his eghen, I vnderstand. 

pan come Philip, ful redy dight, 

Toward j?e toun with all his rowt. 

With him come mani a kumly knight, 95 

And all vmset ]je bare obout. 

pe bare made Jjam ful law to lout, 

And delt })am knokkes to })aire mede : 

He gert J)am stumbill |)at war stout ; 

pare helpid now)>er staf ne stede. 100 

Stedes strong bileuid still 

Biside Cressy opon |)e grene. 

Sir Philip wanted all his will, 

pat was wele on his sembland sene. 

With spere and schelde and helmis schene, 105 

pe bare Jjan durst )>ai noght habide. 

pe king of Beme was^ant and kene, t \ • v 

Bot Jjare he left both play and pride. 



A.D. 1 350-1 360. 

All that is known concerning the author of the English ro- 
mance of * William of Paleme,' or ' William and the Werwolf,' is 
that his Christian name was William, and that he translated his 
work (with frequent additions of his own) from the French 
romance of 'Guillaume de Paleme' (William of Palermo) at the 
command of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, nephew to 
King Edward II, who died a.d. 1361. 

The poem in its English form is supposed by Sir F. Madden to 
have been written about the year 1350. The dialect is Midland 
(possibly Shropshire). 

The same author translated from the Latin a portion of the 
* Romance of Alexander,' of which only a fragment is extant. 

The poem was first edited by Sir F. Madden for the Rox- 
burghe Club, London, 1832 ; and re-edited in 1867 for the Early 
English Text Society (together with the 'Alexander' fragment) 
by the Rev. W. W. Skeat, with Sir F. Madden's assistance, from 
the unique MS. (No. 13) in the library of King's College, Cam- 

T T it bi-fel in ))at forest • J>ere fast by-side, 

}^r woned a wel old cherl • }>at was a couherde, 
}>at fele wint^rres in jjat forest * fayre had kepud 5 

Mennes ken of be cuntre • as a comen herde ; 

r' \\.' 

. I. i V." t. » 


& }>us it bitide Jjat time • as tellen oure bokes,' 
j>is cowherd comes on a time • to kepen is bestes 
Fast by-side })e borwj • jjere Jje barn was inne. 
})e herd had with him an hound • his hert to li^t, 10 

forto bayte on his bestes • wanne ]?ai to brode went. 
J>e herd sat J)an wi}) hoiwd * ajene Jje bote sunne, 
Nou3t fully a furlong 'fro ))at fayre child, 
clou^tand kyndely his schon • as to ^ here craft falles. 
\iaX while was ))e werwolf • went a-boute his praye, 15 

what behoued to }>e bam • to bring as he mi^t. 
})e child j?an darked in his den • oernlyfhim one, 
& was a big bold barn • & breme of his age, c ^-^ * • " 
^^ For spakly speke it coujje tho • & spedeliche to-wawe. 

Louely lay it a-long • in his lonely denne, 20 

& buskede him out of }>e biischys • }>at were blowed grene, 
& leued ful louely • )?at lent grete schade, 
& briddes ful bremely • on J)e bowes singe, 
what for melodye |)at j>ei made • in })e mey sesoun, 
j>at litel child listely ' * lorked out of his caue, 25 

Faire floures forto fecche • j)at he bi-fore \i\m seye, 
& to gadere of J)e grases • }>at grene were & fayre. 
& whan it was out went • so wel hit him liked, 
})e sauor of }>e swete sesou« • & song of }>e briddes, 
j>at [heP ferde fast a-boute • floures to gadere, 30 

& l ayked him long while • to lesten )?at mer|)e. 
))e couherdes hou«d ]?at time * as happe by-tidde, 
* feld foute^of Jje child • and fast })ider fulwes ; 
& sone as he it sei3 • sojje forto telle, 
he gan to berke on J>at barn • and to bale it hold, ^ » '^5 
j>at it wa?c neij of his witt • wod for fere, 
and comsed }>an to crye • so kenly and schille, 

» MS. • afto.' 

■ Read • that it ferde,' or *be ftrde.'— Sir F, Madden. 

{ < V- 



& wepte so wonder fast • wite J)Ou for sothe, 
})at )?e son of })e cry com • to the cowherde euene, 
J)at he wist witerly it was * }>e voys of a childe. 40 

})an ros he vp radely • & ran ]?ider swij)e, ^ . ^ r^ 

& drow hi/« toward j?e den • by his dogges noyce> ;fv^*- 
bi J)at time was })e barn • for bere of ])at hotwde, ti^t/ft vv^ 
drawe him in to his den • & darked j>er stille, 
& wept eugre as it wolde • a-wede for fere ; (m. x^^^i^ 45 
& eu<?re be dogee at be hole ' held it at a-baye. , ^^ 

& whan })e kouherd com }>id[^r]e^ • he kour ed lowe Jiw/ •Xrj^'-.y, 
to bi-hold in at be hole * whi his houwd berkyd. 
{^anne of-saw he ful sone • }>at semlic he child, 4^ * »v*v 
})at so louelTche lay & wep • in j?at lo]?li caue, 50 

clojjed ful komly • for ani kud kinges sone, tt\y,c^vh irf ^?>/w<i 
-, , . / In gode clo))es of gold • a-gre}?e d ful riche, 
ftci^'' wij) pelrey & pellure • pertelj^che to be ri^tte s. tr; <,♦«/{</ cJ^/^aCrf^ 
>cuv!rf'auq„)>e cherTwondred of ])at chauwce • & chastised his dogge, 
: V. .A ^ t ^ bad him blinne of his berking • & to ))e barn talked, 55 
tKL \d acoyed itTo come to him • & clepud hit oft, Cj^JXlcK. 

\ & foded it wi)> floures • & wi}) faire^-hest, / Clii ^^U-f^ l f £ 
\ & hi3t it hastely to haue • what it wold jeme, 
appeies & alle |>inges • Jjat childem after wilnen. ^ -^ > jf^^ 
so, forto seij al )>€ so)?e • so faire \e cherl glosed, 60 

J)at }>e child com of })e caue • & his criynge stint 
})e cherl ful cherli ))at child • tok in his armes, \/^.^k >- . ^ ^^J^\^.'^ 
& kest hit & clipped • and oft crist JK>nkes, 
)?at hade him sent JK> sonde • swiche prey to finde. 
wijdiche wi)> )>e child • he went to his house, 65 

and bi-tok it to his wif • tijtly to kepe. 
a gladere wommo« vnder god • no mijt go on erjic, 
)>an was J>e wif wi)> )>€ child • witow for soJ>e. 

1 Read 'thidere.'— Afoddbi. 




^ I ' vA 

X/7. PT/LL/ilibr Oi^ PALERNE. I4I 

'itA-Sche koUed it ful kindly • and askes is name, 

& it answered ful sone * & seide, * william y hi^t/ 70 

, J J>an was ye godwif glad • and gan it faire kepe, r ..^^ ^^^^^ 
)?at it wanted nou3t • })at it wold haue, ^ / f s / 

}>at })ei ne fond him as faire • as for here state longed, l't(^ '^' '- ^ 
& J>e beter, be ye sure * for barn ne had )?ei none 
brou^t for)) of here bodies ; • here bale was ]?e more. 75 
but so|)ly bai seide be child • schuld weld al here godis, 
Londes & ludes as eye r • after here lif dawes. Atc\ J 
but from )?e cherl & Jje child • nov chaunge we oure tale, 
For i wol of jje werwolf • a wile nov speke. , 

T 1 T'hanne j?is werwolf was come • to his^wlonjc ^ denne, 
^cii. & bade brou^t bilfod er • for ))e barnes mete, 81 

)>at he hade wonne with wo • wide wher a-boute, 
)>an fond he nest & no nei^ • for nou3t nas \>er leued. 
..^^.-vjuLJ^ & whan J>e best ))e barn missed • so balfully he g[r]inneb^ ti^^- '• 
c^/-^t ]?at alle men vpo« molde • no mi^t telle his sorwe. 85 

For reuliche gan he rore • & rente al his hide, 
& fret oft of ye erj)e • & fel doun on swowe, 
& made )>e most dool • Jjat man mijt diuise. ^t - *' 

& as J)e best in, his bale * Jjer a-boute wente, 
j^- he fond \>e feute al fresh • where for)) j)e herde 90 

hadde bore^aii barn • beter it to jeme. 
-^^ ' wigtly ye werwolf • )>an went bi nose 

euene to ye herdes house • & hastely was ))are. ^ 

' " ' Al* ^^^ walked he a-boute ye walles • to winne in si3t; ^'- ^^" ' 
^^\, fc'jk»K& at ye last lelly * a litel hole he findes. 95 

^ yere pried he in priuely • and p£rtiliche bi-holdes V^ ' - ■• 

hov hertily ye herdes wif • hules )?at child, Ct ; v ■ - . 
'^ ];'>.. & hov fayre it fedde • & fetisUche it ba]?ede, 
^ & wrou3t wi)> it as wel • as 3if it were hire owne. 

* Miswritten * wolnk/ • See note. 

• / 

» « 

I ' 


)>anne was })e best blijje i-nov • for ))e barnes sake, 100 

For he wist it schold be warded • wel ))anne at )>e best. 

& hertily for }>at hap • to-heuene-ward he loked, 

& Jjroliche JK>nked god • mani )>ousand si)>es, 

& se))))en went on is way • whider as him liked; 

but whiderward wot i neuer • witow for so|>e. 105 

ak now))e ^e })at am hende • haldes ow stille, 

& how })at best })erwe bale • was broujt out of kinde, 

I wol 30U telle as swij)e • trewly J)e soj)e. 

'\^ Werwolf was he no« • wox of kinde, 

ac kome« was he of kun * ))at kud was ful nobul ; 
For J>e kud king of spayne • was kindely his fader. 11 1 
he gat him, as god 3af grace • on his ferst wyue, 
& at |)e bur|) of )>at barn • J>e bold lady deyde. 
sij)J)en Jjat kud king so • bi his conseyl wrout, 
anoth^ wif )>at he wedded • a worchipful ladi, 115 

J)e princes dou3ter of portingale • to pr<?ue ))e so))e. 
but lelliche |)at ladi in joujje • hadde lerned miche schame. 
For al J>e werk of wicchecraft * wel y-nou3 che cou3J)e, 
nede nadde 3he namore • of nigramauncy to lere. 
of coninge of wicche-craft • wel y-nou3 she cou3de, 120 
& brau«de was jjat bold queue • orburnes y-clepud. 
))e kinges furst child was fostered • fayre as it 0U3t, 
& had lordes & ladies • it louely to kepe, ^ ^ \vs^^^ 
& fast gan }>at frely barn • fayre forto wexe. ^^ wt^iu^ 
})e quene his moder on a time • as a mix ))OU3t, 125 

how faire & how fetis it was • & freliche schapen. 
& Jjis )>anne ))OU3t sche ]>To\y • )>at it no schuld neu^ ' '^ "^ ' 
kuuere to be king })er • as^e kinde eyre, Ka Ui^tt^ '''^<^t 
whilie J>e kinges ferst sone • were per a-liue. 
J>an studied sche stifly • as stepmoderes wol alle, 130 

to do dernly a despit • to here stepchilderen ; 


r r 

j^v*- ^ t • U*'> t {. / r . 


Fe)?li a-mong foure schore • vnne^findestow on gode. / . 


-'^ but truly ti3t hadde }>at queue • take hire to rede 

y\jlA^ \K 



..,^,^00 to bring bat barn in bale • botles for euer,.c».^'«f.J j^**^ 1 
. ..>-v^-, ))at he ne schuld wijtU in })is world • neu^r weld reaume. M«^' »*>- 
^^ . 'i>*»»^^C^yneme«t anon sche made • of ^o grete streng{>e, 136 ^f. *' 
, - ^K^ - . 1 y^^ enchau«me«s of charmes • J)at euel chaunche liif e tide, ~ ' ' 
.•u tcvr^ jjg^j. ^han })at womma/g ^}><g^-wi^ t • hadde J>at wor^J]li child 
; .. (j^ ones wel an-oynted Jje child • wel al a-bowte, 
Qy^.K'j he wex to a werwolf • wi^tly })er-after, ^/^^ ^^ {/ , . ; i*^ '4® 
al })e making of ma« • so mysse hadde ^he schaped. ^^'^^^'^ "^ 
4^a^^ ac his Witt welt he after • as wel as torfore, ^ *, - ' 

')^ but lelly o))er likeness • }>at longe]) to ma«-kynne, ' ,,^ <.«.-* '^ 
but a wilde werwolf • ne wait he neu^r after. ^^^-^ "-^ « 

\^& whanne })is witty werwolf * wiste him so schaped, 145 
, >i^ * ^he knew it was bi Jje craft • of his kursed stepmoder, 

- "^y f & ))0U3t or he went a-way * he wold, ^if he mijt, >,vc . ^ 
' . » <wayte hire suot wicked torn • what bi-tidde after. ^ " 

• \,^ )& as bliue, boute doq • ne braydes to J>e queue, >f ^ , , 
. Cv & hent hire so hetterly • to haue hire a-strangeled, 150 

,j,'yy j>at hire deth was nei^ di^t • to deme ))e so))e. 
but carfuli gan sche crie * so kenely and lowde, 
-^ bat may denes & mi^thi men ; manliche to hire come, 
..aL< ^ wolden brusten be best • nad he be be hsttere, ^' ' '^ 

Sc fled a-way )>e faster *, in-to ferre londes, 155 

. ..„ :-»-w^so )>at p^rtely in-to poyle • he passed j)at time, 

as )>is fortune bi-fel • j)at i told of bi-fore ; 
. ;,p K j>us was this witty best • werwolf ferst maked. 
\j^^ ' ^ but now wol i stin t a stounde "• of ]?is sterne best, 

& tale of be tidy child • bat y of told ere. 160 

J)us passed is pe first pas * of J)is gris^tale, ^ i r ^ . 
^.h^ & je J>at louen & lyken • to Tfcsten a-ni more, 
i'^ alle wijth on hoi hert • to J)e hei^ King of heuene 
preieth a pater noster • priuely >is time 


for j?e hend erl of herford • sir humfray de bowne, i6j 

fei«t/>Uw j)e king edwardes newe • at glouseter })at ligges. (Ll>.^x^ o 
For he of frensche )>is fayre tale • ferst dede translate, 
\ V In ese of englysch men • in englysch speche ; 
& god graunt hem his blis • J>at godly so prayen I 
^^^^^ Leue lordes, now listenes • of })is litel barn, 170 

)>at ))e kinde kowherde-wif • keped so fayre. 
l\Ay^l>iKt'r^ 3he wissed ^ it as wel or bet 'as ^if it were hire owne, , 
til hit biff was & bold • to buschen on felde, ^f^"-"^"* " 
& coube ful craftily • kepe alle here bestes, ;,, c:,t4 /' 
& bring hem in J)e best lese * whan hem bi-stode ne de, 175 
^& wited hem so wisly • bat wanted him neu^r one. 

(f^ ^ 


a bowe al-so bat bold barn.* bi-gat him bat time, 

— U't'^i 1^^ — — — - 

I to schote vnder be schawes • scharDlyche he 

r n 


Jl^^. . & SO to schote vnder Jje schawes • scharplyche he lerned, 
)>at briddes & smale bestes • wi]? his bow he quell es ''^~^^* * 
so plenteousliche in his play • j?at, pertly to telle, ^^ -tot' . 180 
whanne he went hom eche nist * wib is droue of bestis, , - >■ 
he com him-self y-charged * wij> conyn g & hares, '^;^ * ^^ 
wib fesauws & feldfares • and o)?er foules grete ; / » ^ 
Jjat J)e herde & his hende wif • & al his hole meyne 
' ))at bold bam wijj his bowe * by })at time fedde. 185 

& 5it hadde fele jelawes • in ]>e forest eche day, 
30ng bold barnes • })at bestes al-so keped. 
& blij)e was eche a barn •* no best mijt him plese, ^„.y ;, 
& folwe him for his fredom • & for his faire bewes. ' 
for what \>mg willam w^n • a-day wi)> his bowe, 190 

•I « 

were it fe|>ered foul • or foure-foted best, 

ne wold ))is william neu<?r on • wijj-hold to him-selue, 

til alle his felawes were ferst • feffed to here paie. i . /1 

so kynde & so corteys • comsed he )>ere, • . »i fr /^ 

J)at alle ledes him louede • fat loked on him ones ; 195 

& blesseden fat him bare ' & brou3t in-to fis worlde, 

^ MS. ' wist'; but elsewhere in the poem the form is ' wissed.' 


so moche manhed & murjje • schewed |jat child eu^re. 

Hit tidde after on a time • as tellus oure bokes, 
as Jjis bold barn his bestes * bly))eliche keped, 
|)e riche emp^rour of rome • rod out for to hunte 200 

In |)at faire forest • feij)ely for to telle, 
wi}> alle his menskful meyrie ^^^t moche was & nobul. 
)>an fel it hap bat bei fouwde • ful soi;e a grete bor, 
& huntyng wi)> hou«d & horn • harde alle sewede. ' \ 
be emp^rowr entred in a wey • euene to attele 3^ ^ '^''^05 
to haue bruttenet j?at bor ''at ^ fe abaie s^^n ; jr^ , 



L« w JIW 

but missely marked he is way • & so manly he rides, 
)>at all his wies were went * ne wist he neu^r whider ; 
so ferforj? fram his men • fe))ly for to telle, ^ ^ j^ 

bat of horn ne of houwd • ne miat he here sowne, 210 

J- &, bqute eny liuing lud • left was he one. 

j)emp<?rour on his stif stede * a s^ for)? )>anne takes 

to herken after his houwdes * o))er horn schille; ^ •"'- 

so komes ^er a werwolf * rijt bi ]jat way Jjenne, 

grimly after a gret jhiert '*as \>kt god wold, 215 

& chased him })urth chau^ce * J)ere fe child pleide, 

j)at kept ]>e kowherdes bestes • i carped of bi-fore. ' ' - 

]>emptfrour })anne hastely * )>at huge best folwed ^J,> '■ 

as stiffuly as is stede mijt • strecche on to renne ; / 

but by-ban he com by Jjat barn • & a-boute loked, 220 

|>e werwolf & |)e wilde hert* were a-weye bo)>e, 

J)at he ne wist in ))is world • w[h]ere fei were bi-come, 

ne whiderward he schuld seche • to se of hem more. 

but Jjanne bi-held he a-boute • & })at barn of-seye, ' ' 

hov fair, how fetys it was •' & frehche schapen ; 225 

so fair a si^t of seg • ne sawe he neuer are, f - v 

of lere ne of lj[k^e • lik him nas none, ^.. 

ne of so sad a semblant * ]>at euer he say wij> ei3yea 

» MS. *&*; but cf. 1.46. 
VOL. n. I. 


\>emperom wend witerly • tor Wonder of J>at child, /tft^^w ^^ 
■ iii >^ ^'..' ^ j>at fei3{)ely it were of feyiy^ • for fairenes fat it welt, 230 • 
^)^^ & for ))e curteys cu«tenau«ce * J)at it kudde }>ere. ^ *f^ / 
Ri^tly J)enne J>emp<?rour • wendes him euene tille, 
'^/.L»*M , "be child comes him agayn •& curtesliche him gretes. 
, >ci'^ ' In hast ))emp<?rour hendely * his gretyng him ^eldes, ^ ,^^u\^ 
and a-non ri3ttes after • askes his name, 235 

& of what kin he were kome • komanded him telle. 
^^^ cv > }>e child J>anne soberliche seide * ' sir, at ^oure wille 
u* ^ ^^^"^ z I wol 50W telle ^tyT* trewely alle |)e sojje. 
William, sire, wel y wot • wi3es me calles ; 
I was bore here fast bi • by ins wodes side. 240 

a kowherdfe, sire, of ]jis kontrey • is my kynde fader, 
and my menskful moder * is his meke wiue. 
J)ei han me fostered & fed • faire to |)is time, 
& here i kepe is kyn * as y kan on dayes ; 
but, sire, by cr/st, of my kin • know i no more.' 245 

whan ^erwperonr ^ hade herd • holly his wordes, 
he wondered of his wis speche • as he wel mijt, 
& seide, ' J>ow bold barn • biliue i ^e praye, ^,^' ^"''j 

Go calle to me be cowherde • bow clepus bi fadere. 
For y wold talk [wi))] him ' • ti|>inge § to frayne.' {x-i^\. 


* nay, sire, bi god,' qua]) ))e barn • * be 3e ri3t sure, 
bi cr/st, }>at is krowned • heye king of heuen, e-***^ 
For me no« harm schal he haue • neu^r in his Hue 1' 

* ac p^rrauenture )>urth goddis [grace] ^ • to gode may it tume, 
iffi_ For-l?i bring him hider • faire barn, y preye.' 255 

* I schal, sire,' seide J)e child • ' for saufliche y hope * 

* Miswritten • |>empoiir.* 

* The sense and cadence of the line seem to require ' with' before 'him.' 

' Read * thnrth goddis grace* — Madden, 

* MS. ' for y saufliche. y hope,' where there seems to be a ^ too much. 


' w 


I may w grche on 50111 word • to wite him fro harm/ 
v'j<^ ' 3a, safliche/ seide }>emp^rour • ' so god ^if me ioie V a^ 
-^ Jje'child witly )>anne wende * wiJ)-oute ani more, 

comes to J>e couherdes hows • & clepud him sone ; 260 
•>**^ For he fei^lich e wen[d] ^ * ))at he his fader were ^ ; 
& seide )>an, ' swete sir • s[o] 30U criste help ! 
^ t V ^^ yond to a gret lord • J)at gayly is tyred, cWi^wik 

& on be feirest frek • for sobe bat i haue seie; ^-c^ek (^h*' ' ' 

,.'i and he wilnes wijtU • wi)> 30U to speke ; ' 265 

For godis loue go)) til him swi))e^' lest he agreued wex/ 
* what? sone/ seide ))e couherde • * seidestow i was here ?' 
i /^^ *55i sire, sertes,' seide Jje child • ' but lie, swor formest 
j>at je schuld haue no harm • but hendelyibr gode 
he pr^ide 50U com speke wij) him • & passe a-^ein sone.' A^^^ "-^ ^^ 
})e cherl grocching for]) go|) * wi)) ]?e gode child, 271 . 

& euene to ]>empfrour * })ei ettele den sone./^/^A dt-y-^^ '•'^*' ' ' 
jjemp^rour a-non ri^t • as he him of-seie, /- ^r cv u i-oX 
clepud to him Jje couherde • & curteysly seide; i^^.j.(<'^-^ \^' 
I * now telle me, felawe, be )>i fei^jj • for no })ing ne wonde, 
sei J)0u eu^r J)emp^rour • so ]?e crist help?' 276 

'nay, sire, bi crist,' qua)> j?e couherde • *})at king is of 
^ heue«, ^Hri cLj'^ ^"c^iv .-vi-^ ^ '^^''^ 

I nas neu^r 5et so hardi • to nejh him so hendi? Ln^xsts^ 
J)ere i schuld haue him seie • so me wel tyme / M^i^ 
v****/ / * sertes,' )>an seide bemp^rour • ' })e sojje forto knowe, 280 
. u Jj^x f^-t y am Jjat ilk weijt * i wol wel pou wite; ^ 

r/* ( 

J /o<'4'i<^^'^ 

^y^ al J>e regal of rome • to ri^tlec he y weld . ^^^^^ -^^ ^ » 

})erfore, couherde, i J>e coniure • & comande att alle, u ^^.■<^^^ 
bi v^rtu of ))ing jjat ))0u most • i« ))is world louest, 
}>atow telle me ti^tly • truly J>e so))e, -/ i*civ". 285 

whejj^r )?is bold barn • be lelly }>in owne, nr^^-'^^i 
^ o}>er come« of o}>er kin • so })e cr/st help T 

* See note. * MS. * where.* 

L 2 

t*. iv.W 

"T-.i < , 

o ■ 

.', . »av , .^;, '-'v J ^ v^ '^^ fv VO jVi* 

148 X/7. WTLL/ililf 02^ PALERNE. 

K 04*. \>e couherd comsed to quake • for kare & for drede, . cA^A 

whanne he wist witerly • haX he was his lorde, kJr^^^ 
o u^ckXv-j & biliue in his hert be-^ut • ^if h^ him gun lye, 290 ^ 

Ij^ he wold prestely p^rceyue * pertmcR e him })Out . ii-^ji-^^y-'^^ «*' -^ 
})er-fore trewly as tyt • he told him |>e sojje, " r 

how he him fond in \zX. forest * fere fast bi-side, 
clothed in comly clo]?ing • for any kinges sone, 
vnder an holw ok • )>urth help of his dogge, -->^^^ ^ 295 

& how faire he hade him fed • & fostered vij winter, tc cOv^ 
' bi cnst/ seide ])emp^rour * ' y Qon )>e gret ^nke, lc c<.a 
}>at |)0U hast [seide] ^ me })e soJ?e * of J)is semly childe, 
k^c^^ ^ t^^^ schalt |}0u nou3t })i trawa yle • y ttow, at |)e last I '^^''^^ < 
a ^, ac wend schal it wib me ,* witow for sobe, 300 

Min hert so hard e wilnes • to haue ))is barne, 
)>at i wol in no wise • t>ou wite it no lenger.' }j'^^^'^ 
whan J)emp^rour so sayde * soJ)e forto telle, 
,\ J u\.|v-uauw Jje couherde was in care • i can him no-))ing wite*. 

ac witerly dorst he nou^t werne • \>e wille of his lord, 305 
but grauwted him goddeli • on godis holy name, 
Forto worchen his wille * as lord wij) his owne. 
whan William, )>is wor))i child * wist J)e soJ)e, 
and knew ))at jje cowherde * nas nou^t his kinde fader, 
he was wijtiiche a-wondered • & gan to wepe.sore, ^ 310 
& seide saddely to him-self • sone ))er-after, » . • /- • 
* a I gracious gode god I • })0U5 grpttest of alle ! 
Moch is J)i mercy & ))i mi3t • J>i menske, & J)i grace I 
now wot i neu^ in J)is world * of wham y am come, 
^ ne what destene me is dijt • but god do his wille 1 315 

ac wel y wot witerly • wijj-oute ani faile, 
to )>is ma« & his meke wif • most y am holde ; 
For J)ei ful faire ban me fostered * & fed a long time, 

* Read ' tiiou hast seide me the sothe.' — Madden, 
" MS. « white.' 

, '/ 

o ^ 



J>at god for his grete mijt : al here god hem jeld. i^»^ 
ivi"^ but not y neuer what to done • to wende )?us hem frOL ^320 
^«wuvv Jjat han al kindenes me kyd • & y ne kan hem ^elde !' 

* bi stille, barn/ qua)> }>emp^rour • * blinne of J)i sorwe, '^ '-*• "* 
^ For y hope Jjat hal J)i kin • hastely here-after, 

^■' ,7 jif fo^ wolt 3eue })e to gode • swiche grace may })e falle, ^ . 
-*''*''' )?at alle ))i frendes fordedes * faire schalstow quite/ ^^'''/^sis 

* 5a, sire/ qua|? jje couherde, ' 3if cr/st wol • j?at cas may 

& god lene him grace * to god man to wor)>e.' /h c< ^».e^* 

^,vlO & ban as tit to be child • he tauat bis lore, /« sr;,'«<-*^*^ 

& seide, ' ]>o\i swete sone • sej?^ Jjou schalt hennes wende, t.' ' •> 


whanne ]jou komest to kourt • amo«g })e kete lordes, 330 " 
. ^^ ;; & knowest alle J)e ku))})es * })at to kourt langes, ' - ». 
^, -. /'v bere )>e boxumly & bonure • fat ich burn Jje loue. ^ - ' • /^*^ ' - * 
•.' . y ,v be meke & mesurabul • nou^t of many wordes, 

be no tellere of talis • but trewe to bi lord, 
..t-ii^w & prestely for pore men • profer J)e eu^,^- "^ \ "^''- 335 
For hem to rekene wi)> ))e riche * in ri3t & in skille. 
be feijtful & fre • & euer of faire speche, 
A & seruisabul to J)e simple * so as to J)e riche, 
& felawe in faire manere * as falles for ]>i state ; 
so schaltow gete goddes loue • & alle gode mennes. 340 
' ''^\^ (^Leue sonCj ))is lessouw • me lerde my fader, . • 
.0 ,. : «,> fat knew of kourt Jje ^ewes • for kourteour was he lo«g, 
''^ * ^ & hald it in ))i hert • now i J)e haue it kenned; /^\' • " 
}>e bet may j?e bi-falle • Jje worse bestow neuere/ ^^ •* ^ ' .' ' 
pe child weped al-way • wonderliche fast, t( •'^^ 345 
:•, .rt but Jjemp^rour had god game • of })at gomes lore, h' n .. ,. - 
& comande J)e couherde • curteysli and fayre, 
to heue vp })at hende child • bi-hinde him on his stede. 
& he so dede deliuerly • Jjou^h him del fou^t, ;"' '■ > 
^ i & bi-ken ned him to crist * bat on croice was peyned. 350 

^^i, S^ Irx^i uM <^.fl Lu^ <yA^*M^ 

, ; ,^t. J>anne }>at barn as biliue • by-gan for to glade ? ^ 'Xt^^^'^ ■ 

^xj^'^*^ }>at he so realy schidd ride • & redeli as swi)?e aa^«M,u*^( «^' ^-n,^— 
Ful curteisle of Jje couherde • he cacces his leue, loJ^-k 
ot'/«/Ltvc^tK & se>|?en seyde, * swete sire • i bes[e]che 30U 11.0 w^, ^yt^*^ 
cj vi . C For godes loue, gretes ofte • my godelyche moder, 355 

}>at so faire haj? me fed * & fostered till now]?e. 
t <.^C/ ;';«.^^M ^ lellyche, jif our lord wol • ))at i liif haue, 

sche ne schal noujt lyne hire trauayle • treuly for so}>e. 
& gode sire, for godes loue • also grete)> wel oft 
alle my freyliche felawes • )>at to J)is forest longes, 360 

han p^ rtilyche in many places ' pleidewi]) [me] ofte, 
X, hugonet, & huet • ]?at hende litel dwer^/^^t c^tvJcm** 

& abelot, & martynet • hugones gaie sone; / V a^P*^'^' 

& J>e cr/sten akarin • )?at was mi kyn fere , .- ay>»^ • ^ 
& J)e trewe kinnesman • }>e payenes sone, 'jct^a^t c 365 
& alle o^er frely felawes • J?at ]jou faire knowes, 
}>at god mak hem gode men • for his mochel grace/ 
of }>e names )>at he nemned • })emp^rour nam hede, 
& had gaynliche god game • for he so grette alle 
of his ^iw/pefs })at he knew • so curteysliche & faire. 370 
, \ ,:, & ban be-kenned he be kouherde • to cnst & to hal alwes, 
^ ' u c- & busked for)> wi}) J)at barn • bliiie on his gate. ^ 

' j( J)e kouherde kayred to his hpuse • karful in hert, c- .^ . t w ,j 
*' ' & neij to-barst he for bale * for ]?e barhes sake. 

' & whan his wiif wist " wittow for so))e, 375 

how })at child froz« here warde • was wente for eu^r-more, 
J)er nis man on ]?is mold • )>at mi3t half telle 
j>e wo & })e weping • J)at womman made, 
sche wold hauc sleie hire-self jjere • so})ly, as bliue, 
ne hade })e kind kouherde • conforted here )>e betere, 380 
& pult hire in hope to haue • gret help Jjer-of after. 


. ■ A 





ABOUT A.D. 1360. 

Author unknown — Dialect West-Midland (Lancashire). 

The following extracts are from 'Early English Alliterative 
Poems,' edited for the Early English Text Society by Dr. Morris, 
London, 1864 ; of which a second and revised edition was pub- 
lished in 1869. The latter is here followed. 

These po^ns are preserved in the unique Cotton MS. Nero A. 
X., written about the close of the fourteenth century. 

The symbol 3 is used to represent both y, gb^ and as. In the 
first case it commonly begins a word, and in the last commonly 
ends one. The symbol t^ has the force of ss or js;, sounded like 2. 

The Deluge. 

[Lines 235-544.] 

BoT }>at oj>^ wrake |)at wex • on wy^ej hit lyjt ^ 235 

pur3 })e faut of a freke • |)at fayled \n trawt)e, 

Adam i«-obedyent * ordaynt to blysse ; 

per pryuely in paradys • his place watj de-vised, 

To lyue })er bt lyky;2!g • )>e len|?e of a terme, r< . - 

'& j)e«ne en-herite )>at home • J)at auwgele^ for-gart. * 240 

Bot furj })e eggywg of eue * he ete of an apple, 

pat en-poysened alle peplej • ))at parted fro hem bojje, 

For a defence, })at watj dy3t • of dry^tyn seluen, 

& a payne J>er-on put • & pertly halden. 

pe defence watj ))e fryt • J)at )?e freke towched, 245 




& ))e dom is j>e (Jefe • |iat drepe^ vus alle. (^^^ -S 

& efte amended w/ti 91 mayden vbat make hade neu^r. fUi^tc^*>cC^ 

1 . j ^Al in mesure &! m^ * wat^ mad )>e vengiauwce, 

^ Bot in )>e ))ryd wat5 forJ)rast • al j>at J>ryue schuld, /iC\ti^<, 

xA V per wat5 malys mercyles • & mawgr e much scheued ; ^^ "'250 
LiOii . pat wat3 for Tyl|?e vpon folde • j>at J)e folk vsed, iU 'ia,xtk 
1 c^ * ^ '"^ [P]^t l'^'^ wonyed i» )>e worlde • w/t^-outen any mayst^rj. 
lu^^yJL Hit wem )>e fayrest of forme * & of face als, 

pe most & be myriest • bat maked wem euer, u^'^ 
. ', ,:. pe styfest, be stalworbest • bat stod eu^ on fete, 255 

'..r<^ & lengest lyf in hem lent • of lede^ alle o]>er; n^-<ti^ ^ 
//L4'^^vl 'o'^For hit was j>e form e-foster * )>at j>e folde bred, u&>Cd. 
/i^ 'tf , pe ajnel auwcetere^ siine ^ ' J>at ad^m wat^ called, 

To wham god hade geuen • alle ))at gayn were, ^<^* -«'^ 
^vi/ln- L Alle j>e blysse boute biame • ]>at bodi my^t haue, 260 

if ' . d & |iose lykkes t to jje lede • j>at Iviied next aft^, 

For-^y so semly to see • sypfew wern none, u-^it- n " 

per wat5 no law to hem layd • bot loke to kynde,v('^.7 ^'. '»t*'^ 

1( , 1 ^ ti<(jC ■»*.•(• 

/T>lui ^«»^ 



^v w. V & kepe to hit, & alle hit cors • clanly ful-fylle; c.f u- - 

& )>e«ne fouwden )>ay fyl})e * i« fleschlych dede3 265 

& controeued agayn kynde • contrary werke^, 
. & ysed hem yn-]>ryftyly * ychon on ol>^, ^ '^ '^^ 

tK I' 

- •[ '" ; & fallen in felajschyp vftth hep • on folken wyse, 

& en-gendered on hem ieaii^ztej • wiU her lapej ille.t^ (^'c- 
♦ pose wern men nae^lej/ & ^^^ on vije, '»-.<?:/ ^ 5av'%. 
pat for her lodlych la^yej • alosed ))ay were. ^^^ ^'\' i" < . ^ '^ 
He watj famed for fre • j)at fe^t loued best, ^^ * - ^ » 275 
& ay l>e bigest in bale • ))e best wat3 haJden. cu- -v. .'..., e*.'^ .-^^ 
& j>e«ne euelej on erjje • ernestly grewen, 
& multyplyed mony-folde • i^-mongej mankynde, 

^.J^'^ "^ 


^ For J)at J>e ma5ty(on molde)* so marre[d] ))ise o))/r, 
1^^ J pat J)e wyje )>at al wrp^t • ful wroJ>ly bygy/zne^. 280 

When he knew vche contr6 • conipte in hit seluen, 
& vch freke tbrioyned • fro pe ryjt waye^, 

^,^-. Vv^Felle temptande tehe • towche^his hert; 

v. ^Z^^ -^s wy^e, wo hyw with-i«ne • werp*1;o hy;w seluen; 

* Me for-J)y;/ke5 ful much • j>at eu^r I riion made, 285 

Bot I schal delyu^r & do away * jjat^oteh on )>is molde, 

jo^.\.> & fleme out of j>e folde ; al ]jat flesch were^, 

jL^ V^^^ Fro j>e burne Jto J)e bjst • fro brydde3 to fyschej ; 

Al schal dou»^& be ded • & dryuen out of erjje >/ S /xAJz^tm^a^ ^ ^"^^ 

pat eu^ I sette saule inne " & sore hit me rwe3 ^^^ ' ^ 290 

pat eu^r I piade hem my self; * bot if I may her-aft^r, 

I schal wayte to be war * her wrencliej to kepe/^ "^ ct^^'^^ 

P^nne in worlde wat^ a Wyje • wonyand^ on lyue, «- ^ f ^ 

Ful redy & ful ry^twys • & rewled hym fay re; c^ .ua-^ ; ► .. 

In j>e drede of dry^tyn * his daye3 he vse^, 295 

* .a^ivu^- & ay glydande wyth his god * his gr^ce wat3 ))e more. , 

Hym wati be nome Noe • as is innog\^e knaweii, : ' ''^5 ♦ -' •'" ' ' 

i.u^/'»*'jHe had ^ tjyuen su«e3 • & l)ay ))re wyue3; 

Sem sol>ly])at on • ))at o))irr hy5t cim,'^>- mc....^ r^*^ ^-^^-^ 

a... - »^ 

I .7. !«•'-*' & fc iolef lapheth • wat3 gendered )>e bryd. 300 

Now god i« nv;^ • to Noe con speke, - ^^^' ui**^^- ^''> - '^ 
u.. «/««*« Wylde wrakful wordea • i;:^ his wylle greued : , , 

' pe ende of alle-kyn^3 flesch • })at on vr))e meuej ~ f '\ ' 
r- • /<^f^ Is fallen for^wyth my face • & for|?^r hit I l>enk; S /^*" ^;. 

W/'t^ her vn-worbelych werk • m^wlatea w/t^-i«ne, ^'' ''''305 .^.-^ 
'''* »^ Vhc-P^ S^^^ l>^-of me hat3 greued • & l^e glette nwyedj /> -^'^ a** -j^' 

I schal strenkk my distresse • & strye al to-geder, = -'< ' 

Bo]>e ledej & Jpnde • & alle l>at lyf habbe3. 

Bot make to l>e a mancioiiw • & J)at is my wylle, ^^ ^^*^^<, 

i f.- 

it . A cofer closed of tres • clanlych planed ; 310 

Wyrk wonej \er\nn& • for wylde & for tame, y U/ f ..^ /^ »» '> 



^'^ 'L & j>e«ne cleme hit wiltA clay • comly w/t^-i«ne, 
^J^^^ci/-> & alle l>e endentur dryuen • daube w/l^-outen. ^ ^4* a.* '^^^^ 
& ))«^ of lenj)e & of large • J)at lome ]j(?u make ; ^j-txJ^ 
pre hundred of cupydef • jj^ni holde to ))e len]>e, 315 

Of fyfty fayre ougr -)?wert * forme )>e brede ; 
& loke euen ]>at |)yn ark • haue of hej^ )>rette, kju.i^il* ^^"^ 
& a w)iidow wyd ypon • wro3i vpon lofte, ' ^f^f ' 

; _, In be compas of a cubit • kyndely sware, hcU*4.*oL^ y ^ ^ fc4*.^«. . 

l^^l^c A wel dutande dor • don on J)e syde ; oU^-^ 320 

^^ ^ct<< Haf halle^ )>er-i«gev& halke^ ful mony, A* <^ * '^-^ ^. 
A,, . ^ j^ Bo]>e boskej & bo^re; • & wel bouwden gene^ ; /=^^^ 5 , n [rid^'^. 

For I schal waken vp a wat^r • to,\vasch alle be worlde, ,j , t 
n.ol.^ & quelle alle l>at is quik • w;t^ quau ende flode3. ^lUki^ 
-^^jr jftJ Alle ))at glyde^ & got^ • &^feost of lyf habbe^, , 325 

I schal wast with my wrath * bat wons vpon vrbe : ^ a^^ j ^ 
«»-,vi.»^ ^vi Bot my forwarde w/t>^ J)e • I festen on ))is wyse, fri- x' .<^/i/y 
For J)^u in reysouw hat3 rengned * & ry3twys ben eu^ ; 
povL schal ent^r J)is ark * vftth J)yn a]>el barnej/-^^ ^ 
& by wedded wyf : • with be b^u take 330 

c. --< . < tHv pe make3 of \y myjry su«e3 ; • ]>is meyny of ajte - ^'-^^y'^^ 5^ i'ov«~:ejK4 
a: -t ' vt^ I schal saue of mo«ne3 saulej • & swelt l)Ose oJ>^r. va a^uj*., 
Of vche best j>at bere3 lyf • bus k )>e a cupple, / P^ * • 
Of vche clene comly kynde * enclose seuen makej, 
\<<' Of vche horwed, i» ark • halde bot a payre, ^ 335 

^ For to saue me be sede • of alle ser kyndea : ^^ . ^^ ^'''■< • . '^'^ -^ 

.'av <.;i ' "* & ay )?^u men g w/tA ))e male3 * ))e mete ho2beste3, ^,%i (-^a.'i 
Vche payre by payre • to plese ayj)^r o))^r ; 
With alle j>e fode ]>at may be fouwde • frette jjy cofef, /^^^ i"*^ 
For sustnauwce to yow self • & also J)Ose o^er/ 340 

A'/. -" . Ful gray|)ely got3 j>is god man • & dos gode3 hestes, c^n ..-^^ • c i 
" ' " ' In dryi dred & dau«ger • |)at durst do non ojjer. 
'' ' t' Wen hit.wat3 fettled & forged \& to j?e fulle graybed, /vi^'>ct v v. 
, "^^ pe»n con dryjttyn hym dele • dryjly ]>yse worde3; 

j4 : ci-i ct 





* Now Noe/ quod oure lorde • * art }wu al redy ? 345 
Hat5 jxm closed j>y kyst • w/tA clay alle aboute?' 

* 3e> Lorde, wi'tA ^y leue' • sayde J)e lede |)e«ne, />^c^ 

* Al is wro^t at ))i word • as ^on me w^t lante;/ 

* Enter in l>e«n/ quod he * * & haf ))i wyf wttA jje, . 
py j>re siwe3 wz't^-outen J)rep • & her |)re wyue3 ; c*t^^^'' ^ 350 
Bestea, as I bedene haue • bosk b^-iwne als, ^i'^J^ 

& when 5e arn staued styfly • stekej yow |)^n«ne; ^*^*i 1, j^o^^y^^ 
Fro seuen daye^ ben seyed_ ' I sende out by-lyue. Qxc^cki^ 
Such a romanoe ryge • f»at rayne schal swy]? e, ihmj aU* -^^t^'i 


pat schal wasch alle J)e w^lde • of werke3 of fyljje ; 355 

Schal no flesch vpon fome • by fonden onlyue j h\<'^^(^ t- H^ 
Out-taken yow a3t • in ))is ark staued , fitrv^~^i^ 
Ui^ & sed bat I wyl saue • of byse ser bestei.' tt^^ra^K. 

Now Noe neu^r styste^ * • ]>at niy3[tj he bygymiej, v^^^ '^ " 
& al wer stawed & stoken • as }>e steuen wolde, t.ty,.,^c^^^^^Y'''• " 
^ Thewne sone com ))e seiien))e day • when s amned wern alle, ti<^ /^ **^ , < " 
^ «. J^ alle woned in be whichche,' be wylde & be tame., , w-^ /T^ - 
ittc-T^ Pe» bolned be abyme • & bonkea con ryse, a<Lutaii' at4. v ^ 


4^*,nir»-'Walt^j out vch walle-heued • in ful wode stremea, 
4 r . Wat5 no bmwme )jat abod • vnbrostep bylyue. Y"^ I 3^5 ^^^ ' 
^H^^^V^ i^el l auan?e 'log^g/to |)e lyfte^i^red. cxjx^ 

V <^-tMony clustered clowde » clef alle in clpwte^, ^^^ f . o. j-i-^'^. 
/To-rent vch a rayn-r jfte * & nisched to ))e yrj)e, 
'^'^it~ ?2P iisu^r i« forty dayej • & )>e» )je flod ryses, 
^^^O^r^s9^^ vche a wod • & ))e wyde felde^ ; 370 

For when j>e wat?r of be welkyn • w/t^ J)e worlde mette, 
• Alle bat deth mo5t qryse • drowned ber-i«ne ; 
^ per wat5 moon forto make • when meschef was cnowen, 
' \,^ ^ pat no3t dowed bot be detl^i ; in be depe stremea. 
.vJLior Wat^r wylger ay wax • wone3 fat s jryede , r slrn- 'cU^Urjii^g^^ 
v'^'i ! r Hurled i«-to vch ho«j • hent J)at J)er dwelled '. ^ "^ ^^^^hu^ , 

,^ . IclJ^ » ftyntej? ^^^{>-V » MS. •dowcUcd/ 



< f}^ t^a cU.t^V 

>^ ^-triL ^i^^f hf^^ irceji.-i^ 


un*-a*-^^ Fyrst feng to ]?e fl3^!} t • alle ))at fle W^tj, . 

(rryd • Vuche burde vvAh her barne • J)e byggy;gg ^|)ay leuej. , . / . 

^' 'H:^.J"''']& bowed to J>e hy3 bonk • fer brentest hit wereS ^/^^. A-?^'^ 
c/ c,v^'^ & hetgrjy to J)e hy^e hylle^ * ]?ay [h]aled on faste; 380 

tJit.-/'^" Bot al wat3 nedle^ ner^note • for neu^r cow})e stj[ntt«A/-^ 

o'>'^ pe roje rayimiide ?yg"* [&] J>e r aykande wawe5,a3^<!»^c^ u-cla.^/^ 
Irn .^fJ^ Er vch boj^om wat ^rurd-f ul * to ))e bonkej egge^, <24^^, ^^^ ^ 4^4-/?^ 
^"^ ^'^'^p. **'**'& vche a dale so depe * ))at denned at |>e brynke :^, frv*J^ 
pe moste inou«tay«e3 on mor • ^enne wat^ no more dry^e, 
& J)^r-on flokkedbe folke • for ferde of J)e wrak e. l/^ ^<^^386 
CLfk . cwivvVi Sy]?e n ))e wyfle of Jje wode • on J)e wat^r flette ; ^ /£ /£i «v/f 

Su/wme swy/«med )>^r-on ' )>at saue hemself trawed , 'U'/*^'^^^-^ '^^''^^ 
Jiu W t«^ Siuwme sty;e to a. stud • & stared to |>e heuen, ^ 1^^ ,n^^ti^-j M^ -C 
* ^* V^, Rwly wyth a louo^O* rored for drede. 390 

Hare3, hertte j also • tQ.]?e hyge niwnen, ^^ [u..v^..i, k^^;'^('J 
' „,t^ '^^^ Bukke5, bausene3, ftT^e^ • to ))e bonkkej hjgedjItaWtu^^vHi iu^^v^ 
& alle cryed for care ; to be ky;/g of heuen, 
.a u-^.*-^^* Re-cou£rer of ))e creator • ))ay cryed vchone, ^o./« f»*^ 
.... , ^ pat amouy/ted )?e ma se ^ • his mercy wat^ passed, 395 

& alle his pyt6 departed • fro peple J)at he hated. 
Bi bat be flod to her fete/ floaed & waxed, 
pen vche a segge sej wel • ))at synk nym byhou^ d ; ''^-' • ^ 
^ V Frende3 feUen i;g-fer e • & fannied togeder- '^>^-^o<uA (UcXcH^^-^^ a£ 
c^^cy. ^ ' rpQ dry^ her delful^ deystyn^ • & dy^en'^alle samen ; : ^ ;- ^ K v^ 406^^' '*^ 
-V, . ^-^ .1 Luf lokei^o luf • & his leue takei^ 

For to ende alle at one3 • & for eu^r tw^«ne. -^/^^^ *- -^<^*^ •* 1 
By forty daye3 werii faren, * on folde j^o flesch styryed, 
^J lu'/.^^ -pat )>e flod nade al freten • with fe^tande' wa3e3 ^ '-^"^ '■''-'^ 
. ■.'■-'^■^ For hit clam vche a clyflfe • cubit^j fyftene, 405 

Ouer j>e hy^est hylle • j>at hurkled on erjje. >-^ ^'^^ > ^^ , 
X pe«ne mowrkne in jje mudde * most ful nede 

» MS. • wcrn.' ' MS. * be masse ffc mase.* -^ "" * '^ ' - 

.' • ' 
• wa3e3 = waghez= wawes, i. e. waves. ^ « • '/ v . / .. 

"^ J f\J>J\X 


AUe )?at spyrak le i»-spranc^,^Jio sprawlywg awayled, avcuixA- , 
. "'. tv^ Saue |)e ha}?el vnder hach ^& his here strau^ge, cus^^ •* ''^^ ^ ^^..y' 
^^^^jNoe, ))at ofte neueneq • |>e naipe of oure lorde, 410 

\^yi^y^ ajt-su^iw bat ark • as a)?el god lyked, 
^k«v-^ per allejed« i«%me/ lenged druye. ;\i.iivciA.v^i^,e/Aij • ^^y 

pe arc houen wat3 on hy3e • vvtih hurlande gotej, ^i'* 'i '»> •> ^^c*-^ t 
^aj^/'* Kest to l ^tn ej^ vncou|>e • J)e clowde^ ful nere. /^ u\^ 

*. ;^ Hit walt^red on )>e wylde flod • went as hit lyste, 415 

^<' Drof vpon be depe dam /^iw doMnger hit semed, 

With-oute« mast, o^er myke • o)j^r myry bawelyne, ^^^ '-'' ' 
Kable, o]>er capstan • to clyppe to her ankre3, cl^*;' " -f ^^^ ''^ 
jojv Hurrok, ob^r h^nde-helme • hasped on rober, }^,i^A^r 
..^ O^er any sweun ae sayl • to seche aft^r hauen, ^"^^-^ 420 

^';;*:;:rBot flote forthe w/U j^ef S^ • of J)e felle wynde^ ; ^t S ^t': a.. ^ ^<' ^ '^' 
^ Wheder-warde so be wat^r • wafte, hit rebouwde. 

Ofte hit roled on-rou;>^de • & rered on e^de, ^>-- 

u^ •?*(•' Nyf oure Lorde hade ben her Ipdej-mon * hem had lu/wpen 

harde. -r^^j, -St^w^au «K ^^ 

Of l>e len))e of noe l)rf' • to lay a lei date, 425 

pe sex hundreth of his age * & none odde 3ere3, 

To-walien alle fyse welle-hede3 • & )>e wat^r flowed, 
^ & l?rye^ fyfty ]>e flod • of folwande daye3, ^^p ir? c* u cs: 

Vche hille wat3 )jer hidde * w/tA y|?ej '^ ful graye ; 430 

Al wata wasted ,bat ber wonyed * be worlde v/it/i-\nne, ^^ ^ ^^ ^'^ 
\j^^\^rr- per eu^r flote, ojj^r flwe • oji^r on fote 3ede, cc-< t^ ^ A -j ^ ; ^'=- 
"\y^ That ro3ly(^.w?it3 jje remnau«t • |:at |)e rac dryue3, h^'-^ ^-'* " 
' pat alle genarej so ioysU*'wern ioyned wyth-i^ne.-^^^:^ ^ 
Bot quen )>e lorde ,of J)e lyfS? • lyked hymseluen 435 

u.,.£,..i-^ For to mywne on his mon • his meth )>at abyde3, -^r w;^'x '•- • ;- . 
pe« he wakened ja wnde • on watt^re3 to blowe ; 
pe«ne lasned J>e llak* • j>at large wat3 are, Urc»v 

» in-sprang? "^ « MS. •yrc}.' » rwly? * So in MS. 

n n^ 



pen he stac vp \e stange^ • sloped |)e wellej, 
^cidi , t cc^i Bed blyffli e ofjf)>e rayn * hit batede as fas t, ^ ^-^^ ^' ^440 
penne lasned )>elbj • Iqwkande to-geder. cCc^*^ «/> ///>^vi6.c«- 

''(.a/x* ^^''* 

Aft^r hajde^aye^ wem out • an hundreth & fyft^, 
SLJif^tf As bat lyUan dg lome ' luged aboute, /^^*^^ ^ - ,^^^y ^^ ^ ,i.«T^^ 
Where ))e wynde & ]>e weder • warpen hit wolde, hf/ cx^t^J^ 
Hit Battled on a softe day • synkande to grouwde ; 445 

e^.;,/»v^^«^' On a rasse of a rok • hit rest at j>e laste, 

^ .-, -1 On be moiwte of mararach • of armene hilles, t-^'^-"** -'-*■ 

pat oJ>^r-waye5 on ebry • hit hat ))e thanes. />^/^ ^^ **nVl J 
Bot ^a3 f e kyste in ))e crage3 • were ^ closed to byde, A^^-t^"^^^^ 

b,M rH!**:**^^ 5^^ fyned not j>e flod • ne fel to j>e bo])eme3, t'^^^o^^^ * ^^-o 
Bot J)e hyjest oCbe egge^ • ynhuled were* a lyttel/^^'C^'^'-'^^ 
pat ]>e burne bywne borde • byhelde j>e bare erjje ; ^ ^^' "v>' 

• -^ r J 


i)-j 7ac-t<C pe»ne wafte he vppn his wyndowe • & wysed )>^r-oute f^^ ^ do-j^UJ. 

A message fro )>at i^ejmy^' hem mold e^ to seche, du^/'^'<^-> '^ p(^^ 
4 c *c^*-^' pat wat5 }>e rauen so ronk • jjat rebel watj eu^r ; 455 

He wat3 colored as j>e cole * corbyal vn-trwe ; "^"^ '^^ ^ (k^'^.t . 

& he fo nge^ to .|)e flyjt ; & fawne^ on |)e wyndes, 
' ■ , . Houej hyje vpon hyjt • to herken ty))y«ges. (^ t<r ^^ 
• "' ' He crouke3 for comfort • when carayne he fyndej V^ " ' ^ 

Kast vp on a clyflfe • )jer costese lay drye ; Co a<» vi 460 

He hade j>e smelle of l>e smach • & smojtg j>eder sone, /'^ ^ f^- 

Falle3 on )>e foule flesch • & fyllej his wombe, 

& sone ^ederly forjete • ^ister-day steuen, '^ «~i ^ * r» c< 

ct r<.>.x 

'^ <• a* 

/• / 

'- -*.'!*■<' 

How )>e cheuetayn hym charged * J)at l>e kyst ^emed. - - -; '^ ^^-^ T 
pe rauen raykej hy;« forth • |iat reches ful lyttel ;•-'*' ' 465'"^ 
How alle fode^ ]>er fare • ellej he fynde mete ; ^ ^-^ / , "^^^^ / ^ ^. 
Bot )>e bume bywne borde ^ • j>at bod to hys come, - " ^ '^ '^ ^ ^ 
Banned hyw ful bytt^rly • vftih best^j alle samen ; .^ f s^a,.,*** "^ " ' '^^^ 
He seche^ an o^er sondejmon • & sette3 on J)e dqu«e'; ';^'/* , ; ; 
Bry«ge3 )>at bry3t vpon borde • blessed, & sayde, 470 

* MS. • wem/ * MS. • Idrde* ; see 1. 45 a. » For • douene.* 


* Wende, worJ)elych wyjt • v«f wone^ to seche, o-Uu-^^^^ 
,^tj Dryf ovLer bis dy/«me wat<?r • if )w?u druye fynde3, <^*'^j 
•T.w""^ Bry«g boj^rqe^ tobot ) • blysse to vus alle ; 

- ' vcvo^ "^ jjq Yyyffgj. (^ut pn j>e weder • on wywge^ ful scharpe, 475 

^^ui->^'^ ?S3!7 ^^^ ^ longe day • Jjat dorst neu^r Jyjt; a(tj k (. 

& when ho fynde^ no folde • her fote on to pyche, ca *^> ^ v*^**^* *Jj '^i 
Ho vmbe-kestej |)e coste • & J>e kyst seche^, ^ r ^^,(^ (f^K ot*ft 
V 1 -^ '' Ho hittej on )>e euentyde • & on ]>e ark sittej ; 
L "^ ' Noe ny^raes hir anon • & naytly hir stauej. sUay^c* h ^ ^80 
,^^ ti^sNoe on ano)>^r day • ny^me3 efte )>e dovene, ^[^ -; '^•^^ ^^^"^ 
i"^ ' i '' & bydde^ hir bpwe ou^r J>e borne''*' efte bonke^ to seche ; ^*^ ^ ^ ^^ 
' '^^^'\^ & ho skyrmej vnder skwe ;& skowte^ aboute, ^/< 'f* . ^ ^ r-:>c<^'^^ 
Tyl hit wat5 ny^e'at })e na3t • & noe ))e« sechej. ^4-,Vo -"'^ 
On ark on an euentyde • houej J)e dpwne, k^ *. c^ ' t^ 485 
On^siarhyn ho stod * & stylle hy;« abyde^ ; 
[^ What 1 ho brost in hir beke • a bronch of olyue, ^' ' ^ 
:^ ?f G^racyowjly vmbe-g rouen / savfttn grene leug; ^ccv^-o 

- 1 pat wata )>e sywgne of saiiyk '' ]>at sende hem oure lordcj, , - >. 
'- & ^ sa^^iwg of hy»2-self,* wi\A jjo sely beste3. ^'^'^**^^ ^ ' 490 

- -^ pen waq J>er ioy i« ]jat gyn • where Iu?wpred er dry^ed, • ':^'^,^jVu<- * 
.-& much comfort i;« J?atcofer •'j>at watj clay-daubed. (^^. J ^^ -„,;. 

" M)n7ly on a fayr morn • monyth ^e fyrst, >». »• '^ u.L/i/«^ ''' •' ;' ; 


pat fallen fonnast i« be aer • & be fyrst day, 
"' '^ Lede3 lojen m )>at lome * & loked )>^r-oute, 495 

How bat watt^rei wern woned ' & be worlde dryed. // '*^ ' " ' 
^ i Vchon loued oure lorde • bot lenged ay stylle, -^'^'7'' . ►. ^^ • 
-'•'^ Tyl ))ay had tybywg fro f^ t$lke • j>at tyned hem ^er-inne; '^■y ■ 

Pe« gode^ glam to hem gloS • ]>at gladed hem alle, / '' ^ 

Bede hem drawe to ]je dor • delyu^r hem he wolde ; - ' ^ 500 

pe» went Jjay to ]>e wykket • hit wait vpon sone, r .■ -« « ^ - •. 

Bo}>e ))e biirne & his barney • bowed yer-onte ; 

Her wyuej walkej hem wyth • & J>e wylde aft^r, 

CV l--^c'U ^^ 

JIS kaX^ta^ t^oJJUx. 

r , ^T 


SM4>-n;. proly ^niblande i« fronge • ]>rgwen ful ^^^kke.t^iSOvH^-^ 

Bot Noe of vche hor^est kynde * nem out an odde, 505 

& heuened vp an autier • & halted hk fayre, «Mt\.t^A. fjf^^ kA'.i.^i^ 
& sette a sakerfyse ]j^r-on • of vch a^serKynde, »^ca^- *^* • ^ 
pat wata comly & dene • god kepe3 ^^^ o^per, & ^-' 

irU*^-^ Whei/ brenii y brenea J?ose best^3 ' * l'^ brejje rysed , A^^^e l^sX 
: .', '■ ^- ^ pe saupwr of his sacrafyse • so^tonym euen ^^ ^tr^K-s <(- cio 
. c j/a,'.(a*v pat al spede^ & spylle^" • he spekw with ))at ilke^ Sa^y^Qsx/^^j 

In comly comfort ful clos • & cortay s wordej : (uu/yi^tu . 
, » (ctti « Now, noe, no. more • nel I neu^r wary J^*-^^ '^'^ i,/^*^ &A(t?^,5c 
Alle ))e mukel mayny [on] molde * for no ma«ne3 sy«ne3,- .l- 
For I se wel bat hit is sothe/ bat alle mawne^ wyttes^^t**^ 515 
.»(f^«.-t To vn-l?ryfte arn alle |? rawen • witn jjo^t of her herttej, kiWv 
& ay hatj ben & wyl be • jet fro her barnage; cA<juiUt,c^ 
Al is ))e mynde of ))e man • to malyce enclyned, 
• '*^ For-)?y schal I neu^r scnende • so schortly at on es, ocl ci\u^ . 
cU-iTVu As dysstr^al for manej sywne • [in] dayej of l>is erj>e. 520 
a , -• o Bot waxej now & wendej forth • & wof^ to monye, kt4>^ *rjr^^ 
Multyplyej on )jis molde • & menske yow by-tj^de. f .'^f <^ ^ ^T V^' \ 
' Sesou^^ej schal yow neu^r sese • of sede ne of heruest, ' 

Ne hete, ne no harde forst • vmbre ne drojjje, 
Ne j>e swetnesse of somer * ne ]je sadde wynt^r, 525 

Ne j>e nyjt, ne ))e day • ne ]?e newe jerej, 
^ 7r . ..a^c Bot eu^r r^ne restlej • rengnej je J>^-i«ne. '..*.._ <, * 

p^rwyth he blessej vch a best * & bytajt hem J)is erjje. B^AhA,i/,.J^ 
pen watj a skylly sKjiialde • quen scaped alle j>e ^^ylde ; 
Vche fowle to j>e flyjt • Jjat fyj^erej myjt seme, Usi'^^ 530 
Vche fysch to j)e flod • j>at fywne couJ)e nayte, G^. > Wv^ 
\ Vche beste to )>e bent • J>at ^ byt^j on erbej ; 

Wylde worme3 to her won • wryj)e3 '\n J)e er|)e; (<' ^-6 ^ 
pe fox & )>e folmarde ' to j>e fryth wyndej, h ^^C 
»; Hertt^j to hy5e;hej)e • harej to gorstej, / .ct. /^.^^ '/' 535 

"5 J' 

'v -^ 4 '■ 


& l^Gun^^ & lebardej • to )>e lake-ryft^^, ^ujiu.? 
^'^kU Hernej & haueke^ • to fe hyji^och^; >f 5 6v>.V e^.^ <^ i^^ 
',-kL /tiv«^pe hole-foted fowle • to .be fiod hyae;, /.a^k^vo, 
■^r^A & vche best at a brayde • ber hyw best lykea : w /, >^^ /j>ua/ VvV^. 

pe fowre freke3 of J?e folae • fonge ^ J>e empyre.^^*^**^ 540 ^ 
^viuxcLo ! suche a wrakfiil wo • for wlatsu^ dedej 7^^/^5 €o«/^^7k«^ 

Parformed j>e hy^e fader • on folke J?at he made ; ^ ^ M^ *' 
iiaX^ pat he chysly hade cherisched • he chastysed ful harde ^, 

In de^ yoydyng e )?e vylanye • fat venkguyst his j^ewej. /**<x^ ^ 

- — - The Destruction of Sodoin,^ i ^ f . t" ' — " 

7^ ^ .n r • . -^ J. 1^^"^*^ 947-972.] 

pe grete god i» his ^eme • bygy«ne3 onlofte ; o^itj^ 

To wakan weiSre| so wylde • J)e wynde3 he calle^, t */ c«h 16./- ^ 
u> vr-e ^ j,ay wro))ely vp- wafte • & wrastled togeder, ^ 

Fro fawre half of J)e folde • flytande k)ude. "/nr^'-^ ^ ^ (f'^sS " 
^-itv.<&/ii ^^owde3 clustered bytwene * kesten vp toixes, ^ Co^'U . ^'t ' ^^ i- . 
■'-y^ li^at J),e l>ik ^der-t>rast • girled hem ofte. /^^^^ p u «^ -- 
A/^t£^ pe rayn niekd adpu« • ridlande J)ikke, -^^ • vv*vy 
^^cJv?» Of felle flaunkes oif fyr • & flakes of soufre, ^Pu^h Lt'L 

Al in smolderande smoke • smachande ful ille, ^^^^^'^^^ p^5 
^ucu^^ Swe^ aboute sodamas • & hit syde^ alle, 
/uMA l-J^ Gorde to gomorra • )>at ]?e grouwde lansed; c^j^J^iJi. 

Abdama and syboym * |)ise ceteis alle faure, Ctto^^ .^ 

^:^jj Al birojled^vyth I'era;^^ • rostted & bregned, ^t\ ..A I ^ ^ A^^^ 
M».*(/i4w»*4 & ferlj flawed j)at fo^* ))at \n )?ose fees lenged. Ct^cr>- 960 .^^♦'^ 

For when )jat )je helle herde • ]>e hou^/dej of heuen, ( ; 0.'-^ •■ "' 
«*r»v^^^ He wat^ ferly ly f^y • vnfolded bylyu e ; c^^v.^Wj 
'^'^ pe grete barre5 of ))e abyme • he barst vp at one3, 

pat alle \^ regioiw to-ro f • \n riftes ful grete, 

* MS. 'bardee.'^ ^ * sweycd? keo^Y/vvt-^- H 

cL^^i. d 


& clouen alle In lyttel cloutes * ^e clyfFej aywhere, ^^ 965 
'^ '^^ As lance leue3 of j^e boke • j>at lepes i/i twym ie. \ < ^ ^^ wvvv» 
pe brethe of ))e brynston * bi j>at hit blende were, 
Al bo citees & her sydes • sunkken to helle. -wj^ . ^ J* "^^"^ 
Ryde ljes wem Jk) gxete roWtes * of renkke s wiW-i«ne, 
,1 u.t - When )jay wem war of ))e wrake • Jjat no wyje achaped ; 970 
J^^^ ' ^ Such a j om^rl y ^ arm • of ^ellywg )>er rysed, 7>^4/ie*y ^ o k^jLwxjT- 
per-of clat^red jje cloudes ' ]>at kryst myjt haf raw)>e . 

( [Lines icx)9 — 1051.] 

r5 T<x5 . Suche a ro}>u« of a reche • ros fro )>e blake, bU^ •^ l;ta0^wi.^ 
Lc-^i i . Aske ^ vpe i« Jie ayre * & vsellej j>er flowen ,4^Lv v45 y^«if6ioi^i»^ 
' .,,**«t As a fomes ful of flot '^at VRpn fyr boyles, . .1 

Vfwi -sWhen bry^t orewnande Frondes • ar bet l>^-an-vnder. kw<A^ 0"^ i^ 

' . t W' "^When bry;t Dre;gnand e brondej • ar bet } ^- 

^ ^ pis watj a uengaiwce violent • jjat yoyded ))ise places, e^Tld. 

' pat foundered hatj so fayr a folk • & ))e folde sonkken. 
^ - ''" ' per fauw citeqs wem set • nov is a see called, 1015 




pat ay is drouy & dym • & ded i« hit kynde, u./^^ ^'s Kt^'i^,^ 
' "■''; Bio, blubrande, & blak • vnblyjje to ne^e, u^Auk_^ck^'^ ^-Kf^^cr a^^mol, 
" "* ' " As a stynkande stanc • bat stryed sy»ne , cu auyvK -^ ^^^^^ ^ 
7 / ] pat eu^r of sy» ne & of smach • smart is to fele ; "^et 

For-]>y J>e derk dede see • hit is demed en^r-more," 1020 

For hit dede^ of dejje • duren )>ere jet. /-^"^ /^ ^ S*.f^<^^ ^ ^ ^^€^ 
For hit is brod & bobewle^ • & bitter as be galle, 
& nojt may lenge \n \2X lake • j)at any lyf berej, /^ ^ a>J.»^ 

/ ^^ & alle |ie costej of kynde • hit combrej vchone; ^ r/^^ou- irftboJCs 
For lay j>^- on a lump of led * & hit on loft fletej, 1025 

& folde yr-on a lyjt fyV^r • & hit to fou^s synkkej. rrtt^v^ 
. .-^. .r^ ft j,^ [j,at] watfr may VaW. • to wete any er))e, 

Schal neu^ grene \er-on CTOwe • gresse ne wod naw^r. >^w£tv 
^ If any schalke to be schent •' wer schowued ^erAnnt^ h ^** hjuo i • 
paj he bode in J)at bo))em • broj>ely a monyth, ''^; {,>;^ 1030 
He most ay lyue in ]>at loje • in Xp^yns, e u^r-more. 


& neuer dry^e no dethe • to dayes of ende. 
Ctvixitfi- &, as hit is corsed of kynde • & hit^oostej als, f^^*' *^^ 

^ 7w- P® ^^^y y^^ clenges ]>er'hy • am corsye s strong, errrrv Ut^? 
;uC^t As alum & alkaran ^ • ]>at angr6 ^ arn boJ)e, ^ c^-*^ ^^ 1035 

Soufre sowr, & saiwdjwr • & o)i^r such mony ; ^ ^^ . 

/otfCCa A^ & j>er walte^ of j>at wat^r • in waxlokes grete, , 

-H^Mm Pe spuniande * aspaltou« • bat spysere^ sellen: ^^ UUx^.^y^^i^i^^^' < 

v.T+^ pat fel fretes j)e fl^di * & festred * bones. "^1040 

& )>er ar tres by J)at terne^ * of traytowres [kynde], 
' ..r^*,*^ & >ay borgouwej & beres • blomes ful fayre, ^^ f^i.^-- ;t''H 
& )>e fayrest fryt • })at may on folde growe, jTWe^^/*" 
As orenge & o))^r fryt • & a2gle^garnade;/3-o.x^9><**-^^c. "^ ^^j\J^ '" 
Also red & so ripe • & rychely hwed, 1045" ^« «7. . 

,'^^Jl^v As any dom my^t deuice • of dayntyej oute ; 

Bot quen hit is brused, oJ)^r broken * ol^er byten in twywne, 
oc^ No worlde^ goud hit wyth-i«ne * bot wydow ande ^ aakes ; a! ^ 
j^ap^ I Alle byse ar teches & tokenes • to trow vpon aet, ^<.t.c «>^ 
'^7*#^i& wittnesse of ]>at wykked werk • & Jje wrake aft^r, 1050 

pat oure fader forferde • for fyl)>e of )>ose ledes. ^u »,.''c . 

cX-e-«i-C-L-e., frp^ ^</ ►ax, 
1 alkatran? * avgre«aigre? ' spinnande? 

* festres ? • MS. * wywdowande.' 

t t^Otcr-r.. 



K 2 

u.^a.c;^^ j,^r,U-r,U if Ma^,co firCc, f\i^^ QcUk^ 


A^D. 1356. 

Sir John Mandeville was born about a.d. 1300, commenced 
his travels in the year 1322, and wrote an account of them in 
English in the year 1356. He died in Novem ber 1371 or 1372. 
The following extracts, in thA^ Midland dialecfi are copied from 
< The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundeville,' edited, 
from the edition of 1725, by J. O. Halliwell, London, 1839. 
This edition was founded on the Cotton MS. Titus C. xvi. 

The Prologue, 

[Corrected bjr Cotton MS. Titus C. xvi.] 

[Pages 1-5.] 

atto For ds moche as the lond be^onde the see, that is to 

seye, the holy lond, that men callen the lond of promys- 

• ( nu/i sioun, or of beheste, passynge alle othere londes, is the most 

worthi lond, most excellent, and lady and sovere)ii of alle 

5 othere londes, and is blessed and halewed of the precyous 

body and blood of oure Lord Ihesu Crist ; in the whiche lond 

it lykede him to take flesch and blood of the virgyne Marie, 

r< ;i oXi^kK to^nvyrone that holy lond with his blessede feet ; and there 

he wolde of his blessednesse enoumbre him in the seyd 

6+ I... 

XIV. (a) prologue to the voiage. 165 

blessed and gloriouse virgine Marie, and become man, and 10 
:^ '>»^ worche many m3rracles, and preche and teche the feyth and 
the lawe of crystene men imto his children: and there it 
lykede him to sufFre many reprevynges and scomes for us ; 
and he that was kyng of heuene, of eyr, of erthe, of se^^aiid^^^ je^Z-J* 
of alle thinges that ben conteyned in hem/wolde(alte^^ iSiru-'ner uV- 
'"'' ben cleped kyng of that lond, whan he seyde, jRex sum 
^ : <r ludeoruniy that is to seyne, / am kyng of lewes ; and that 
' .Vv«^ t lond he chees before alle other londes, as the beste and 

most worthi lond, and the most vertuouse lond of alle the j4^^<^*^'*' 
world : for it is the herte and the myddes of alle the world : 20 
wytnessynge t he p^fflosophe re. that sejrth thus: Virius re- 
rum in medio consistii: that is to seye, the veriue 0/ ihinges is 'jj, 
in the myddes ; and in that lond he wolde lede his lyf, and J 5 * <^ 
suffre passioun and deth, of lewes, for us; for to bye and 
to delyvere us from peynes of helle, and from deth with- 25 
outen ende ; the whiche was ordeynd for us, for the synne 
of oure formere fader Adam, and for oure owne synnes also : 
for as for himself, he hadde non evylle deserved: for he 
thoughte nevere evylle ne did evyile : and he that was kjnig 
of glorie and of ioye, myghte best in that place sufFre 30 
deth, because he ches in that lond, rathere than in ony 
^ ..."-^^othere, there to suffre his passioun and his deth; for he 
that wil pupplische ony thing to make it openly knowen, he 
wil make it to ben cryed and pronounced in the myddel 
place of a town, so that the thing that is proclamed and 35 
pronounced may evenly strecche to alle parties : right so he 
•<^"'*''^ that was formyou r of alle the world, wolde suffre for us 
at Jerusalem, that is the myddes of the world ; to that ende 
and entent, that his passioun and his deth, that was pup- 
plischt there, myghte ben knowen evenly to alle the parties 40 
of the world. See now how dere he boughte man, that he 
made after his owne ymage, and how dere he ajenboght A^^'- ' 

its ah^'^ -' ^ 


US, for the grete love that he hadde to us, and wee nevere 
/uKcc: deserved it to him. For more precyous catelle ne gretter^jA^ 
45 raunsoun ne myghte he put[te] for us than his blessede >u /uv/- 
^'^('.o^^^ body, his p:ecious blood, and his holy lyf, that he thralled ^1^» t 
^ ** ' for us ', and alle he ofFred for us, that nevere did synne. 
Al dere God, what love hadde he to us his subiettes, whan he 
that nevere trespaced wolde for trespassours suffre dethi 
50 Right wel oughte us for to love and worschipe, to drede 
and serAen such a lord; and to worschipe and preyse 
such an holy lond that brought forth such fruyt, thorgh 
0\ dUi-c^ '^ the whiche every man is saved, but it be his owne defaute. wu*^^ 

iJi ov/t W®^ ™^y ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ calleddely table and a fnictuouse lond, 
L<f^- , 55 that was bepiedd and moysted with the precyouse blode of 
., .«' ' ^ oure Lord Ihesu Crist : the whiche is the same lond, that 
." oure Lord behighte us in heritage. And in that lond he 

,_,.*ca. fi- wolde dye, as seised, for to leve it to vus his children. 
Wherfore every gode cristiene man, that is of powere, and 
U^" '!^ 60 hath whereof, scholde peynen him with alle his strengths 
for to conquere oure right heritage, and chacen out alle the 
mysbeleevynge men. For wee ben clept cristene men, after 
Crist oure fader. And jif wee ben right children of Crist, 
wee oughte for to chalenge the heritage that oure fader lafte 
65 us, and do it out of hethene , mennes hondes. But now 
pryde, covetyse, and envye han so enflawmed the hertes of 
lordes of the world, that thei are more besy for to disherite 
here neyghbores, more than for to chalenge or to conquere 
here right heritage before-seyd. And the comoun peple, 
70 that wolde putte here bodyes and here catelle for to con- 
quere oure heritage, thei may not don it withojiten the 
i.i. ••1^1 lordes. For a semblee of peple withouten a cheW teyn or k 
a chief lord, is a? a flok of scheep withouten a schepperde; y'\ 
the which departeth and desparpleth, and wyten never whider ^ 
75 to go. But wolde God, that the temporel lordes and alle \ 

XIV. (a) prologue to the voiage. 167 

worldly lordes weren at gode acord, and with the comoun 
peple wolden taken this holy viage over the see. Thanne 
I trowe wel that, within a lityl tyme, oure right heritage 
before-seyd schold e be reconsyled, and put in the hondes 
of the right heires of Ihesu Crist. 80 

And for als moche as it is longe tyme passed, that ther 
was no generalle passage ne vyage over the see ; and many 
men desiren for to here speke of the holy lond, and han hc^-^-^ 
there-of gret solace and comfort; I lohn Maundevylle, 
Knyght, alle be it I be not worthi, that was bom in Englond, 85 
in the town of Seynt Albones, and passed the see, in the 
3eer of oure Lord Ihesu Crist Mill. ccc. & xxij., in the day of 
Seynt Michelle ; and hider-to have ben longe tyme over the 
see, and have seyn and gon thorgh manye dyverse londes, 
and many provynces and kyngdomes and iles ; and have 90 
passed thorghout Turkye, Ermonye the litylle and the grete, q^^^ 
Tartarye, Percye, Sufrye, Arabye, Egypt the high and the a » 
lowe^; thorgh Lybye, Caldee, and a gret partie of Ethiope ; s^i 'f*^^'-^ 
thorg h Amazoyn e,(lnQe the hsseYana tne mbre^ a gret partie; '*'*?'.".^^ 
and thorgh-out many othere iles, that ben abouten Inde ; 95 
where dwellen many dyverse folk, and of dyverse maneres 
and lawes, and of dyverse schappes of men. Of whiche 
londes and iles I schalle speke more pleynly hereafter. And 
I schalle devise 30U sum partie of thinges that there ben, 
whan tyme schalle ben, after it may best come to my mynde ; 100 
and specyally for hem, that wille and are in purpos for to 
visite the holy citee of Jerusalem and the holy places that are 
thereaboute. And I schalle telle the weye, that thei schuUe 
holden thider. For I have often tymes passed and ryden 
that way, with gode companye of many lordes : God be 105 

And 3ee schuUe undirstonde, that I have put this boke 

} From * Surrye' to < lowe' is omitted in the printed editions. 

/ r 

Ma' c^ 


out of Latyn into Frensch, and translated it ajen out of 
Frensch into Englyssch, that every man of my nacion may 
iiounderstonde it. 

But lordes and knyghtes and othere noble and worthi men, 

^ ^*^*'^ tjjg^^ conne not Latjni but litylle, and ban ben bejonde the 

r^ see, knowen and understonden 3if I seye trouthe or non, 

\^^U^a, and * 5if I erre in devisyng e, for forjetynge, or eUes'; that thei 

115 mowe redresse it and amende it For thinges passed out 

of. longe tyme from a mannes mynde or from his syght, 

tumen sone into forjetynge : because that mynde of man 

ne may not ben comprehended ne withholden, for the freeltee 

of mankynde. 

(B) Part of Cap. XII. 

Of the begynnyng of Machomeie, 
[Pages 139-142.] 

And jee schulle understonde that Machamete was bom 
in Arabye, that was first a pore knave that kepte cameles, 
that wenten with marchantes for marchandise; and so be- 
felle, that he wente with the marchandes in-to Egipt : and 
5 thei weren thanne cristene in tho partyes. And at the 
desertes of Arabye, he wente into a chapelle where a 
eremyte duelte. And whan he entred into the chapelle, 
that was but a lytille and a low thing and had but a lityl 
dore and a low, than the entree began to wexe so gret 
13 and so large and so high, as though it had ben of a 
gret mynstre, or the ^ate of a paleys. And this was the 
firste myracle, the Sarazins se}^!, that Machomete dide in 
his ^outhe. After began he for to wexe wyse and riche, 
and he was a gret astronomer : and after, he was governour 

' From *3if I seye' to ' and' is omitted in the printed editions. 

' *^ 


and prince of the lond of Corrodane ; and he governed it 15 
fiille wisely, in such manere, that whan the prince was ded, 
he toke the lady to wyfe, that highte Gadrig e. And Macho- ^^''^'^V \ ' 
mete fejle often in the grete sikenesse, that men callen the '^^ • 't^^' 
"^^ fall^ ige evyfte : wnerfore the lady was fuUe sory, that evere ,^>!^. , \ 
sche toke him to husbonde. But Machomete made hire to 20 
beleeve, that alle tymes, whan he felle so, Gabriel the angel 
cam for to speke with him; and for the gret light and /, ,_ 
brightnesse of the angelle, he myghte not susteyne him iioa c^' '. - 

fallynge. And therfore the Sarazines seyn, that Gabriel "ici^i 

cam often to speke with him. This Machomete regned in 25 ''''' 
Arabye the ^eer of oure Lord Ihesu Crist .vi. c. & x. ; and 
was of the generacion of Ysmael, that was Abrahames sone, 
that he gat upon Agar his cna mberer e. And therfore ther 
ben Sarazines that ben clept Ismaelytenes ; and summe Aga- 
ryenes, of Agar : and the othere propurly ben clept Sarra- 30 
zines, of Sarra : and summe ben clept Moabytes, and summe 
Amonytes, for the .ij. sones of Loth, Moab and Amon, \^ ^ 
that he begatt on his doughtres, that weren aftirward grete 
erthely princes. And also Machomete loved wel a gode 
heremjrte, that duelled in the desertes, a myle fro Mount 35 
Synay, in the weye that men gon fro Arabye toward 
Caldee, and toward Yride, o day iourney fro the see, where . 
the marchauntes of Venyse comen often for marchandise. 
And so often wente Machomete to this heremyte, that alle 
his men weren wrothe : for he wolde gladly here this here- 40 
myte preche, and make his men wake alle nyght : and ther-^'' 
fore his men thoughten to putte the heremyte to deth: and 
so befelle upon a nyght, that Machomete was dronken of 
gode wyn, and he felle on slepe ; and his men toke Macho- 
metes swerd out of his schethe whils he sleg te, and there- 45 
with thei slo wgh this heremyte, and putten his swerd al 
blody in his schethe ajen. And at morwe, whan he fond 


the heremyte ded, he was fulle sory and wroth, and wolde 

have don his men to deth : but thei alle with on accord 

50 [seyde], that he himself had slajoi him, whan he was 

^ . ^ ,.^ dronken, and schewed him his swerd alle blody : and he 

, . {- 1^^ trowed that thei hadden seyd soth. And than he cursed 

', > the wyn, and alle tho that drynken it. And therfore Sarra- 

zines, that ben devout, drynken nevere no wyn : but §umme 

55 drynken it preyvly. , For 5if thei dronken it openly, thei 

^,, , ^ ' scholde ben ref>revedr But thei drynken gode beverage and 

, ^ swete and norysshynge, that is made of Galamelle : and that 

' "" is that men maken sugre of, that is of right gode savour: 

;., A I .'m^.'^ and it is gode for the breest. Also it befalleth sumtyme, 

60 that Cristene men becomen Sarazines, outher for povertee or 

for symplenesse, or elles for here owne wykkednesse. And 

' ''•' therfore the archi flamyn or the flamyn, as oure e[r]che- 

bisshopp or bisshopp, whan he resceyveth hem, seyth thus, 
La ellec olla syla, Machomet rores alia V that is to seye, There 
65 is no God but on^ and Machomete his messager. 

(C) Cap. XXVI. 

Of the Contrees and Ties that ben beionde the land of Cathay ; and 
of the Frutes there ; and of xscij Kynges enclosed «withm the 
, Mountaynes, 
\. .-. ♦. * [Pages 263-269.]. . .^^^ fw..ufc.»-ei. 

Now schalle I seye 50U sewyngly of contrees and yles, that 
ben bejonde the contrees that I have spoken of. Wherfore ,: 
I seye 50U, in passynge be the lond of Cathaye, toward the ''^ 
c\ 0^ high Ynde, and toward Bacharye, men paissen be a kyng- 
5 dom that men clepen Caldilhe ; that is a fulle fair contre. 
And there groweth a maner of fruyt, as though it weren 
gowrdes: and whan thei ben rype, men kutten hem a-to, 

- * Rather, La Ilia ilia Allah, we Mubammed Resul Allah, 

/• ' 

1^ X/r. (C) rff^ CONTREES BEYONDE CATHAY. 171 

and men fynden with-inne a lytylle best, in flesch, in bon (^ r . (^ 
*^" and blode, as though it were a lytille lomb with-outen woUe. «* f'^''' 
And men eten bothe the frut and the best : and that is a 10 
gret merveylle. Of that frute I have eten; alle-though it 
were wondirfulle : but that I knowe wel, that God is mer- 
veyllous in his werkes. And natheles I tolde hem of als 
gret a merveyle to hem, that is amonges us: and that was ;^», ,^ 
of the Bernakes. For I tolde hem, that in oure contree is 
weren trees, that baren a fruyt, that becomen briddes. • -^ ;. 
fleeynge : and tho that fellen in the water, lyven ; and thei \^ 
that fallen on the erthe, dyen anon : and thei ben right gode 
to mannes mete. And here -of had thei als gret mer- 
vaylle, that summe of hem trowed, it were an inpossible 20 
thing to be. 

In that contre ben longe apples, of gode savour ; where- of 
ben mo than an .c. in a clustre, and als manye in another : 
and thei han grete longe- leves and large, of .ij. fote long -t^^ 
or more. And in that contree, and in other contrees there 25^5^ 
abouten, growen many trees, that beren clow e-gylof res and ^ 
notemuges, and grete notes of Ynde and of Canelle and of ^< 
many other spices. And there ben vynes that ^ren so /^s q*.*-'^ 
grete grapes, that a strong man scholde have ynbw to done 
for to here o clustre with alle the grapes. In that same 30 
regioun ben the mountaynes of Caspye, that men clepen :, '^'frv^ 
Uber in .the contree. Betwene tho mountaynes, the lewes (r ^-< ' ' * 
of .X. lynages ben enclosed, that men clepen Goth sma/iu^u 
Magoth: and thei mowe not gon out on no syde. There a*^'^<^*^ 
weren enclosed .xxij. kynges with hire peple, that dwelleden 35 
betwene the mountaynes of Sythye. There Kyng Alisandre 
chacede hem betwene tho mountaynes, and there he ^^^'^ ''^ 
thoughte for to enclose hem thorgh werk of his men. ''^^ 
But whan he saugh that he myghte not don it, ne brynge 

it to an ende, he preyed to God of Nature, that he wolde 40 

r 1 ^ 

to ''^<-< 



/^«vyi i^u parforme that that he had begonne. And alle were it so 

<v>H«c . ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ fayj?em e and not worthi to ben herd, ^it God 

of his grace closed the mountavnes to-gydre: so that'thei 

dwellen there, alle faste y-lokke d and enclosed with high 

45 mountaynes alle aboute, saf only on o syde ; and on that 

syde, is the see of Caspye. Now may sum men asken, ath "^ 

that the see is on that o syde, wherfore go thei not out on 

the see syde, for to go where that hem lyketh ? But to this 

questioun, I schal answere, that see of Caspye goth out 

50 be londe, under the mountaynes, and renneth be the 

desert at o syde of the contree; and after it streccheth 

unto the endes of Persie. And alle -though it be clept 

a see, it is no see, ne it toucheth to non other see : but 

, ^ it is a lake, the grettest of the world. And though thei 

i 55 wolden putten hem m-to that see, thei ne wysten never 

. i ui'^^.^^'Xt- where that thei scholde arryven. And also thei con^n no 

,ff '"' langage but only hire owne, that noman knoweth but 

^^T,.«co^'^^^.thei: and therfore mowe thei not gon out. And also 3ee 

,- ';' ** schulle understonde, that the lewes han no propre lond of 

60 hire owne for to dwellen inne in alle the world, but only 

that lond betwene the mountaynes. And ^it thei jelden^/. 

tribute for that lond to the Queen, of Amazoine, the whiche 

that maketh hem to ben kept in cloos fulle diligently, that 

thei schulle not gon out on no syde, but be the cost of hire 

' 65 lond. For hire lond marcheth to tho mountaynes. And 

often it hath befallen, that summe of the lewes han gon 

^^_,,»(Ui^ up the mountaynes, and ayaled down to the valsyes: but 

gret nombre of folk ne may not do so. For the mountajrnes 

,'^ ben so hye and so streght up, that thei moste abyde there, 

* ' ' v' 70 maugree hire myght. For thei mowe not gon out but 

^ooX Q^ Yye a Htille issue, that was made be strengthe of men: and 

' ^""^^ it lasteth wel a .iiij. grete myle. And after, is there jit a 

lond alle desert, where men may fynde no water, ne for 



dyggynge ne for non other thing. Wherfore men may 
not dwellen in that place: so is it fulle of dragounes, of 75 
serpentes, and of other venymous bestes, that noman dar 
not passe, but jif it be be strong wynter. And that streyt 
passage men clepen in that contree, Clyron. And that 
is the passage that the queen of Amazoine maketh to ben 
kept. And thogh it happene sum of hem, be fortune, 80 
to gon out, thei conen lio'maner of langage but Ebrew; 
so that thei can not speke to the peple. And jit natheles, 
men seyn thei schuUe gon out in the tyme of Antecrist, 
and that thei schulle maken gret slaughter of Cristene men. 

And therfore alle the lewes that dwellen in alle londes, 85 
lemen alle weys to speken Ebrew, in hope that whan the 
other lewes schulle gon out, that thei may understonden 
hire speche, and to leden hem in-to Cristendom, for to 
destroye the cristene peple. For the lewes seyn, that mei 
knowen wel, be hire prophecyes, that thei of Caspye schulle 90 
gon out and spreden thorgh-out alle the world; and that 
the Cristene men schulle ben under hire subieccion, als 
longe as thei han ben in subieccion of hem. And jif that 
5ee wil wyte"'how that thei schulle fynden hire weye, after 
that I have herd seye, I schalle telle 30U. In the tyme of 95 
Antecrist, a fox schalle make there his t^yne, and mynen ^ ^'^^ mC. 
an hole, where kyng Alisanare' feet malte the jates : and so -^^ - '' '* 
longe he schalle mynen and percen the erthe, til that h6 
schalle passe thorgh, towardes that folk. And whan thei 
seen the fox, they schulle have gret merveylle of him, be 100 
cause })at thei saugh never such a best. For of alle othere 
bestes thei han enclosed amonges hem, saf only the fox. 
And thanne thei schulle chacen him and pursuen him so 
streyte, tille that he come to the same place that he cam fro. 
And thanne thei schulle dyggen and mynen so strongly, 105 
tille that thei fynden the jates, that Kyng Alisandre leetjaake 


-- f "*^''' of grete stones and passynge huge, wel symented and made 

,,,..* v.*. gtrQnge for^the maystrie. And tho jates thei schulle breken, 

and so gon out, be fyndynge of that issue. Fro that lond 

no gon men toward the lond of Bacharie, where ben fulle yvele 

folk and fulle cruelle. In that lond ben trees> that beren 

woUe as thogh it were of scheep; where-of men maken 

clothes, and alle thing that may ben made of wolle. In 

. : a . . i that contree ben many Ipotaynes, that dwellen somtyme 

1^5 in the water and somtyme on the lond: and thei ben half 

man and half hors, as I have seyd before : and thei eten 

men, whan thei may take hem. And there ben ryveres and 

watres that ben fulle byttere, three sithes more than is the 


S CV' 


"o In that contre ben many griffounes, more plentee than 

in ony other contree. Sum men seyn, that thei han the 

*^ J. body upward as an egle, and benethe as a lyoun : and 

treuly thei seyn soth, that thei ben of that schapp. But 

o grifFoun hath the body more gret and is more strong 

'25 thanne .viij. lyouns, of suche lyouns as ben o this half; ana 
more gret and strongere than an .c. egles, suche as we 
han amonges us. For o griflfoun there wil here, fleynge 
to his nest, a gret hors, (jif he may fynde him | at the poynt\ ) 
or ij. oxen 3oked to-gidere, as thei gon at the plowgh. For 

>3o he hath his talouns so longe and so large and grete upon 

his feet, as though thei weren homes of grete oxen or of 

|Xut^^ :-^'^ bugles or of kyjn; so that men maken cuppes of hem. to 

drynken of; and of hire ribbes and of the pennes of hire 

. wenges, men maken bowes fulle stronge, tcTschote with 

*35 arwes and quarelle, (^c rv. t'^ - . . / ^ " <• 

* Omitted in the printed editions. // u , . f j ' 


.. c<-'v »v y^^ *'- 



A.D. 1362. 

According to tradition, William Langland, Longland, or 
Langley, was a native of Gleobury Mortimer in Shropshire. He 
must have been bom about the year 1333, and have died about 
1400. He is supposed to have been educated near the Malvern 
Hills (Worcestershire), where he composed the first version of 
his great poem entitled * The Vision of William concerning Piers 
the Plowman' (FZj/o Wtllelmi de Petro le Plowmati) shortly after 
the time of the great plague which ravaged England, a.d. i 361-3. 
About the year 1377 he was living in London, where he wrote 
his second version of the poem, extending it to three times its 
former length. Subsequently he returned to the West of Eng- 
land, and again re-wrote his poem, with various additions and 
alterations, between 1380 and 1390. 

Piers the Plowman is an allegorical poem, or series of poems, 
in which the author satirizes the vices and abuses of the age, the 
degeneracy of the prelates and priests, political corruptions, the 
avarice and rapacity of the nobility, and the oppression of the 
poor by the rich. Piers is intended to represent the model 
Christian, and is at times identified with Christ. 

All three versions of the poem (A -text, B-text, and G-text) 
are being published for the Early English Text Society, edited 
by the Rev. W. W. Skeat ; the first two volumes have already 
appeared. The following extracts are from the A-text, which is 
based upon the copy in the Vernon MS. in the Bodleian Library, 
the dialect of which is Southern, with Midlatid peculiarities. 


J^rw/^- .-'W^-..-^ y;ur^<^.../ ^/r.r^-.- 

[^From the earliest version of * The Vision of William 
concerning Piers^ the Plowman,*'] . «^ 

Prologus, V ' 

»«< A ■ £V, •►' - <" 

: .ja 11 * "^ 

; 1/^r ,ix^> I schbp me in-to a schroud • A^cheep as I were ; ^ 

In Habi te of an Hermite • vn-holy of werkes, "x^vT 

•, ^ ^5i^f'«- Wende(Ilwvdene)inbis world • wondres to here. \^^ 

^^teja aVJJayMJjIorwT^ on Malueme huUes ' 5 

c/... [ ^ Me bi-fel a lerly •. A l^eyrie, me )K)uhte; 

I wastveorifof wandrinere • and wente me to reste ^ 
vj:.^^-: — _o j ^ yj 

Vndur a broa banke • bi affiourne)syde, K<.>c '' ^-ck^' 

'C* And as I lay andQeonede\ and lokede on be watres, ■ .» ^ 
r I slumberde in A slepyng * hitv.sownede sontnurie^ lo 

u . . c; ti M . a . • . penne ^^on )! Meefen " *S Memdous sweuene, A S zu-^^^ & *^voiv 
; ^ pat I was in A Wildernesse 'v ^ustg) ! ^eu^r where, 

And as I^p-heold in-to J)e JEst • an^elf "to J)e sonne, 
- jv ' ^ .. I sauh a Tour on A Toft •%i3€ly,* I-maket; ^-^ - %. r '"^'^ i 
A{beopjDale ^h^neoJ)e f A dungun ^r-Inne, 15 

WitA deop dich anf derk • and dredful of siht. 
I . ;/^'' ^^ A Feir feld ful of folk • fond I ))er bi-twene, 

Of alle maner of men • J)e mene and jje riche, 
Worchinge and wondringeV asjje world aske)>. . v >. i' . . n. 
Su»ime putte« hem to ])e/plou3 ; & pleiden hem ful 
. /:;^iu". ^elSeneT*' Mcu«— ,. *"> / r /'/ ' • ^ -^<'^ 
In Eringe and in Sowynge • swonken tul harde/ ^ f"<<' t,.:^v 
,, . pat monie of Jjeos wasturs • In Glotonye distruen. ;^ .. dL^% ' 
And siuTime putter hem to pruide • ap^araylde» hew " 

)>tfr-after, ,- S , " ' / x. f"^ /^ ^ • — -*^ . 

In Cuntinau«ce of clo)>i«ge • queinteliche de-Gys et ; //- 

» So in Trill. MS. ; Vera. MS. • wonderliche.' '* '* '^*'' 




177 "t? 

To preyere and to penaunce • putten lieoiii;monye, 25 

For loue of(X^iord • liueden ful harde, "^^ 

In Hope for to haue • Heuene-riche blisse; 

':±:1^-As Ancres and Hermytes ' )>at^ holde^ ' hem in t'heore,.-' 

7^iK»/c^/oir»jS^^^Celles, ' 

^^ouey^not in Cuntre ; to carien a-boute, - ccu^^^ ^ uc . c/.v. >v ,^ 
' *'^F0m6n likerous lynod e • heore licam to plese. hteLt 30 '^ ^ 

■ .^Aci^^i,^ ^Q(j siwwme chosen Chaffare * to cheeuen J>e bettre,^*ccRx<l ^^^ \ ^ 
As hit semeb to vre siht • bat suche men scholden : » - , . *t Y '^ - 

And su»zme Murj)hes to maken 'as Munstrals cunne,A':,*^' y^].^£| ^ ^"^ 
And gete gold wibhere gle'"*'giltles, I trowe \ ...'•- '^. 
• V ^ote Tapers andl^jigelers • ludas Children, 0^ Ja^crti^y ^^^' ' ,^ 
^'^'^ ' ]Founden hem rantasyes • and fooles hem maaden, ,^ s ',.. ..xs tj- 

And ^bbej) wit at heor wille • to worchen jif hem luste.^*"-t/'i ^ < '- J" 
pat Poul prechej> of hem • I dar not preouen heere > j _r , » ^ 

Qui loquiiur turpiloquium • Hee is Lucifejfi&hj^ne. A i.^v.. A^'^'^' 
Bidders and Beggers * fagte^a-boute Ceodeiy U>^ '-^ « * 4? • 

= '' ^>t»^ Til heor Bagges & heor e- Banes ■ were« bratfur I-cro^wmet; 

- '■. >■ 


^ Feynede« \itm for heore foode • fonaten atte ale : : aCUu a<i - "'■ ^ 
. ."In Glotonye, God wot,* gonheo to Bedde, '^**' ' ' ' 

And,ryse)4i vp wijj rjLaudye *-^^s R oberdes k na ues ; /Xr -u ^^^^^-sCfex ,ie\i^ 

Slppn and Slembft • suwf^b hem piipr**. '' ' ^t . t c ah f ^^^ "" " ^ 

Sleep and Sleu^e • suwej) hem euere. ;".^< t v 45 

Pilgnmes and Palmers • Plihten hem to-ged^es 4- !/-<'• ' '•■ . 
For to seche seint leme • and seintes at Roome : (^^ ' "'- 

' • ' f ' * 

WenteaforJ) in heore wey • vfiXh mony wyse tales, 
u J VAnd hedden leue to ly^e n • al heore lyf aftir '. r» -> ^ 

/^ Ermytes on an hep * wi|) hokide staues, Jla**^ - -1^ "'^^ 50V ' 
\ . Went^^ J9 Walsyngham • &''herejj^chi^ftir * ; !;'^ ' ' :,' ;'\'/' 
Crete lobres"& longe • \ai to]) weore -to swynke, -,.^ . , ; - 
Clo)>eden hem in Copes • to'beo khowen for brej)^ren; 

-- — * This line is JFrom Trin. MS. ; omitted in Vemon MS. 
" Vem. *fa$te*; Trin. 'bratful.* » So in Trin.; Vcm. •tyme.* 

* Vem. MS. omits II. 50, 51, which are supplied fipom Trin. MS. 
VOL. n. N 

ft v*< 


And su/wme schopen hem * to hermytes • heore ese to haue. 
Ss fcii-n^ I Fon t \tere Freres • all ))e Foure Ordres, 55 

Prechinge J)e peple • for profyt of heore wombes, 

'^J^tu^{^-5 Glosynge Jje Gospel * as hem good likej>, 

:tii Atu<rh^*^^For Couetys e of Copes • Construe)) hit ille ; 

For monye of Jjis Maistres • mowew cloven hem at lyking, 

For Moneye & heore Marchauwdie • meetew ofte toged^re. 60 ^^r . 

c-y^^ 'Se^be) charite ha)) be chapmon • and^ cheef to schriue» v ■ 

-^ J- ^ , lordes, """■ A^^, h -^^^^ 

^^^du'^ Mony ferlyej hanfbi-falle/ in a fev^je jeres. 

But holychirche bi-ginne * holde(bet >to-gedere, 4 ^ ^"^-^^^ 
pe moste Mischeef on molde • mounte)) vp faste. 

per pr^chede a pardoner • as he a prest were, 61 

•And brou3t vp a Bulle • wj'tA Bisschopes seles, t 

And seide }pat him-self mihte * a-soylen_ hem alle ^ C < ' \^v*<- 
Of Falsnesse of^ Fastinge * and of vouwes I-broken. \. .>t; 

(r ., ( ravvL pe lewede Men likede hiw wel * a nd leeu e[) his speche,^^^^^^- 

, / . / And comen vp knelyn^e • and ^cussedenhis Bulle : 7oj^ o- 

/< •- He bonchede hem vtiih his Breuet • & blered heore (eigepj -^ ^^ 
',i\\i^^ And rauhte viiih his Ragemon * Ringes and Broches. CoJ^r,^ ^'- - 

i> . .A C 

^ : Weore jje Bisschop I-blesset • and wor|) bo))e his Eres , i > 7$ 

VHeo^cholde not beo so hardi • to deceyue so ))e peple. 
^ \,''^ Saue hit nis not bi ))e Bisschop • ))at )>e Boye pr^che)); 
"^ Bote ))e Parisch-prest and he • de-parte ))e seluer, ^^c^"^ 
pat haue schulde ))e pore parisschens * 5if jjot^ieo^e weore. 
P^rsones and parisch-pr^stes • glaynej) to heore Bis- 
SchopS, 'd(.r.JJ.: f,^ 80 

pat heore Parisch ha)> ben pore • se))))e ))e Pestilence tyme *, 
And aske)) leue and lycence * at londun to dwelle, 

* Vcm. MS. omits bem, ' Vera. MS. omits and. 

» Vern. •and*; Trin. • of.* * Vcm. MS. omits tynu» 

^iJK^i Xd/ue 

Ct^**^ '¥' >rcvt/tvvur evM ^9^ ^wx\. 


To singe )>er for Simonye • for seluejiis swete^^.^^ ,. ^"^ / ' .j 
; ;^ per houeb an Hundret • In Houues of selkf'^^T^^' '-^ ^^ • • . 
t .a.-^o S eriauns hit seme}? • to seruen atte Barre ; /a-^^ /u /^^^^ /g- 
Pleden for pons * and pou»des )?e lawe, 
Not for loue of vr lord * vn-losej) heore lippes ones. 
pow mihtest beter metew J)e Myst • on Maluerne hulles, 
pen geten a Mom of heore Mouj) • til moneye weore 

schewed . ^\,:.^av 

I sauh jj^r Bisschops Bolde • and Bachilers of diuyn ^90 
Bi-coome Clerkes of A-Counte • \e kyng for to seruen; 
Erchedekenes and Deknes • bat Dignite hauen, ^ ^ , ^ , ^ .,,^x 

F>^' ^ To^rf che J)e peple * and pore men to feede, ^ "^ ' 

/i,S ^egnj lopen tcrlondun • bi leue of heore Bisschopes, 

To ben Clerkes of be kynges Benche • |>e Cuntre to schende. U* ' '-^ ^^ 
Barouns and Burgeis • and Bonde^men also kvxdvKiZ "96 »'*^ 


I sau3 in jjat Semble • as je schul heren her-aftur, , I 

'*^ Bakers, Bochers • and Breusters monye, ^^^ tt ctM - ,^'^ 

I T» 1 T»_ ^t^ . _ - __ J -O . ^.i,.. /*^'. K'^' 

'"'*• vWoUene webstg ris * and weu^ris of lynen, </^ ^ Vti^J-fj a*^ 
Taillo^rs, tannms * & tokkeris bojje^, /<<(rt'uo h-vy^ ^ 100 
Masons, Minoura * and mony ober craftes, '^^ ^^-^ ^ui.^ ^ *^'^^ 

4 ^ ', Dykers, and Deluefs ; Jjat don heore dedes ille, "''^ ff^f/A, 

" " 1 Andydriuep forj) jje longe day • with * deu wous saue, dam 

Emme!' fcW^'^CM .^ «-^ ^-^'4^ -- ^-^^. h- ^'-^^ 
Cookes and heore knaues • Cryen ' bote pies, bote ! 
Goode gees and ^ry s • Gowe dyne, Gow e I'^ ^^ ^^'^ ' 105 ' ' 
Tauerners to hem ' tolde be same tale 
WiJ) good wyn of Gaskoyne • And wyn of Oseye, . ^ ^'» ''^* 
' "^Ic Of Ruyn and of Rochel • )?e Rost to defyef^.w'/ , y, ^ ^/' ^^^ ' ' >' 
Al fis I sau3 slepyng^ • & seue si]>es more** -J U V' i > , • - ^<* 

^ Veni. MS. ooilts II. 99, 100, and 109, which are supplied from Trin. MS. 

N 3 

180 ZF. PT/ZL/ililf LANGLAND. 

Primus passtis de visione. < ' ^ ^ 

What |)is Mou«tein be-MeneJ) * and J)is derke Dale, f^^<r^^ A^**^ 
f-o^K^ And |)is feire feld. ful of folk * feire I schal o^ schewe. ^ ^^^^ 
>; r '. ; ^y A louely ladi on leor • In linnene I-cloJ)ed, 

Com a-doun frow j>e clyf^ • and clepte me feire, »^^ '- '^^"'^'^** 
And seide, * sone 1 slepest jjou ? • Sixt Jjou J)is peple 5 

Al hou bisy )>ei ben * A-boute jje Mase ? Cc^\^ n ^i*--^ 
pe moste parti of J)e peple * J)flt passe^ nou on eorjje, 
Hauen heo worschupe in J>is world * kepe )>ei no betere ; ^ 

Of ojjer heuene Jjen heer • holde.^^ei no tale.' ''^ '^'"^^ ^" ^t^^^ 
A^- ^^- Ich was a-ferd of hire Face • J)auh heo feir weore, 10 

-^ And seide, *Merci, Ma dame • What is bis to mene?' 
'" ^ I \ \T * ' V^ Tour & ^is Toft,' ct«od(hea ' * treu)>e is Jjer-Inne, 

V L'. WL'.'Cl**' 

And wolde )>at ^e wromten -• as nis word techej) ; 

For he is Fa4er of Fei^ bat formed ow alle : v€ . ^'^^ ' . "^''.^ 

Bo)>e with Fel and mth Face * and'jaf owjyjje wittes, * ts 

. ^ , ' i : d Forte worschupew him )?erwith ' * while (je beo^ heere. 

-I \ /"o ' ' And for he hihte be eorbe • to semen owVdTt5ne •'•■ ^ j^' *'• 


Of wollene. Of linnene * To lyflode at neode, ; 

>jX.< *-' : »i f Ot 

C< >-' 

4t/ In Mesurable Maner • to maken ow at ese: ^ '. ;^ u. c .- t.v . 
And Comauwdet of his Cortesye^* In Comune ]?reo ^))inges ; 20 
Heore nomesfbej) ;neodful • and'liempnen hem I Jienke, -i Tt^:;-: ,- 
Bi Rule and biKesun • Rehersep l)em her7aftur. 
, ,;, , ,T.e^»« pat on Clothing is • from Ch'dfe'ow to saue': " •^>. ^^^\^)'i ^ '^ 
/'-c**^ '^'^^ l'^* o)>ur. Mete at Meel • fqr^meseise of {?isel uen ; . , m ^ ' 
. / ' ■ • And drink whon )>(?u drui^est • but do hit not out of 

Resun, c\ I \^i.*^^cici . : jv^ ^ j,.. 25 

pat )>ou weor[l)]e J)e worse • whon ])t?u worche scholdest. 

,\, '••X* • • • • 


^ ' ' ■• • ^ >• So in MS. Univ. Coll. Oxford ; Vera. • loft.' • Vera. *3eue]i/ 

I C a' « ' ' Vern. omits ^erwitb. Most of the corrections are from the Trin. MS. 

1 ^ 

<» . -"^ , 


Dreede dilitable dri 

drinke • And fou schalt do J)e bettre ; i/> ^'sr'- *^ 
Mesure is Medicine c/i^flh bpumuche ^ eor[n] e./»g«7J^ y^^^^^^^'i/Av**, 
^ Al nis not good to J>e_gost • jjatfe bodi lykej), 
jt^t^ Ne l yflode to Jje licam * })at leof is to ))e soulerr^^^^^ 35 

' -' ' '^ ^ Leef not bi licam • for \^i him techeb, J^^^^<^ ^ ''^!?f^l^^ "''" 

pat is J)e Wikkede word • Jje to bi-traye. . u k A//>a^' ^*^^- 
4 ^"<^^ For J)e Kn3 and J>i: Flesch • folewen to-gedere, 
^/;jt:i*i''^nd schendej) J>i soule • seo hit in j?in herte ; ^^.^^J^ 

And for You scholdest beo war ♦'^I.wisse J>e ))e bettre/ 40 

* A Madame, Merci V q«a)> I • * me like)) wel Jji wordes ; 
Bote Jje Moneye on )>is Molde • ]>at men so faste holden, 

*- Tel me to whom • Jjat Tresqur appende)>?' 
> , » ViffA* Go to )?e gospel/ qu2t)> heo * * fat god seij) hiw-seluen, 

;■". -" Whon )>e peple him a-£osede • with a peny in J^e Tez^ple, 45 
,;l!^>'jLi'-^3^f heo schulden worschupe J)^r-w/t^ • Cesar heore kyng. 

''^'**'' 'i And he asked of hem * of whom spac )?e lettre, 

And whom J)e ymage was lyk • )>at J>er-Inne stod. 1 ^ ^.. 

* Ceesar, Jjei seiden * We seob wel vchone/ ^^ • 

Reddiie ergo que sunt cesaris cesari^ et que stint dei deo \ 
* |)e«ne Reddite,' qua)) God • ' J)at to Cesar falleb, 50 

^0/ Et que sunt dei deo ' or elles do ae ille/ ^^ >f i tXa w 
- z*^' For Rihtfoliche Resoun * schulde mien ou alle, /f J a-f ANt/a- 
' . '%And kuynde wit be wardeyn"* our^ wepl))e to kepe, U^^^l ^(^^^ ' -'^ 
t^ . c-4 ^ And tour of vr tresour • to take hit 50 w * at nede ; ^ (r)fdi\ . 

1 1 For husbondrie and he * holden to-gedere/ 55 

',-f^ av, penne I fraVne^e hire feire • for \i\m ))at hire made, 
Ava>'-c»i pat dungun' in ))at deope dale • |?at dredful is of siht, 

What may hit Mene, Madame • Ich ))e bi-seche?'u^!/^ cCt^ r 
' pat is ))e Castel of care/ q«od heo • * hose come)) )>^r-Inne, 
^, '". -< Mai Banne bat h^ ^£2,^^^ • to Bodi or to soule. . 60 
per-Inne wone^ awint * jiat wrong is I-hote , "t^^*"^ : 

* Vcrn. omits this quotation; ' * Vtrn. omits }0w, 

« Vcrn. 'doun*; cf. Prol. 1. 15, 


Fader of Falsness • he foundede it * him-seluen ; „ • , ' j 

Adam and Eue • he eggede to don ille; -'^ S «f^"^ J 

Counseilede Cavm • to cullen his Bro)>er ; 

ludas he laped e • \itih )>€ lewes seluer, >C<^^t^»(/>^r>^ ^^ 
^£^\-CU«. And on an Ellerne treo • hongede him after. . , r 

l\iUi.\^'^ He is a lettere of Joue • and l}j^ej> hem alle cU^ <^**^ ^' "^^^^ 
^S.-L Ia^ pat trustejj in heor tresour • ^er no truj^e is Inne/' 
* ^^''" pe«ne hedde I wonder in my wit • what woz«mon hit 

. . » weore, 

A J A*>^' pat suche wyse wordea '^pf holy writ me schewede ; ^^ 70 
V " .rti*u(* And halsede hire in )>e nei3e noi|ie .• er heo ^eonh e ^eode,*^^^^ 
t?CiX| What heo weore witerly • )>at w'issiae ^ me so feire. /ctvu/></ ^^^ " 

*Holi churche Icnpm/ qua)> heo • 'J>ou ouhtest me to 

.. : ci ^<^ ^" ^- knowe: 3 c,,», ^ ^ |^^^.^^^ ^ ^^^^ 

, , f-f i Ich )>e vnaurfqng furst • and )?i fei)? ))e tau3te. 

I -c.vittM pQ^ brou^test me Borwes • my biddyng to worche, 75 

. , . ; to' . And to loue me leelly • While \>\ lyf dured^.V ^- ^ i^, 

pewne knelede I on my kneos * and cr/^ed hire of grace, 
And Pfeiede hire pitously • to preye for vr su«nes, 
-i! it'C And eke to teche me kuyndely • on crist to bi-leeue, 

pat Ich his wille mihte worche • Jwzt wrouhte me to Mon. 80 
^ * Tech me to no Tresour • bote tel me bis ilke, ^" •• /- , , 

Hou I may saue my soule ; )>at seint art I-holde. lin a ..u.ui, 

* Whon alle tresour is I-triaed • Treube is be Beste : 
I do hit on Deus Carifas : to deeme be sobe. 
Hit is as derwor))e a drurie • as deore god him-seluen. 85 
For hose is trewe of his tonge • telle)? not dies, c i c^tt^ *> d.u 
Do)> his werkes ^er-wtih * and do)> no mon ille, ^/,,v ^^ ; ., ' 
He isa-counted to ]>e gospel • on grouwde and onjofte, 
Anoeke I-liknet to vr lord • bi seint Lucus wordes. vct^tfi. . 
Clerkes )?at knowen hit • scholde techenTnl aboute, 90 

For Cristene and vn-cristene • him cleyme)> vchone. 

» Vem. omits U, • Vcm. • teche)?/ 

.tCt »'K< 

'1 r \ 

. ' 



And take trespasspYi , . _ ^ 

Til treufe hedde J ^term ynet • j>e trespas to \>e ende. 95 , , ^ 

jj^ ^r ^^^ Dauid, in his dayes • he Dubbede knihtes, /4 J cd t4c^ ^ '^■'"^ 

^,\. Dude hew swere on heor swerd • to senie treube eu^re. ^ oatk- 
c-^oLiyi pat is 1>6 perte pmession • )>at a-pende]> to knihtes, 
And not to faste a Friday • In Fyue score ^eres, 
But holde« w/t^ hem & vriih, heore • hat asken be treube, 100 
And leuen for no loue • ne lacch ing of jiftus ; 
And he ^at passe)> \ai poynt • is a-postata in jje ordre. H^"^^'^*^ 

For crist, kyngene kyng • knj^htide ten^ ^5 fl^f a^A-t*'/^ ^4.r''.. ' 
Cherubin & Seraphin • an al be foure ordres/ ^ *" ^ 'rtt^ix , 
„. V And 5af hem msfystrie & miht • in his Maieste, 105 

^^,^'u«A A.nd ou^r his meyn e • made hem Archaungelis ^ 

And tau^te hem • )>orw )>e Trinite • treu)>e for to knowe«, 
r"*" ^^ And beo boxum at his biddynere • he bad hem not elles.. r 
" • Lucifer w/fi^ legiou«s • lerede hit in heuene; ^*^*^ 4s ^^'^^ ** 

;' /, ... pjg ^j^g louelokest of siht • aftur vr lord, no 

.f't<^^'^Ti\ he brak Boxu^nes • )?orw bost of him-seluen. 

pene fel he with his felawes • & fendes bi-comen, . j 

Out of heuene in-to helle • hobleden'faste, 
Suwme \n )>e Eir, & su/wme \n J>e EorJ)e • & suwme in helle 
deope. £j.., J. : ^ ;' ./^ a.^ 

Bote Lucifer louwest • lijj^of hem alle; ( 115 

For pruide J>«t he put out • his pej^ne ha)> non ende ; 
And alle jjat wrong worchen • wende J>ei schul6n x^*-^ 
After heore dej>-day • and dwellen w/'t^ ))at schrewe^'- • ' ^ 

Kc heo )>at worchen )wt word • )>at holi writ techej). 
And ende]), as Ich er seide • in pr(?fitable werkes, 120 

».^oj Mouwen be siker J>at heore soules • schulle« to heuene, i'--^^^ 

y\ S >^»* * Vem. *bynden.' * Vern. omits U. 103 and 106. 

7k ' Vern. omits bem. 



per Treube is in Tririite • and Corouneb hem alle. 
For I sigge sikerli !; bi siht of J>e textes, 
^/'V^ * ,121. Wh9n alle tresoris I-tn; et • Treu)>e is jje beste. ; c^ \^^s^\^f^ ^ 
;, ,au v> ^ . I Xere)) nit . Hs lewed men • for lettrede hit knowe)?,'' vioiiU 125 
• '' pat treu)>e is tresoui^ • triedest on eor)?e.' 

* Yit haue I no Kuynde knowing/ quod I • * }>^u most teche 
me bet^re, , ^^ 

Bi what Craft in nav Corps • hit cumseb, and where.' 
;rt, r^'^v ^^•^^j-^pou dotest daffe/ qua)> heo • 'JDuUe are jji wittes. 
la^^' 11 ^^^ ^^ ^ kuynde knowynge • )>at kenne) ? )>e in herte 130 

-•1 '' For to.loue )>i lou^rd • leuere ]>en Jji-seluen; />^'^ ciu^vi-i ,xl kj^i^ 
i Jbm. No dedly su«ne to do • ^^ fau^ ))0u scholdest. 

pis I trouwe beo treu)>e 1 • hose con teche )>e bet<?re, 
;^.,(^ Loke }>ou sufFre him to seye * and se}?)?e teche hit forjjwre! 

For J)us techejj us his word * (worch )?ou J^er-aftur) 135 

pat Ique is be leues t ))inff • pat vr lord aske)>, 
/ .. tlx vi - And'eke. jje ^gmynt of pees ; • prechet in ^ Jnj harpe . ,, . . ^ - 
'*''*^ per ))^u aft Murie at jji mete • whon me bidde]^ |)e ^edde f' ^' 'l 
, ,.*.r. - For bi kuynd e knowynge in herte • Cumse[|)] J>er a Fitte.;.< Cr(^i^ 'f 
pat Fallel> to Jje Fader • j>at formede vs alle. ' 140 ^^^"^ 

He lokede on vs mth loue • and lette his sone dye 
Mekeliche fpr.vre misdedefs] • forte amende vs alle. 
And 3it wolde he hem no wo • jjat wroujte ^ him J)at pyne, 
But Mekeliche mth moujje * Merci he by-sou^te, /\C |^^-^ *"'^ ' 
To haue pite on }>at peple • }?at pyneoe him to de}?e. 145 , 

Her j)Ou miht seon ensaumple • in hymsejfe^ one, - 'hc^' 
Hou he was mihtful and Meke • j>at merci gon graunte . 
To hem bat heengen hiw hei3e • and his herte l?urlede n/ kd/.^suL 
Fqr-J)i I reoe Jje riche • haue reu)?e on )>e pore ; 
pei3 3e ben mijty to mote • bej> mek^ of^our werkis; 150 
.Eadem mensura qua mmsifueritis^ remect\e\tur nobis ^; 

» For * in/ Vera, has • |>e.* « Vera. • wolde.' » Vera, * J)i-self.' 

^ Vera, omits part of U. 149, 150, and the Latin. 





. ^ For J>e same Mesure \>at 56 Meten vA-mis o})er elles, (^Vv^va-vis* 
jT' "^'^ 3^ schul be weyen ))er-w/*t^ • whon 36 wenden hennes. tu.w 

Fof bau5 3e ben trewe of tonge • & treweliche wiUQ^, /* 



And ete as chast as a child • )>at in Chirche wepe)>, |1,^k^Wv* >'^ 'V 
Bote 3e liuen trewely • and eke loue J>e.pore, 155 

. And such good as God sent • Treweliche parten, dU-U^t.-^^ 

3e naue no more merit • In Masse ne In houres 
\ pen Malk^ of hire Maydenhod • jjajt no Mon desyre]). 

For lames jje geii^* bond hit it in his Book, ("^1^ «' %v=^c..* (k 
pat F(^w/Wouten fait ^ • Is febelore fen nou^t, i^ '^ *^ 160 
And ded as a dore-nayl • but }>e deede folewe. 


Chastite wn^outen Charite * (wite bou forsobe). 
Is as lewed as a Laumpe • bat no hht is Inne. 

>.-.w — ^ — ^- — J — — — ^ — — ^ — —..^yw, ^■■ 

o x^o men hardore feen bei • whon heo beoj) avaunset ; 165 
i-kuynde to heore'kun^ and to alle cristene : 

Moni Chapeleyns ben chast • but Charite is aweye ; \. -i 

' ■ "^ Chewen heore charite • and chiden after more I ou-c •- ' """ -. ' ■ 
Such Chastite wz't^outen Charite * • wor)> claymed in helle ! 

Curatours ^at schulde« kepe hem • clene of heore bodies, 
pei beoj>'^cuw6red in care • & cunnen not out-prepe; 170 

So harde heo beo}) w/t^ Auarice • I:haspet to-gedere. 

i ^^ pat nis no treube of Trinite • but tricherie of hejle, iJ^J',/'! 
And a leornyng for lewed men • jje latere forte aele.-."'t..<^ c^<'- 

For [)eos be)> wordes I-writen • In )>e Ewangelye,' ' ' ., 
Da/e ei dabiiur vobis ' for I dele ow alle uu^ 175'" 

3oure grace & ^oure good happ?'* ^bure wel))e for to wynne, 
& J)^rwi)> ^nowej) me kyndely • of I)at I 30U sende. 
pat is ))e loK of loue • fat letif out my gr^ce 
To counforte be earful • Acumbrid wif synne. -■ '<' • "- 
Loue is }>e feueste J>ingtf • fat oijr lord askif, 180 

* Vern. *Treu)>c witAouten Fey'; corrected by Trin. MS. 

* Vern. * Charite w/ti&outen Chastite/ absurdly. 


^ . And ek^ )je graij^gate • jj^t go)> into heuene. 

^'' cyr^' For-)>i I sei3e as I seide eiu^be si^te of }>ise tixtes, 
^ Whan alle tresouris am tri^eoe • treu)?e is J?e beste. 

Now haue I tolde )>e what treu)>e is • )>«t no tresowr is bet^re, 
-^,.^«vr I may no leng gre lenj :e • now loke fe oure lord ^' . 185 

[/V^fB * Passus SecundusJJ 

j^^ .i Ai^^«* Now Fals and Fauuel • fare)> for)) to-gedere|^^^ 
And Meed e in ye Middel • and al )>e Meyne aftur. 
jC^', .<^i>b I haue no tom^* to telle • J?e Tayl j>at hem folwe)?, 160 

Of so mony Maner Men • jjat on Molde liuen. d^'^^' 
n^^cCL.^^.** ^''Bote gyle was fof-goere • and gyede ^ hem alle. o^ca^cjC 

S6J?ness_^sauh hem wel • and seide bote luyte , '^^U, 
Jmaa^xjuL Bote prikede on his palfrey • and passede hem alle, 

And com to be kynges Court • and Concience tolde, 165 
And Concience to jje kyng • Carpede hit aftur. ^c^icL . 
* Now be cnst,' (\uod. )?e kyng • * ^if I mihte Chacche 
Fals o\ur Fauwel • or eny of his ^eeres, U )rj.n^>nn^^ 
I wolde be wreken on bis wrecches/^at worchen so ille, c . . j 
And don hem hongen bi )?e hals • & al J>flt hem Meyn - 
tenen: 170 

Schal neuer mon * vppon Molde • Meyntene \>e leste, 
But riht as )>e lawe loke)? • let fallen of hem alle. 

And Comauwde be Cunstable • bat Com at be furste, 
To a-Tache );e Tray tours • for eny Tresour, ^.>'r ; :uvv --a 
iL Ich bote , ^e\Fetere Fals fastq * for eny kunnes ^iftys, 175 
•'^ And gurde|' of gyles hed • let him go no for)>er ; 
And bringe)> Meede to me • Maugre hem alle. ^' "^l*^** .['^ t'-'v/C 

' . n ' i ----- -t i,'*V Mi 

^ Lines 176, 177 are from MS. Harl. 875; and 11. 178-185 from the 
Trinity MS. Vem. omits them all. * Vera. * while.* 

' Vera. * gilede.* * Vem. • non.* 



S5TTionye and Siuile • I seende hem to warne, 
pat holichirche, for hem • worb harmet for euere. 
And ^if 5e chacchelyjere • let him not a-skape, 180 

To. ben set on be pillori • for eny preyere ; hrw^'rr 
I bydde j>ee awayt e hem wele • let non of hem ascape \ , , 

Dreede at )?e dore stood • and )je dume ^ herde,/^^'^^^ ' ^ 
And wihtliche wente • to Warne Jje False, 
And bad him faste to fle,; and his feeres eke. c^'y^*- «»'^ ^igl 
pe«ne Fals for fere * flein to be Freeres, j , 
^ ^'^'^ And gyle do}? him to go • a-gasC for to dy^e ;A'^;^^^e>^ ' '••**^- ^ ^ '' 
f-^.:ira<^^ Bote Marchau^zdes Mettew mtA him • & maaden hi/« to 

Bi-sou^ten him in heore schoppes • to sullen heore ware, 


'* '>-'.£Vi 



nas nomwher wel-come • for his.mony tales, i^ fKr\r:^' ^' 
J ou«r al I-hunted • and bote to trusse. . <- .w. / • - ' 

Pardoners hedden pite • and putten him to house, 195 

^..\ut Wos schen him and wrohgeri hiz» • & wounde« him in 

cloutes, /^cfa^f : - ." ^ « t ... i .."---'"»'* - '"-"^ 

And senden hi^ on sonendayes • witJi seales to churches, , 

-"^ ^ And^^pardun for^^s •' poundmele a-boute. ^ /'^^-^' -^^ ?^fjl ' 
^-^ — pis leornden pis leches • and lettres him senden /i^c^d '^ 'v^ a 
For to wone with hem' • wattes to ]oke^ t-r t^^»^*^ kc* 'v. ^joo'^^^r^^ 
-. V 5 Spicers speeken y/t'th him • to^a-splen heore ware. ^ ^^ ^ ^ c c* -r 
For he ke«ned e mm in heore craft • & kneu) mony 
gummes. :{t».tj 
Mu;/strals and Messagers • metten vrzth him ones, 
And w^U-heo[l]de him half a ^er • and>?lleuene wykes. ^' (< '<v v 

* Vem. omits 1. 18a. * Vera. • dune/ 

• Vera. * ben with him.' 


iint<^tt. ^ - ^yj^ fgjj. speches • fetten him | ?ennes ; 205 

For kn owynge_QL Comers ' kepten him as a Frere ; 
Bote he ha)> leue to lepe n out • as ofte as him lykej), 
And is wel-come whon he wole • & woneb yftth hem ofte., , 
And alle fledden for fere • and flowe n in-to huirne s; -^^ >^^^^v*^ 
Saue Meede J>e Mayden • no mon dorste abyde; 210 

But trewely to telle • heo tremblede for fere, 
And eke wepte and wrong hire hondes • who» heo was 

Passus Tercius de Visione. 

/ J /^^ Now is Meede ye Maydew I-nome« • & no mo of hem alle, 

Wi)? Beodeles & Baylyfs • I-brouht to ]>e kyng. 
pe kyng clepet a Cler[ke] • (I knowe not his nome), 
,cX u^^^ To take Meede^ be Mayden • & Maken hire at ese. , 

^ ^^ * Ichulle assayen hire my-self • & so))liche aposen ,^' J ^ ^ 5 
What Mon in j>is world * j>at hire weore leouest. dUa .^(^ 
And 5if heo worche be my wit • and my wil folewe, 
/' . ^ ^' I schal for-^iue hire )>e gult • so me god helpe !' . .\ ^S ''^J^ 
Corteisliche Jje Clerk )?o • as |)e kyng hihte^'- '^^11.....^: *' ^9 
Tok ))e Mayden bi |)e Middel • & brouhte hire to chau/«bre. 

per was Murjje and Munstralsye • Meede w/*t^ to plese ; 
Heo )>at wone)> at westmuwstre • worschipe)> hire alle. 
Gentiliche with loye • J>e lustise saon^e /j ; ! < '^ . 
> ^•*''^* Busked him in-to )>e Bour • ^er j>e Buyrde was Inne, 
^ f Cumfortede hire kuyndely • and made hire good chere, 15 ^ 

. . - ."^ ' • .And seide, ' Mourne bou not, Meede • ne make b^u no serwe,^^^^ 

For we wplen w}\s]sen jje kyng • and |ji wey schapen, 
---'-'"" . YoT alle Concience Craft • and Casten, as I trouwe, ''^'^•^ ' ^^^' 
pat l?ou. schalt haue bo}>e my3t & maystrye • & make what Jie 
like|> y ' ' • - -^ 



wij> ))e kynge & Jje comyns • & ]>e courte boj^e ^' 20 

Mildeliche })enne Meeae • Mercie de hem alle Aoav^^ "T Q*"^^ 
-yj.^ i^ Of heore grete goodnesse • and ^af hem vchone 
-J:- * Coupes of clene Gold • and peces of seluer, e^t^^ 

Rynges with Rubyes • and Richesses Lnouw e, ^-^**«**-/'/ ye^hc- 
^^. pe leste man of here ma^'ne • a mutou« of firold\ ^K^C ^^25 j ^^ 

penne lau^en^ Jjei leue • )>is lora^iges, at Meede, £^^ ^ 
z. ^ Wi)) )>^J?er come Clerkes • to Cu;wforte )>e same : ^^v4.ot >W\, 

( t.jaw * We bidde)> l?e be blij>e • for we beo)? ^ owne, IK,, vo^ cxtv^ 

Hencfe licn? )?e«ne heo • be-hih te hem \t same, ^^'^^ 30 \^ ''^ 
UiAif To louen hem lelly • and lordes to maken, 

per Cunnynge Clerkes • schul Cowche be-hynde.' A^ ^ \ ^^35 

penne com ^er a Confessour * I-Copet as a Frere; <3UtA"A u » - 
To Meede fe Mayden • ful MekelicheTie loutede, l-ru^f^- 
And seide ful softely • in §chrift as hit weore, c<.v»k 

' V, 

,*.c<..rv. ^ 


* pau3 Fals^edde folewed )>e • )>is Fiftene winter, 40 

^ - I schal^oyle J)e my-self • for a summe of whete, 
^ And eke be^[)i Baude * and Bere wel )>in ernde t^/'\cv^^<^ "^ ^ .jw/i^^..-^ 

Among Clerkes~and knihtes • Concience to falle.' 
penne Meede For hire misdede • to j«it Mon knelede, 
^t...* ^And schrof hire of hir su«nes • schomelicne^I'trouwe. 45 

Heo tolde him a tale • and tok him a noble, ^r, <. . .. ;^^ : oao 

". if ^ 

For to ben hire beode-mon • and hire Baude after. . 
c<-^ pene he asoylede hire soone • and si))' to hire seide, ^ ^„ i,,..^ 

* We han a wyndow in worching • wol stonden vs ful hei3e : ^' v ^v 

* Vern. 6mits 11. 19, ao, which are from Harl. MS. ; nd 25, from Trin. MS. 
■ Vern. * tok.' • Vcm. omits sip. 


U n^^Iv Woldustow Glase )>e Gable • & giraue )><?nnne J)i nome, 50 
t* n«.^a 4* Sikerschulde )>i soule ben • for to dwellen in heuene/ 
,^K*vtW *^Vust I J)at/ q«(?d J>e wo/^zmon • ' ]>er nis nou)>«r Wyndoii 
j[;^ / ne Auter,oi^<^ 

j^caV^ pat I ne schulde maken oj>ar mende • and my nome write, 

pat vche mon schulde seye • Ich were suster of house. Y^^^-^^io^ 
Bote god to alle good folk • such grauynge defendetp 55 
And sei)?, Nesciat sinistra quidfaciat dextera. jt ^ r ^ 
Lete not )>i luft bond • l ate ne gl?e, -f#,U ^^^ ^-^tk 
Beo war what J>i riht bond • worcbej? or dele)? ; 
Bote part hit so priueli vjjat pruide beo not se3en <P€£^ ^^^-^^y^ 
5 Nou}>er in siht, ne in soule • for god hi;w-self knowe]) 
; ,,.1^1^*^ Ho is Cortei^s, or kuynde • Couetous, or elles. 60 

For-))i I lere 30U, lordynges • such writynge ^e leue, 
(^^ { u ^^ writen in Wyndouwes • of 30ure wel dedes, "^^^^ ^' 

Apr ^^^ * Or to greden aftur Godus folk \ wlion 2e 5iuen or doles ; 4 

Parauenture 3e ban • oure Jnureffrfore here, /r f"^ -^ 

For vr saueour hit seij? • and him-seluen pr^che)?, 65 ^ 

A r I (r l*f*** Amen dico vobis. receterunt mer cedent suam ; ^ 

Here forso))e j>ei fqngen • her mede fbr)j-wij)\ /iicucvLfi\. • | 

.(^i Meires and Maistres • and ae bat beob mene l^ \<^^.x^jk^^ 

Bitwene fe kyng and )>e Comuns * to kepe l?e lawes, ^j ff\ 
As to punisscben on pillories • or on pynnyng sto les L^^. V,^tSuJr 
•^.) Bre westers, Bakers • Bochers and Cookes; 70 

For Jjeose be Men vppon Molde • \2X most harm worchen, 
To )>e pore people • J^at perceftfnel ^ buggen. Vtu^ 4- i ^^^ ^ 
pei punisscben )?e peple • priueliche and ofte, ^^ ti' in fL uJL^ 
yX. And recbe j? J)Orw Reg[r] arorie • & Rentes hem bugge)>, ' 

-y^iih belt be pore people • schulde putep in beore wombe: 75 
^ ^. . J*. For to ke l>ei on tre wely • jjei timbrede not so nye , M Pt ^y^ 
Ne bou3te none Borgages • beo 3e certeyne. »Lri.«k^ 

* Vem. omits 1. 66 ; supplied from Harl, MS, 

* Vera. *J>at al schal a -buggen.' 1 ' / / 




^ Bote Meede be Mayden \ be Meir heo bi-souate, 

^o<"*'^*"Of alle suche sullers • seluer to taken, 

Or pr^entes w^Uouten pons • as peoeSpOf seluer, 80 

Rynges vftt/i Rubyes • )>e Regratour to fauere. 

* For my loue,' quod be ladi • * loue hem wel vchone, # ^ 

And soffre hem to smle • sumdel ageyn Resoun.' ^ 

Bote Salamon be Sa^e • a Sarmoun he made, 

To a-Mende Meires,* and men bat kepeb be lawe: 85 

And tolde hem |)is teeme • ^at I wol telle nou{?e :^^ 

Igm's deuorahii idbernacula eorum qui libenter accipiunt 


Among J)is lewede men • j)is latin AmounteJ), 

^iTift/pat Fuir schal falle • and brenne atte laste , .^ .^.^ , 

pe houses and ))e homes • pf hem {>at desyrej> ^ ^^^ H^' 

For to haue ^iftes • in ^oui?e or in elde. i 5^ 3' ' ''^''' 9® 

Now beo)? 3e war, if je w^ole * 30 maystwrs of })e lawe ; 

for J?e so)>e schale be sou^te of ^oure soules • so me god ^ 
helpe ou /^</^ ~ cx/^ i^a^jU. - o.» ^o^Ut^ «» ^^vr.**<x 

pe suffraunce ))at 3e sufFre • such wtongus to be wrou3t ; 

While jje chaunce is in jour^ choyse • cheose 3e pe hest^./iSclLy,^.. 
^"^'"UtA^ pe king com froip Couwseyl * and cjeped aftur Meede, 95 

And of-sente hire a-swi| ?e • Se riauns hire to fette, i^^kAJL A I A ■<*' 
^ .A>w«</v And brou3te hire to boure • YfiXh Blisse and w/'tA loye; 

wij) myr)?e & wi|j mynstrasye * Jiei pleseden hir ychoone ^. 
f Corteisliche )>e kyng • Cumsej> to telle, c^>>. '^ l^^^^^. 

To Meede be Mayden*^? mele)) ))eose^ Wordes: f-S '^' '"^^-^"loo 

* Unwittily/yw^ ^ • wrouht hastou ofte; yi •T ^L^^^y 

Bote worse wrouhtest ]7(?u neu^re * )?en whon ))0u fals toke. 

Ac I for3iue \q Jjis gult • and grauwte )?e my grace ; 

Hennes to J?i de)> day • do so no more. 

* Vem. omits 11. 91-94, and 1. 98; supplied from Harl. MS. 
I ^ Vcrn. * melodyes,* corruptly. • Vem. * Qweynteliche, quaj> J>e kyng.* 

t (.« 


S r cLot Ichaue a kiiiht hette Concience ' com, late from bi-^onde, 

/vi ^V 3if he wilne )?e to wyf • wolt j^ou him haue ?' 106 

^^*^.^ ,; v'C»vv ^ * 3e, lord/ quab bat ladi • * Lord ^ for-beode hit elles ! 
(tv. 9 ^' Bote Ich holde me to oure heste • honge me sone I K^^:;? 
. v' ''^'^^ ',A pewne was Concience I-clepet • to comen and apeeren 
', f ' "' To-fore ]>e kyng and his Counsel • Clerkes and oJ)«re. iro 

Kneolyncre Concience • to be kyng loutede, n^^^ ^k^o^c^? 

to wyte what his wille were • & what he do schulde \ 

* Woltou wedde J?is wo;wmon/ quod l>e kyng • * ^if I wol 

assf nte ? ^ *^f^ a » c< c k 

.; ! /a. /£tv Heo is fayn of J?i felawschupe • for to beo j>i make/ '"^^ y^Ko-iKj 

* Nay/ qua)> Concience to ])e kyng • * Crist hit me for- 

beode! 115 

Er Ich wedde such a wyf • wo me bi-tyde I 
/ ,'cLi.L , Heo is frele of hire Flesch • Fikel of hire tonge; 
Heo makeb men misdo • mom score tymes : , 

In trust of hire tresour • teone)? ful monye. ^ '^ f-<^^^ 

Sisours and Sumpnours • suche men hire Dreisen: >, .>\^ 
.:.a Jc/ V o Schi rreues of schires • weore schent 31! neo nere. 130 

/ 'a. Heo do)> men leosen heore lond • and heore lyues after, 
- '♦^ » And letej? passe prisons • and pa)''e)> for hem ofte. 
' i o'^ .'^^^ Heo 5eue)> j>e layler Gold • and grotes to-gedere, 


To vn-Fetere )?e False • and fleo where hem lyke)). 

Heo take J) )>e trewe bi fe top • andjtijej) him faste, 135 

And hongej) him for hate • |)at harmede neuere. 

Heo jwzt ben Curset in Constori e • couwtej) hit not at a 

Russche; c^,.^..l^..->^v .?^^ Cc..\t 
For heo Cope}> Jje Comissarie • and CoteJ) J>e Clerkes ; 

' . ; "^ Heo is asoyled as sone • as hire-self lykefu 

Heo may as muche do * In a Moone)> ones, 140 

* Vcm, « God/ " Vem. omitt 1. 112 ; supplied from Harl. MS. 


As 50ure* secre seal • In Seue« score dayes. r^^'^'^^.Thii^ ^^* ' ^ 

Heo is prmew/t^ be Pope • Prtmisours hit knowen: »,^ /' ' ''^*''*^CAJ 
ti^u^ic gir Simonie and hire-self • asselen J)e Bulles; '^ £^/ ,, a v. co^-t 
Heo Blessede J>e Bisschopes • )>ou5 fat J>ei ben lewed. 
X Prouewdreres, p^rsuns • Preostes heo meyntene)> : 145 

per heo is wel mtk J>e kyng • wo is fe Reame ! kt^dtYK ^ ^c^a^i i a 

For heo is Fauerable to fals • and foule)> Treujje ofte. 
^s^*^^ Barouns and Burgeis • heo bringe)> to serwe, 'S<>^cuJ 150 
s^ ixcjoA^Heo Buggej> mih heore luweles; * vr lustises heo schend§j>.^^'^^j^ 
/,\ i Heo lih^ a^eyn fe lawe • and lettej) so faste, 

pat Feij) may not han his for|) • hir Florins gon so J>ikke. ^^ • /" , . 

Heolede]) J>e lawe as hire luste * & loue-d ayes make[)/ 1 , ;, . ^/ 
-tcv ""^^^Q Mase for a Mene mon • ^auj helniote euere.- /* ./ ^55^- *"' 
' -. Lawe is so lordlich • and loj) to maken eende, 



W/t^-outen pr^sentes or pons • heo pleseb ful fewe* e*^!/ 

Clergye an Couetise • heo Couple)? to-gedere. 

pis is be lyf of be ladi • vr lord 5if hire serwe I 

And alle bat Meynteneb hire • myschaiwce hem bytide^! 160 

For J)e * pore may haue no pouwer • to^gliyne, )>au5 hem 

smerte, Ji '>^ ^^ r " * '^^ ^- 
Such a Mayster is Meede • A-Mong Men of goode/ 

Passus quinius de visiene. 

pe kyng and his knihtes • to ])e Churche wenten 
To heere Matyns and Masse • and to |>e Mete aftur. ^' 
pe«ne Wakede I of my wmk • me was wo w;t^ alle 
^- Aji;. pat l ^ade sadlok er I-slept • and I-se^e more. ^^ . 
Er I a Furlong hedde I-fare • A Feyntise me hente, 

* So Trio.; Vcm. « vrc' 1^ Vera. * vr lord jif hem care/ 

• Vcm. omits * >c.' 


Jh ^ 

VOL. n. 

Sc^dli^t^*" '^'^^ iax*..'-*, 


Pat For))er mihti not a-fote • for defaute of Sleep. ^ i 

f ,^ I sat Softeliche a-doun • and seide my beo-Ieeue, W-'*-' V ^ 
i^^nd so I blaberde on my Beodes * ]>at brouhte me a-Slepe. 
J)en sanh I muche more • jjen I beofore tolde, 
For I sauh )>e Feld ful of Folk • ^at ich of bi-fore schewede, 
And Concience wM a Crois * com for to pr^che. 1 1 

He preide )>e peple • haue pite of hem-selue, 1 ^ 

3 And preuede Jwzt J?is pestilences • weore for puire synne,( /t// ^ 
> And )?is souj>-Westerne wynt • on a Seterday at euen [ ^ xj 
di.vX,/^ » ^^s a-pertel iche for pruide • and for no poynt elles. J 15 
.. :iA ' A^ -> Piries and Plomtres • weore p^sscnet to )>e grouwde, 0^ ^c^sk 
J ( V*^^'' In ensau/wple to Men • j>at we scholde do )>e bettre. 
Beches and brode okes • weore blowen to )?e eor j)e, 
/ V I " And twrned vpward )?e tayl * In toknyng of drede^ j -^tiitcvN 
pat dedly Synne or domesday • schulde fordonnem alle. 20 
• • • • • • ' J 

penne Ron Repentaunce • and Rehersed j>is teeme, "\ 

And made William to weope • watwr w/*t^ his eaen. VS^'^': -'^^ 
:/ , . . .^ Pernel proud-herte • platte hire to grounde, "^^ S>- 45^ 

And lay longe ar heo lokede • and to vr ladi criede, 
V. • - *^ And beo-hi3te to him • |>at vs alle maade, kpi.v. «.'i^< '^ ' ' 


Heo wolde vn-souwen hire smok • & setten ber an here - • ,.. 

},'.•'•■ ^/ « < ^. i ■* - — ■ 

Forte fay ten hire Flesch • j>at.Frele was to synne: 

* Schal neuer liht herte me, fierite • bote holde me lowe, 50 

And suffre to beo mis-seid — • & so dude I neu^e. X'fK. .'' 

And nou I con wel meke me • and Merci be-seche 

Of al )>at Ichaue I-had • envye in myn herte/ 

Lechour seide 'Alias I' • and to vr ladi criede 
To maken him han Merci • for his misdede, $5 

JBitwene god almihti • and his pore soule, 
WiJ)-J?at he schulde ^e seterday • seuen ^er after 
Drinken bote yfiih }>e Poke • and dynen ^ but ones. 

^ * Trin. 'dyne'; Vem. * eten/ 

.cafe u.^iu ^fcv^i^*^^-^'- ^<-'-^ <''^ ,.«**-..i.^. Y ,/ // , 

xr, p/Jg:iJ5 THE PLOwiifii-Y, PAssus V. 195 


Envye wijj heui herte • asket aftur schrift, « » ^ h *^* •^^ - ^ ^ .' 
.: Aomit And gretliche his gultus • bi-ginnej> to schewe. ^^''^ ^•^s ^ 
t rtu^ ^g ^^Yq as a^elet • In a palesye^he seemede, 

^ Kv.«^ I-clo)>ed in A Cauriniauri • I cou^e him not discreue ; eic o r- < ^e ^ _^ , 
. o.'x^Akertil&aqoA^y^aknyfbeh^ ^^;~.::-:i ^;^:,./T"-i.'^ 

'^'^' J Of a Freris frokke • were be fore-sleuys *. ^th. ;.*i..-^o '' -^^ V >''^***"' * 
As a leek J?^t hedde i-lei3en • longe In j>e sonne, •+ ^ ^-''^ISs 
So loked he with lene chokes; • lourede he foule. tx<rrf\ i>u\^ 
His Bodi was BofleSr* for wraj)j>e he bot his lippes, 
^^ „ ^ Wrobliche he wtoe^ his fust • he bouate hxm a-wreke u a^<'^^>. 
fl u.'t^xi WiJ) werke s or w/t^ Wordes • whon he sey his tyme.^ ^ *r j «•*'" \^i'^ 
* Venim or vemisch • or vinegre, I trouwe, aS n-c^^*^ 70 
WafteJ) m my wombe • or waxe^, ich wene.^cx,, c^< -» /^*'^'' -^ ^ u'< i" . % 
1 ne miht^mony day don • as a mon ouhte, wtt r ^r ' •- •^^' - 
Such wynt ln my wombe ' waxej), er I dyne. 

Ichaue a neih3ebor me neih * I haue anuy3ed h\m ofte, 4 X >^e- •^- 
Ablamed him be-hynde his bak • to br/nge Yam in di-^^*^-^ '- 
. . sclauwdre, ^i di^ . Uc. .m r u< ^ ^ ;.y.« u ^'^"''•75'' '^'^^••'^ 
And peirea him bi my pouwer • I-punissched hm ful ofte, 

^ ^tf^f Sidiowe^ ^™ to lordes • tomake him leose Seluer, A^ t^ . ' ^' 
j;, -, '"^ I-don his Frendes ben his'fon • w;'t^ my false tonge; /"^ " 


His grase and his good hap • greue)> me ful sore. 
'^4»>H- Bitwene him and his Meyne * Ichaue I-Mad wrabbe, 80 
Bo))e his lyf and his leome • wis lost Jtofw my tonge. 

Market • J)at I most hate, 
as I his frend * weore. 

i, i Whpn I mette him in be Mar 
' Ich heiledejiim as hendely • as x ma xicnu wcuic. / ih r 1 m 

He is doujtiorfe fen I • i dar non harm don him. ,^^ta >»viiv/.t • ^- 
Bote hedde I maystrie & miht • I Moijerde hi;w for eu^re ! 85 

Whon I come to jje churche • & knele bi-fore jje Roode, 
And scholde prei3e for ])e peple • as jje prest vs techej), 

' Vem. omits 11. 63 and 64 ; supplied from Trin. 
■ Vera. * his frend as 1/ 

O 2 

XF. W^7LL7ili»f LANGLAND. 

i^^j^^ pe«ne I crie vppon my kp^; J)(rt crist jiue hem serwe Urr^ 
Ca/oiuJi pat haji I-bore a-wei my jSolIe • and my brode schete. 


1^ , .2 ^ From the Auter I t«rne • myn ei^e, and bi-holde^ ^1^ j^w ^ ^^,)^ 
.KCKrr^^^ Hou heyne hab a newe Cote • and his wyf anober :1 i^j" ''W^ it* ^^~ 
.4Su^.><»'*- pewne I wussche hit wepre myn • and al be web aft«r/VvxnR' :»q;.wXJL 
A J ^ r*^'>5 ^^ ^^^ leosinge I lauhw e • hit likej> me in myn herte ; 
M :a'^»^^^ Ac for his wynnynge I wepe • and weile be tyme. U^c^a^ 
/^ ^ o(x »^a- I deme meir )>at don ille • and ^it I do wel worse, 95 

For I wQlde )>at vch a wint '^^is world were mi knaue,XA/t/wcu^ 
And who-so ha)) more jjanne I • \>at angrij) myn herte ^ '^ V^^SlAC 

pus I line loueles • Ivk A Infer dogge, t^ l*»v^v>^ /l^ fe^^vr 
pat al my breste Bolle)> * for bitter of my galle ; 
May no Suger so swete • a-swagen hit vnne^, ^cclkuX. ioo 
(LuL ;..lJu^ Ne no Diopendio n • drjoie hitfrom myn herte ; 
'**^'*u"^la>. 3if schrift schulde hit j>e»ne swopen out • a gret wonder hit 

were.' ^ ^-:c- ^^^^ 

V. lU^*-*''\*3us, rediliche/ q«^d Repentau«ce • and Radde him to 

^ K^^r^n*-* 

• K« 

goode, '^ J TCfJLeioj^^ tns^ui 

"*V^*'ufv." goode, -^* J TCfJLt^Qj.^ zrcvav n-^ 

* Serw for heore su^nes • saueb men ful Monye/ 
' Icham sori/ q«^d Envye • * I ne am but selaene o}>er, 105 
And fat Makef me so mad • for I ne may me venge.' 

penne com Couetyse • I coufe him not discreue, t^ <+^ «^^ 
' ( '•' So hungri and so holewe • sire herui him loked. ^^'^ J'^oA.y^ 
;' '?*^ He was bitel-brouwed • wixh twei blered ei^en, cU»^..^v<L<^ ^ ^ 

^ And lyk a leferne pofs Mullede his chekes; \{<^-' ^^'i^ \\<i^^ 
' " ^/ In A toren Tabart • of twelue Wynter Age ; , 

;u . -. •"'*''*But 3if a lous coufe lepe • I con hit not I-leue tJuxts^ 4^^[<5u> 

• ;' '-^* Heo scholde wandre on j>at walk • hit was so fred-bare. 
" ' ^^^ j.r i *• 'Ichaue ben Couetous,' q«^d J>is Caityf • *I beknowe hit 
., . ' ,MAr- . heere; 'a^^^^C^:^^^^':^xdj)^ 

For sum tyme I Seruede • Simme attejioke,c » -^^^ ^^ 115 

^ Vem. omits 1. 97 ; supplied from Trin. 

r/ . . . ^ '.-^i 

, , , ^ Xr. P/EJR5 THE PLOWMAN. PASSUS V. 107 

And was his pliht prentys : his profyt to loke. Ltxk €k^'xi ^i j ^«^t«^ *• 

Furst I leornede toLvie '• A lessun or tweyne. 
And wikkedliche for to wek ' was myn o^r lessun. '^^Y^*^ '*^'**' ^ 
To Winchestre and to Wych • Ich wente to be Feire i ^ • 

Lj HA^tA. Wzt^mon^maner marchaiwdise • as my mayster hihte ; 120 to >^'. ' 
, Bote ne^fe'j>e grace of gyle • I-^on a-mong my ware, kn^ .^ r ^^ , 

//I .Hit hedde ben,vn-sold bis seuen aer • so me erod helpe! 
jihsd-u^, penne I drou j me a-mo»g fis drapes • my Donet ^^\^^^^,u,,. 

/fcxx/ e2iS ^^^ l'^ lyst^ wel along • ])e lengore hit semede ; 
^ ; l^ong ])is Efche Rayes • lemde I a Lessun, ^<;,,,v.^ ^, 125 ^^c/ 
^i(ii}\ Broched e hem mXh a pak-neelde • & pleted e hem to- ^ ^ 

^; Putte hemjn ag^ressour • & pinnede hem J)er-Inne 
f'^d. Til ten ^erdes oJ)er twelue golden out ]?rettene. t«ic-< '<*^ 
And my Wyf at Westmuwstne • }^ai Wollene clo)) made, 
Spak to fe spinsters • foj to spinne hit softe. 130 

W""^ pe pound ])at heo peysede by ^ • peisede a quartrun more 
^JJijS^ myn Aunce l dude • whon I weyede treuj>e. ^ ^ << .jua^ ^^ ^ v t/. . 

I Bouhte hire Barly • heo breuh hit to suHe ; XkxK 
*^Sl(^ Peni-Ale and piriwhi t • heo pourede to-gedere 

For laborers and louh folk • }^at liuen be hem-seluen. 135 

pe ^^Ste^])e Bed-chau/wbre • lay bi j)e wowe, t'tr^ < i - ^ u r> t, 

Heo haj) holden hoxtery e * |)is Elleue;ae wynter. i^^<''Jt^l^'^^' '^ •(^< . 

Bote I swere nou sofely^,- fat ^unn e wc^ lete.r^T' '"*: ^^ a.^cfi-^i . 
And neu^re wikkedliche weye • ne fals chafFare vsenj-t''' ^'^-e v r 
Bote weende to Walsyngham • and my wyf alse, ~"c^ • 


/ * Vcm. omits * by.* • Vern. omits * soJ>ely.' 

1. - - — 

K*^ ^v«JLi Utltt J pr kr-^ 

198 XF. Pr/££7ililf LANGLAND. 

CA4n^ J^ ^^ 3J^ 

And bidde ))e Rode of Bromholm • brmge me out of dette/ 
• ••••• 

A J)Ousent of Men ))0 • ))rongen to-geders, 260 

Weopyng and weylyng • for heore wikkede dedes, 
Cri^inge vpward to Crist • and to his clene moder ^^ 'k^ m]S2^ 
To haue grace to secne seint treujje * god leue j)ei so mote I 

Passus Sexius de visione^ vt prius. 

Now nden ])is folk • & walken on fote \ ^ YxMi k^^^^^^-*^ 

to seche bat seint • in selcoube londis*,, vCi»<H^u ^^^^ fc^cri^. 
Bote }^er were fewe men so wys • pat cou| >e ])e wei fider, 
Bote busteljntig forj) as bestes • ou^r valeyes & huUes, 
for while Jjei wente her^ owe« wille • ])ei wente alle amys \ 5 
, Til hit ^ was late & longe • Jjat ))ei a Leod metten, ^4^ ^2^*^ , / 

;r,.r; 4 ^VV^^^^^^ a Palmere • In pilgnmes wedgs.j^^^ ^^ ^^^ ;^ u: 
(.^./ {^,,^ He b^a bordun I-bounde • wiba brod lyste,\^'v»rf?it tot 
:^^, ;^7 •> In A wefe-bondes wyse • I-wrijjen aboute. ^•^c!i?}i^oc^ . 
1 e ^:^ '^ A Bagge and a Bofle^ he bar bi his syde ; 10 

'-'■ • '^ ^- . '^ An hundred of ampqlles • on his hat seeten, uX- n j-j^cj^d 
^ ' ^ ^' Signes of Synay • and Schelles of Galy sJ^f f<.Li<c*^^ 

Moni Cros on his cloke • and kei^es of Rome, 
y^ And J)e yemicle bi-fore • for men schulde him knowe, 
^ ^ And seo be his signes • whom he souht hedde. 15 

. ^ w '/<«-MA», pjg Yolk fra^Tieae hi/» feire^* from whewne fat he coome 
* From Synay/ he seide, • * and from the Sepulcre ; 
From Bethleem and Babiloyne • I haue ben in bofe, 
In Ynde and in Assye • and in mony ojjer places. 
3e mouwe seo be my Signes • J)at sittej? on myn hat, 20 

pat I haue walked ful wyde • In weete and in dniye. 
And souht goode seyntes • for my soule hele.' J*? uc. -^«-« UcJl 


^ Vera, omits 11. 1, 2, and 5 ; supplied from MS. Plarl. 875. 
' Vera, omits * hit,* ;. 

vV . < • '» « . ' ■ . ♦ .».' ' « i"*< ■ . 


'Knowest ])Ou ouht A Corsejoit * Men calle]> Seynt 
/-,Suvvi<Avv- TreuJ)e? 

Const \o\x \^ssen'vs ))e wey * wher J)at he dwelle))?^ 
^ ^.u. j(<m(< Nay, so God glade me !' • sdde ))e gome '))enne, W 'f 5^»'^'^5 '*^ 
' Sauh I neuere Palmere • w/'t^ pyTc ne wzU schrippe v>.>Lyo 
Such a seint seche • bote now in J>is place/ /iix4.L^^ ^* 

.-.^i^^/Ue/v < Peter I' q«^d a Ploug-MonT- and putte for]) his hed, ^^"«^ "^XJl^ 
'^'Xl^ * I knowe him as kuyndeliche ; as Clerk do]? his bokes;T>V/ /i#hi-^^ 
' Clene Concience and wit • ken3e^me to his place, ^^'*' ^^^^ ^^ ^^xZ^t 
And dude enseure me sebbe 'to serue him for eu^re. . . ^ 

BoJ)e to sowen and to setten • while I swynk e mihte, 
I haue ben his felawe • ])is fiftene wynter; 
Bo})e I-sowed his seed ' and suwed his beestes, h*'* '> 
'''f,.<uM^ And eke I-kept bis Corn • I-caried hit to house, - f./^. ., 35, , 
JUIc-'^mL I-dyket anal-doluen *I-don what he hihte, c< »>.,.>.». C " °^ 
W/'t^-Innen and wd^outen • I -wayt ed his pr^fyt; (^aidjiA ^^{kr 
per nis no laborer in fis leod • J)at he loue)) more. 
For ))auh I Sigg^ hit my-self • I serue him tojpaye. ^ ''^i*Sci.{^iU^*ii} 
I haue myn hur?of liim wel * and qberwhile more ; ^ ^'^^V ' *" / 
He is Jje pr^este payere * Jjat pore men habbe)) ; 
:,j-,AJ^iiie w;U-halt non hyne^^is huire • ^at he hit na)) at euen. - lu i^^^*^' 
/r ,i ort»^«^He is as louh a& A lomb • louelich of speche, , , /^ •^f .^ !u l 

And 511 5e wolle^ I-wite • wher )>at he dwellel?. ^ 

I wol wissen ow ]>e wey • hom to his place.' /^^«^ ^jA^iv ^^^ 

[/r^/» 'Fassus Sep/mus.*] 

* For kuynfle wit Wolde-^Jjat vche mgn ^vrouhte (xc> uJ.,j 
WiJ) techinge or mtA tilynge • or trauaylynge of hondes, 235 
Actyf lyf or Contemplatyf • Crist wolde hit alse. / ~7 C-- , 
For so seip ))e Sauter • In Psalm of deaft omnes, 

Ldbores manuum iuarum quia manducabis^ dcc,^ ^wa .^d'-.'^i / 

^ So Trin. ; Vcm. * taujtc* * Vem. omits the Latin. r-''. : .> <■ 


J 1 


' r 








fi- - 'f 

He J)at get his fode her • w/tA trauaylinge in '&eujg ^^ 
u/t. 1 God aiueb him his blessyng • hai his lyflode so swynkeb.', ^^<W 

^^^l^ Yit I preye be. q«oa pers • *par Chante, aif bou Conne 240 
^^/^ Eny Tyf of leche- Craft ' lerenit me, my deore. ^^^c^siL 

u<^iU^*'* ' For su^me of my seruauws • beoJ> seke o^er-Avhile, 
4S tvxAXA Of alle |)e wike heo Worcne)? not • so heor wombe zkt}^'ctcAje,^ 
V ,^ * I wot wel,' auod. Hunger • * What seknesse hem eileb, cl*£^ 

pei han I-Mau/gget o\iur muche • Jwzt makej> hem grone ^ 

/'.i^v, oajV'i Ac Ich note ))e/ qtwd Hungm- • * and })Ou |>in hele ' wyme , ^ . 
:^CKi< 1^ pat J>(7U drynke no dai ' til ))0u haue dynet sum what; \ 

/vi/^t. r^ . £jg not, Ich hote J)e • til hunger be take, juIt'^ Sa^n^ 
And sende ))e sum of his sauce • to sauer ^e J>e betere ; 
Keep sum til soper-tymo • And sit ^ jiou not to Longe, 250 
A-Rys vp^ appetyt • habbe I-jeten his Fulle. A S g^- ^Ick^ 
Let not sir Surfet • sitten at bi Bord : / * / ^'^ *^ 

.-)->-) Loue him not, for he is a lechour • & Jikerous of Tonge, 
f ' f And aftur mony. Metes ' his Mawe is a-long et. ^"'^^^J^'f^^^^^ 

- Ji '^^ Anri *s\f \%r\n HiX<af/» Ka Une • T Hor \e>^<rnrf^ \\r\\\t^ mvn Hrt^Q t^^ ^ — -^ 

f 3 

l{ Uy {' a,*^ 


And 5if fou m^ete }>e bus Vl^dar leg|e bofe myn Eres, 255' 
pat Fisyk schal his TOrreo hoa • for hisfbode * sulle, 
And eke his cloke of Calabre • w/t^ knappes of Gold, 4 C**^ 
- And ^p^Fayn, be my Fdb 'his Fisyk to lete, 

O* *X »\^ 

And leorne talabre wi)) long ' leste lyflode F^e; ^i^^Uy^oi^ 
per beob mo ^er| J>en leches * vr lord hem amende V " 260 
pei ^3on men dygen Jjoruj heor drinke ' er destenye wolde.'.^^^ 

* Bi seint Poul !' quod, pers • * J>eos beo|> pr<?phitablewordes I j?*. 
pis is a loueli lesson • vr lord hit fe for-jelde lA"--- ^*^ j^JZXrL 

^ : c* //*^ ^end nou whon ))i wille is • Wei fe beo for eu^re 1' y — ' 
*I befo-tote^e,* quod hungur • *heonnes nm i wende 265 
Er I haue I-dynet bi ))is day ' and I-dronke bo|)e/ 

* I haue no peny/ quod pers • * Poletes to bugge , Cr^ 

/"■•* ■^' 1 /i^.^ca As f,^ . 

» Trin. • sit'; Vem. • festc/ > Vern. • lyflode/ /^^h 

cV€6ytj ft^v4 ^ct&co /// 

a»^<^r f-couu*^ H tu.^ c^tula . 


I Noufer gees ge grys • bote twey grene cheeses, 

1 And a fewe Cmddes and Craym • and a ))erf Cake, T J ^l*?/ aJ.*ct i.e»^'/ 

And a'lof of Benes and Bren • I-Bake for my Children. 270 
' s^c^ou^ And I sigge . bi my soule • I haue no salt Bacon» 
'XTU^^^Ne no Cokeneyes, bi Crist • Colopu^'to maken^^^iAJ^. "? /lca^- 
";;*^;.^ Bot I haue porettes '& percy l •'~an3 moni (^ploifte s, Ji ^ CcSl^j^(-<^^< ^^. 
Jl"^^ And eke a Cou, and a Calf • and a Cart-Mare f^^rt^^lJ- 
I *« ^'^^'^v^lflTo drawe a-feld my donge • Whil \q drouh}?e laste{». 275 
^^ '' Bi J)is lyflode I mot lyuen • til lammasse tyme; ( €. €c/«^' ^^^^*^ ^ 
Bi bat, Ich hope forte haue • heruesFin my ($o}f;'*'V.^^:^/V^' ^ 
e«ne may I dime ])i 
Al ])e pore peple • 

brouhten in heor lappes, 280 

''''''- -""r'T»iv»'^iToe r^o^f ryi«f«". and ripe chiries monye, ^ ^ /t,?-^ 

And proferde pers J>is present • to plese wi'tA hungur. 5 /^ 
Honger eet ))is in haste • and asked aftur more. / 

P^e J)is folk for fere • fetten him monye .- p'^* '"^ Y' '^ ' '^"^' ' 
" ^^ Poretes, and Peosen • for )>ei him plese wolden; ) 285 

Yrom }pai tyme )>^ bulk e weore eten * take he schulde his 
leue ^ 'it 14: . 

Til hit to heruest hi^ede • \ai newe com com to chepynjge. 
[ penne was ))at folk fayn • and fedde hunger ^eorn e aiilo^i.j^^ i«j^'>' • 

Ttt luc^j^ WftA good Al^ and glotonye * ana gartnim to slepe. 
'^i^ u^ And bo nolde be wastor worcne • but wandren aboute, 200 
/^J /L **■ Ne no Beggere eten Bred '(bat Benes Inne cooiiie, ^ t ' " r ' * ' - 

V ''<X Bote Coket and Cler-Matin • an of clene whete: 

'■' - — v-i. 

Ne non halfpeny Ale •• In none wyse drynke. 

Bote of be Beste and be Broimeste ■ hat Brewesters sullen. 

I Laborers ^at haue no lond • to liuen on Bote heore 

^j^'f^ honden, Acvtv. - ^^,,-.. J.^ V<^*''<^**^* ^95 . 

Deyne not to dyne a day • niht-olde wortes. j / '^^«- "^^ /- * ■ , 
Mai no peny-Ale hem' ^paye • ne no pece of Bacun, 

\ Bote hit weore Fresch Flesch • or elles Fisch I-Fri ^et, /'^^-^ A^ 



. <•■ 


[S ixMjj.,ck. jgQjg j^Q PgQ neiniicne i-nurei • cues woi ne cniae, 300 

pat he was werjimon I-wromt • warie be tyme, -^^^ uxp^-^^^^ 
^ ^ '''"^*^'*"' And Corse jeme be kyng • and al his Counseil aftur, 
'l«/(? i^ ^" Suche law^slo Joke • laborers to chaste, e^^^^^ 

I l>-V 

) • < 

Ac while hunger was Mayster heer • wolde ^r non chyde, 
Ne strme ajeyn ^e s^tues • so steorneliche he-lokede.^V-^aos 

I wame aou, alle,werk-men; winneb while ae mowe, n^oA^ 
Hunger hiderward a^eyn • hije^ him jeome. x of -^ 

He wole a-wake forw watur • J)e wastours alle, 
Er Fyue jer ben folfult • such Famyn schal a-Ryse 
porw Flodes and foul weder ' Fruites schul fayle; 310 

And so seij) Saturne ^ • and sent vs to warne. 

,, t J * Vem» * Saturncs/ 

C\, t I \. 

y^ S f^. t. -•' '' ^-* ^ " ' • "" "'^ 



A.D. 1375. 

John Barbour was born, according to some, in 13 16; ac- 
cording to others, as late as 1330. He is described as being 
Archdeacon of Aberdeen in 1357. He died about the year 
1395. His great work, entitled 'The Bruce,' was partly written 
in 13759 ^ ^^ himself tells us. It extends to more than 13,000 
lines, and describes the life and adventures of Robert Bruce, 
King of Scots, and his companions. It has been many times 

The latest edition (not yet completed) is that published for 
the Early English Text Society, and edited by the Rev. W. W. 
Skeat from a MS. in the library of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
written A.D. 1487, with collations from the MS. in the Advocate's 
Library at Edinburgh, written a.d. 1489, and the early printed 
editions. We extract from this edition a portion of the Seventh 

Book VII. 

How lohn of lome Bouoht the gud kyng robert bruce 

vyth the sleuth-hund. 

The kyng toward the vod is gane, 
Wary for-swat and yiUof vayn ; 'j_j_ • -'^. ^/' - - ^• 
In-till the wod soyn entmt he, * ^* - - • , . ' 

And held doun toward a vale, 

//■..' ■*<■< 

ft, ^ 

. . .trt. 



Quhar throu the vod a vatt/r ran. 5 

Thidd/r in gret hy went he than, 

And begouth to rest hym thair, 

And said he mycAt no forth/rmar. 

His man said, ' sch'r, that may nor^t be; 

Abyde ^e heir, ^e sal so)ni se 10 

V hundreth ^arnand 50U to sla, ^ * 

And thai ar fele aganis twa ; 

And sen we may nocht deill wyt^ my^i^t, 

Help vs all that we may vyt^ slycht' 

The kyng said, * sen that thou will swa, 15 

Ga furth, and I sail vith the ga. 

Bot I haf herd oftsiss say, 

That quha endlang a vattir ay 

Wald vayd a bow-draucht, he suld ger 

Bath the sleuthhund & the ledar 20 

Tyne the sleuth men gert him ta ; 

Pruf we gif it will now do swa. 

For war jon deuillw hund a-vay, 

I roucht nockt of the layflf, perfay.' 

Here the Blowth-hund tynt his Bent, 


As he deuisit, thai haf done, %$ 

And entfrit in the watt/r sone. 
And held on endlang it th^r way. 
And syne to the land ^eid thai. 
And held thair way as thai did ere. 
And lohn of lorn, with gret effcre, "^^ '-' ^' ' ' "30 
Com vith his rout richt to the place 
Quhar that his v men slan was. 
He menyt thame quhen he thai/« saw, 
And said, eftt'r a litill thraw, 


That he suld wenge in hy thar blude ; 35 

Bot oth/r ^wayis the ga/wmyn jude. 

Thair vald he mak no mair duelling, 

Bot furth in hy followit the king. 

Richt to the burn thai ^ passit ar ; 

Bot the sleuth-hund maid stynting thar, 40 

Arid vau^ryt lang tyme to and fra, 

That he na certane gat couth ga. 

Till at the last than lohne of lorn 

Persauit the hund the sleuth had lorn, 

And said, * we haf tynt this trauell ; 45 

To pas forthir may nocht avale ; 

For the wode is bath braid and vyde, 

And he is weill fer be this tyde. 

Tharfor I red^ we turn agane, 

And vast no mair travale in vayn.' 50 

Vith that releyt he his menjhe, 

And his way to the host tuk he. 

Or ellis he wes slane with an arrow. 

Thus eschapit the nobill kyng; 
Bot su/;» men sais, this eschaping ^ 
Apon ane othir maner fell 55 

Than throu the vading ; for thai tell. 
That the kyng a gud archer had, / ., f jf 

And quhen he saw his lord swa stad, ^ * ^^'l .^-^ i W 
That he wes left swa anerly, * 

He ran on fut alwayis hym by, 60 

Till he in-till the wod wes gane. 
Than said he till hym-self allane» 

^ So in Edinb. MS.; Camb. MS. * /i&ame.* 
' So in Edinb. MS. ; Camb. ' enchaping.' 


That he arest rycht thair vald ma, 

And luk gif he the hund vaycht sla. 

For gif the hund mycht lest on lif, .... -u- <a^c»^ 65 

He vist full Weill that thai vald drif * ' 

The kyng;> trass till thai hym ta ; 

Than wist he weill thai vald him sla. 

And for he wald his lord succour, 

He put his lif in auentur, 70 

And stud in-till a busk lurkand 

Quhill that the hund com at his hand, 

And vith ane aiTOw soyn hym slew, 

And throu the vod syne hym vithdrew. 

Bot quheth/r his eschaping ^ fell 75 

As I tald first, or now I tell, 

I wat it Weill, without lesyng, 

At that bum eschapit the king. 

How the thre men that bare the veddir schep thoucht 
to haf slayn kyng robert bruce. 

The king has furth his vayis tane, 
And lohne of lome agane is gane 80 

■'"' To schir Amer, that fra the chass 
With his men than reparit wass. 
That litill sped in thair chassing ; 
For thow that thai maid following 
Full egirly, thai wan bot small; 85 

f{ - Thair fayis neir eschapit all. 

Men sais, ^chir thomas ra«dale than, 
Chassand, the kyng/x baner van, 

> Edinb! « dryve'; Camb. * rif.' 
* So in Edinb. ; Camb. ' enchapin.' 

v. . 


Quhar-throu in yngland vyth the kyng 

He had rycht gret price and lovyng. 90 

Quhe« the chaseris releit war, 

And lohne of lorn had met thai/w thar, 

He ^ tald sch'r Amer all the cass, 

How that the king eschapit was, 

And how that he his v men slew, ^ 95 

And syne he to the vod hym drew. 

Quhen sMr Amer herd this, in hy 

He sanyt hym for the ferly. 

And said, ' he is gretly to priss, 
. For I knaw nane that lifFand is ^ 100 

That at myscheif can help hym swa ; 
./ 1 trow he suld be ^ard to sla. 

And he war'b^dyri'kll evynly ;'- \' ';\ ''\\ "?-"^' 

On this viss spak sc/it'r Amery. 

Here ijj tratowris metis the king with a weddir. 

And the gud kyng held forth hts way, 105 

He and ht's man, ay quhill that thai 
Passit owt * throu the forest war. 
Syne in a mwre th^i entmt ar. 
That was bath hee & ^ lang & braid ; 
And, G^ thai half it passit had, no 

Thai saw^on syde thre men cuzwand, 
^ S o c Lik to licht men and vauerand. <c a. <<i ^ ^ <| 
Swerdz> thai had and axis als, 
And ane of thamp apon his hals 
A mekill bundyn weddir bare. 115 

Thai met the kyng and halsit him* thar; 

* So in Edinb. ; Camb. • And.* 
. » The words * owt/ • &/ and * him' are supplied from the Edinb. MS. 

ao8 XVI. JOHN BARBOUR. , ^^ K^ ^ a 

And the kyng thame thar halsing jald, 
n.tL ci.i^^^ '-w-v t»i^viiir - And askit thame quheth/r thai vald. 
'^ ^''' °^ ' Thai said, * robert the bruce thai socht, 

To meit vith hym gif that thai mocht ; - 120 
Thair duelling with hym wald thai ma.' 
The kyng said, * gif that jhe will swa, 
Hald/> furth ^our vay with me, 
And I sail ger 50W soyn hym se.' 
Thai persauit be his spekyng, 125 

And his efFer, he wes the kyng. 
Thai changit contenanss and late, 06,. .^^^--v^ 
And held nor^t in the first stat ; e/ - ^* K*-. ^ ^"^-^ ' 
For thai var fayis to the kyne;, ^ . ,^ ^ ^ 1 I 
And thoucht to zxxm i«-to scowkyn^, ^ 130 

And duell with hym quhill that thai saw 
rf ^^^ '? ,f^' • "^"^ '" '' Thar tym, and bryng hym thaw of daw. ^ . 

Vi. K lit • ^ "^^ ^ ^ ' ■^_ ^ ' 

. ^ ' (»< -^ '^ Thai grantit till his spek for-thi; . • ^k 
' Bot the kyng, that wes vitty, 

Persauit weill be thair hawyng i<' .k'u. ^' ''^"^'^^135 
That thai lufit hym in na thing. 

He said * fallowis, ^he man all thre,. i^^ ''»*.. f^ '^^ 
., i^t •(.*<:'. tv (w(. Forthzr aquynt quhill that we be, ^^ /,,'*/- aa i^ 
All be 5our-self forrouth ga, . . -^^t i, . 

And on the sawmyn viss we twa 140 

Sail fallow 50W behynd weilj neir.' 
Qiwd thai, * schir, it is na mysteir - « . '^^^ '^ "^ *^' ''"^ ^ 
a ^ ^^^.^' — To trow m-tiU vs any 111. 

, , * Nane do I,' said he, * bot I will 

Tj '. av.frw That jhe ga forrow vs, quhill we ^ •< • - "' j^^^ 

, ;^..« vv fv Af <* ufr^/dL Bettir with oth/r knawyn be/ 

* We grant,' thai said, * sen 56 will swa ;' -'''^ 
. ^ i "'"' • -'' • ' • i* ' And furth apon thair gat can ga. 

' - ' Thus 5eid thai till the nycht wes neir. 


r I 


And than thefprmast cuwin weir ' 'i ' 150 

^ t^^<r*>e •piU a vast husband/^ houss, & thar 

Thai slew the veddir at thai bar, 

And strake * fyre for to rost thar met, 

And askit the kyng gif he vald et, 

And rest hym till the met war dicht ? dui^^ ^ M**S5 V' 

The kyng, that huwgry wes, I hicht, ; « .« tv4, rr a » -<t^ 

Assentit to thair speke in hy, Iro^h^ 
, ^^j. Bot he said, ' he vald anerly .Co -xx^-'^i^ A ^ o-^^^ 

Betuyx hym & his fallow be 

At a fyre, and thai all thre, . 160 

In the End of the houss, suld ma i*^*-*^ 

Ane othi'r fyre ;' and thai did swa . ^ 

Thai drew thame in the houss-end, 

And half the ved(;iirtill hym send ; 

And thai rostit in hy thair met, = 165 , ' 

And fell ryr^t frakly for till et. f '^'- •• - * '* ^ » ' ^ 

The kyng weill lang he fastyt ^ had, 

And had ry^^t mekill travale made ; 

Tharfor he ete richt egyrly. 

And quhen he etyn had ha^tely, 170 . 

He had to slepe sa mekill vill, , v* ^ c *T at- 

That he myr^t set, naiet tnar-till. ctd^ 

For quhen the van^s fillit ar, h i <.r{ uaio, f '^f <:**•* *- 

The body vorthis hevy euzrmar ; ^ ^ 

And to slepe drawis hevynes. diat'^j 175 

The kyng that all for-travalit wes',^' 
' ^f'Unxiuiief Saw that hym yorthi t slep neidwais ; 
•"■'{Y^V 'Till his Cost/r-brotb"rh^ V ' " " 

* May I'tfast the me to valk, .-» • - • (r c -^ ^ ^ 

> So in Httt's edition ; MSS. * slew.' > So in Ediub. ; Camb. * fastyn.' 

* So in Edinb. ; Camb. * was.' 

VOL. n. p 

,^r f- ti tfrt /. • ' 


TiU I a litiU slepyng tak ? ' AS oi\^^<^ ^^ 
y\^ C iui^' ^^^"^ ' 5^21, sr^ir/ he said. * till I may ^,%c(d exU^ e^^d^^nj. 
£ch ui>i ^ A The ky ng than vynkit^ a litill we, M ^t S ^«e <^ • 

And slepit nocht full ^ ynkurl y, c^^-AAj^ 
Jc'. ■iCLti , Bot gliffnj t vp oft * suddandly ; 

(^ c^''-' ^'^^^^'^'^^^ For he had of thai thre men, 185 

^^ ^'^ ^ t: That at tiie^toflnnfyre war then. 

, I t rv>^ r That thai his fayi^ war he wyst, ^ /j , 

r J i^ Tharfor he slepit as foul on twist / . /,^ t 

Heire he slew the i(j. tratowiis. 

The kyng slepit bot litill than, 
Quhen sic a slepe fell on ht's man, 1^ 

That he mycht not hald vp his E, 
y\ J lt\cc(<:^^ t^ Bot fell on slepe and routit he. -'^< ^*^^ .'..^^ ivi-- ^^ 

Now is the kyng in gret perell, 
For slepe he swa a litill quhile, ^ ^u^uf-^t^AA cLii^H 
i^t ^Ci.^*:^ He" sail be ded forouten dred. ^' i ^.^iai^ oirijuk 195 

^ ^ "^ For the thre tratounj tuk gud hede, 

That he on slep wes and his man. 
In full gret ny thai raiss vp -than, 
And drew thair swerdw hastely. 
And went toward the kyng in h^. Wo. * .^e aoo 

^^ .m/t" ^^ ^^'^ Quhen that thai saw he slepit swa, ^-^ 
:, n. < • '^'^ And slepand thoucht thai vald hym sla. hx\^ 

^ ^ . . *Till hym thai|e^ a full gret pass^ -+ ^* ^"^^ij^ 

> ' ' ' *Bot in that tym, throu goddis grace ^ 

;Slw.- 'i o rM.,(.^ Tjjg j^yjjg blenkit vp hastely. 

And saw his man slepand lum by, 

* So in Edinb. ; Camb. * bot.' 

• Edinb. • Bot gliffhyt wp oft'; Camb. • And ghiflhyt oft vp.' 
' These two lines are omitted in Edinb. MS. 





And saw cixmand the tratourw thre. 205 

., '^ <j*^ '^*7 Delyu^rly on fut gat he, r 

And drew his suerd out and thame met. ? - > c^<-(m ^ "^ ^ 
And as he jeid; his fut he set ^T'l^^^' 

, r y Apon his man weill hevaly ; 

^""^ '^Kt ^® ^Ikny t, and raiss all desaly ; cU*^ «^ 210 

For the sleip mast^rit hym swa , ^ 
That, or he gat vp, ane of thai 
That com for to sla the kyng, - . 

Gaf hym a strike in his rysyng, ^^ ^ ^^^ . ' 
<Pi. Swa that he mycht help hym no main 215 

Ti^ kyng so stratly stad wes Wr,^ «:^*-^/ ^*^^',^' /.^w^v,--' 
■ I i^i i-u^f^ That he wes neu^r 5eit swa stad ; 1 i i 

'" \ ...^u^' Na war the Armyng that he had, '-^ K-a^, «*^i^ ^i '^^^^ Z^*- 

He had beyn ded foteuty nSveyr. dt id. l^^,^^,l t^''"< 
Bot nocht-for-thi on sic maneir «. >-^ ^ 220 

He helpit hym swa in that bargane, f ^t/<. tr fu %* »^< * - 
That thai thre tratouriV he has slane, 
Throu goddis grace and his manheid. 


His fost/r-brothjr thair wes ded. 
^<^\r^^l Than wes he vound^ will of vayn,-^^ '"-*'< ^^J ' 225 

( »• 


Quhen he saw he wes left allane. 

His fost/r-broth/r menyt he, -^ ^ »^ * * *^^ 
h ' "- "^a ' And varyit all the toihtr thre, 
/- : u-y^c'^ And synehis vay tuk hym allane, >^( / 1 . ^ - • 

And richt toward his trist is gane. y^^'^' *^ 250 ' 

Here the kyng metis IQ. taratowris. 

Swa hapnyt it that, on a day, , 400 

He vent till hwnt, for till assay i'Vu '" \f ctr*^^*^ 

c\ ^/" rt • r< 


Quhat g2Lmmyn wes in that cuntre ; 
And sa hapnyt th^t ^ day that he . 

4 i</c By a vode-syde to sett is^fte;^ "^^ ^^ ^ Z^*''^ 
Vith his twa hundw hym allane ; 405 

Bot he his swerd ay vith hym bare. 
He had bot schort quhill syttyn thare, 
Quhen he saw fra the vode cu/^and 
Thre men vith bowis in thar hand, 
That toward hym com spedely, 410 

And he persauit that in hy, 
Be thair effeir and thair havyng, ' ^ / . • « ' '-r a tf-^^-^vv*^^^*^ 

, ; , . That thai lufit hvm na kyn thyng. 

'' **^ r He raiss & his leyscfc till him drew he. 

<•<? *«* 

And leit his hound/j gang all fre. 415 

God help the kyng now for his my^-^t ! 
ity Lriti.A^ uU For, bot he now be^vfs^and vicht,/n Uicivt : vuvvl^ 

He sail be set in mekill press. ^^ 



e< > 

For thai thre men, vithouten less, 
War his fayis" all vtrely, 4ao 

(va/c iiA And had vachit so besaly, 

- ,,//<<•' ^^ '....'^^ ^® quhen thai vengeans mycht tak^ 

"" '*" /7..r^ '-" ^' Of the kyng for lohne cwmynys sak, ' 

That thai thoucht than thai laser had ; ;*. ■ ^i^^/^ ...A/ 
And sen he hym allane wes stad,Hw.^,.{l. ' 425 

In hy thai thoucht thai suld him sla, ^j^^^^ ^vv 
oc I -t <-' f And gif that thai mycht cheviss swa, .<v> ^ i-t 

Fra that thai the kyng had slayn, 
That thai my^ At vyn the vode agayn, 
His men, thai thoucht, thai suld nod-^t dreid. 430 
In hy towart the kyng thai jeid, U-i^^sX 
And bend thair bowis quhen thai var neir ; 

^ So in Edinb. ; Camb. ' a.' 


And he, that dred in gret maneir 
^J^ Thair arowis, for he nakit was, m.J«^. ^ iH^"^ "^Itl'^-'^ 
^W In hy ane spekyng to thame maiSj^wJtJ;,) 435 

And said, * 3he aucht to shame, perde, 

Syn I am ane and 3he ar thre. 

For to scMat me on FerJ 4<:t\ ' ^^ ^^ cd^^rc^^^k. 

Bot nai ^ne hardyment, cum ner cvu/v^^^ » 

Vith 5our swerdw, me till assay; aJtacA 9r ^ ^^ 

Wyn me on sic viss, gif ^he may ; 

3he sail Weill mair all prisit be/ U/u^i^td^ 

* Perfay,' quod ane than of the thre, 

* man say we drede the swa. 

That we vith Arrowis sail the sla.' ,445 ,«/»-. 

With that thair bowis avay thai kest, ^T ^ ' '/ ^"^ tt^^ • 
And com on fast^'^fatjangar frest . >>vri«^ ^^f ^^^'^Y • 
The kyng thame met fuU hardely, , h^^h di^^t^ 

And smat the first so Rigorusly, 
That he fell ded doun on the greyn. 450 

And quhen the kyngw hounds has seyn 

^ / Thai men assale his mastir swa, 
^^j^_^^f- He lap tul ane and can hym ta l^^l^ ^^ ' ^ oc u 

Richt be the nek full felonly, i* • f ' "^7 ^ 

Till top our taill he gert hym ly. ^--^ ^' '^ '"^*"' 455 
And the kyng, that his swerd vp had. 
Saw he so fair succour hym maid, 
Or he that fallyn ' wes mycht ryss, 
Had hym assal3eit on sic wiss. 
That he the bak strak evyn in twa. 460 

The thrid that saw his fallowis swa 
Forouten recou^ryng be slayne, 
Tuk till the vod his vay agane. 

> So in Edinb. ; Camb. * /*an.' * So in EdJnb. ; Camb. * falUt.* 





Bot the kyng foUowit spedely ; 
And als the hound that wes h3an by, 465 

J j^AtvTr • ^* r '^ Quhen he the man saw g^^ hym fra, 
J[ 7 Sc^<^«^*^;'i< ^.LJl Schot till hjrm soyn, & can hym ta 

Richt be the nek, and till hym drenc h; cLil^O 
And the kyng that ves neir eneuch, 
,^U,(tiyCx ^"-f^ ^ Inhis risyng sicjowtlgmg^, ^<:^<< 470 

^rlrrivj.^rjht^That stane:^ed till the erd^e draf. ciwn. J^, 
'-■' ' ''''"^ The kyngw mei^e that war neir, kcuMM c<^^ 

Quhen at thai saw on sic maneir 
The kyng assalit sa suddandly, 
Thai sped thame toward hym in hy, 475 

(i fif V. u^ r A. ^jjd askit how that cass befell. 

And he all haly can thaim tell. 
How thai assal3eit hym all thre. 
* Perfay/ quod thai, ' we may weill se 
That it is hard till vnd/rtak . 480 

Sic mellyng vith 90W for to mak, 
ThsuTao smertly has slayn thir thre 
^^^r,_f^^i Foroute n hurt :' — ' perfay,* said he, 

' I slew bot ane forouten ma, ^<^<^ ^-'^ ^^ *^ Inc'H^ 
God and my hound has slane the twa. 485 

,-*. Thair tresoime cumri t thame, perfay, ^ ^^ 

For ncht vicht men all thre var thai' """^ '^ ' 




« V '^ 'ill • 

I M- 


t W Jc/C< 

I A 

\ . . I 1 ^ 

» .V » < • t 

f « 4 

A L t. ) 1 4 


. 1 ^-/% 

XVII. (a) 


ABOUT A.D. 1380. 

John Wyclif was born at the village of Hipswell, near Rich- 
mond, Yori:shire, about the year 1394, and died at the vicarage 
of Lutterworth, Leicestershire, a.d. 1384. He was the first 
Englishman who undertook a complete version of the Scriptures 
in his native tongue. This great work is supposed to have been 
completed about the year 1380. Wyclif was the author of many 
religious treatises written in English, among which may be men- 
tioned several sets of * Sermons,* * Fifty Heresies and Errors of 
Friars,' and ' Wyclif 's Wicket.' The ' Select English Works of 
John Wyclif,' edited by T. Arnold, M.A., have lately been pub- 
lished in 3 vols. 8vo. ; Oxford, 1871. 

The Gospel of St. Mark (cap. i-vi) is taken from * The Holy 
Bible in the Earliest English Versions made from the Latin 
Vulgate, by John Wycliffe and his Followers,* edited by the Rev. 
J. Forshall and Sir F. Madden; Oxford, University Press, 1850, 
4 vols. 4to. 

Here hygynneth the gospel of Mark. 
Cap. I. 

The bigynnynge of the gospel of Jhesu Crist, the sone of i 
God. As it is writun in Ysaie, the prophete, * Lo I I sende 2 
myn angel bifore thi face, that schal make thi weye redy . 
bifore thee. The voice of oon cryiuge in desert, Make je 3 


4 redy the weye of the Lord, make je his pathis rijtful/ Jhon 
was in desert baptis)mge, and prechinge the baptym of 

5 penaunce, in-to remiscioun of synnes. And alle men of 
^. Jerusalem wenten out to him, and al the cuntre of Judee ; 

(| and weren baptisid of him in the flood of Jordan, know- 

^^^ 6 lechinge her synnes. And John was clothid with heeris 

\ of camelis, and a girdil of skyn abowte his l eenaSS ; and he 

7 eet Iqcustus, and hony of the wode, and prechide, seyinge, 

Ufujc^^ * A strengere than I schal come aftir me, of whom I knelinge 

A-S scjo ^ am not worthi for to vndo, or vndynde, the t hwong of his 

S^o i^ 8 schoon. I haue baptisid jou in water ; forsothe he shal 

^curi 9 baptise 30U in the Holy Goost.' And it is don in thoo dayes, 

/J xhio^ Jhesus came fro Nazareth of Galilee, and. was baptisid of 

10 Joon in Jordan. And anoon ne ' Styinge TVp of the water, 

A^ say5 heuenes openyd, and the Holy Goost cummjoige doun 

cl^jh. II as a culuere, and dwell)nige in hym. And a voys is maad 

fro heuenes, * Thou art my sone loued, in thee I haue plesid' 

'^ And anon the Spirit puttide hym in-to desert. And he was 

in desert fourty dayes and fourty nijtis, and was temptid of 

Sathanas, and was with beestis, and angelis mynystriden to 

14 hym. Forsothe after that Joon was taken, Jhesus came in-to 

15 Galilee, prechinge the gospel of the kyngdam of God, and 
seiynge, * For tyme is fulfiUid, and the kyngdam of God shal 
come nij ; forthinke ^ee, or do ye penaunce y and bileue jee to 

16 the gospel.' And he passynge bisidis the see of Galilee, say 
Symont, and Andrew, his brother, send)Tige nettis in-to the 

17 see; sothely thei weren fishers. And Jhesus seide to hem, 

* Come jee after me ; I shal make 30U to be maad fishers of/ 

18 men.' And anoon, the nettis forsaken, thei sueden hym. ^^ 

19 And he gon forth thennes a litil, say James of Zebede, and '^. 
'^^'-^ Joon, his brother, smd hem in the boot makynge nettis. 

to And anoon he clepide 'hem ; and Zebede, her fadir, left in 
21 the boot with hirid seniauntis, thei sueden hym. And thei 

I * 


XVII. (a) the gospel of mark. cap. I. 0,1*7 

wenten forth in-to Cafarnaum, and anoon in the sabotis h e, 
gon yn into the'synagoge, tau^te hem. And thei wondreden 22 
on his techynge ; sothely he was techynge hem, as hauynge 
power, and not as scribis. And in the synagoge of hem 23 
was a man in an vnclene spirit, and he criede, seyinge, 24 

* What to vs and to thee, thou Jhesu of Nazareth ? haste thou 
cummen bifore the tyme for to destroie vs ? Y woot that = (^ 'f ^ '« k 

^P-'^ thou art the holy of God.' And Jhesus thretenyde to hym, 25 
■^'^"<^ seyinge, * Wexe dowmb, and go out of the man.' And the 26 
WoM^ vnclene goost debrekynge hym, and cryinge with grete vois,ScL^eMfi^'i 
wente awey fro hym. And alle men wondriden, so that* thei 27 
sou^ten togidre amonge hem, seyinge, ' What is this thinge ? 
j^,^ what is this newe techyng ? for in power he comaundith to 
^;^'^ ^glclene spiritis, and thei obeyen to hym.' And the tale, or 28 
tything, of hym wente forth anoon in-to al the cuntree of 
i p Galilee. And anoon thei goynge out of the synagoge 29 Jt 
. .\a«.. camen in-to the hous of Symont and Andrew, "vjith James 

and Joon. Sothely and the modir of. Symcmtis wif sik in 30 
^ ^ feueris restide, or lay; and ^anoon thei ^eien to hym of hir. 
■«- \ And he cummynge tof reride ^hir vp, the bond of hir taken^ 31 
^-;;'and anoon the feuere left hire, and she mynystride to hem. 
£' Forsothe the euenjoige maad, whenne the sone wente doun, 32 
thei brou^ten to hym alle hauynge yuel, and hauynge deuelis. 
And al the cite was gaderid at the jate. And he helide 33 
many that weren traueilide with dyuers soris, and he castide 
out many deuelis, and he suffride hem nat for to speke, for 
thei knewen hym. And in the morewynge ful erly he 35 
rysynge, gon out, wente in-to desert place, and preiede 
there. And Symont suede hym, and thei that weren with 36 
hym. And whanne thei hadden founden hym, thei seiden 37 
to hym, * For alle men seeken thee.' And he seith to hem, 38 

* Go we in-to the nexte townes and citees, that and there I 
preche, for to this thing I came.' And he was prechynge in 39 

»l8 XVII, (a) JOHN WVCLIF. ^ A^^ \<»<)^^ 

4 J I^LX^ ^ the synagogis of hem, and in alle Galilee, and castynge out 

40 fen3i s. And a leprous man cam to hym, bisechynge hym, 
9eu*v j^o, 2ind, the k nee folden , seide, ' Jif thou wolt, thou maist dense 

41 me.' Forsothe Jhesus, hauynge mercy on hym, strei^t out 
his hond, and, touchynge hym, seith to hym, * I wole, be thou 

42 maad clene/ And whanne he hadde seide, anoon the lepre 

43 partide awey fro hym, and he is clensid. And he thretenyde 

44 to hym, and anoon he putte hym out, and seith to hym, ' Se 
thou, seie to no man ; but go, shewe thee to the princis of 
prestis, and oifre for thi clensynge tho thingis that Moyses 

1 . 45 badde, in-to ^ijljg^gg^^ hem/ And he, gon out, biganne 
Jx/7/o»-«^ ^o preche, and 'mSame, or puph'ske, the word, so that nowe 

Vi ^ ^ he mijte nat opynly go in-to the citee, but be with-out-fort h 7^? 
^»u,^ in deserte placis ; and thei camen to-gidre to hym on alle 


1 And efl he entride in-to Capharnaum, after eijte days, 

2 And it is herd, that he was in an hous ; and many camen 
togidre, so that jt tqk nat, nether at the ^ate. And he spac 

3 to hem a word. And there camen to hym men bryngynge 

4 a man sike in palesie, the whiche was borun of foure. And 
, whanne thei mi^te nat offre hym to hym for the cumpanye 

'^ of peple, thei maden the roof nakid, wher he was; and 
makynge opyn, thei senten doun the bedd, in whiche the 

5 sike man in palasie lay. Sothely whanne Jhesus say the 
feith of hem, he seith vnto the sike man in palasie, ' Sone, 

6 thi synnes ben for^ouen to thee.' Forsothe there weren 
summe of the scribis sittynge and thenkynge in her hertis, 

7 * What spekith he thus ? He blasfemeth ; who may for^eue 

8 synnes, no-but God alone?' The whiche thipg ^oon 
knowen by the Holy Goost, for thei tho^hten so with-inne 
hem-self, Jhesus seith to hem, ' What thenken ^ee these 

xviu (a) the gospel of mark. cap. II. ai9 

thingis in joure hertis? Wha t is lijtere for to seie to the 9 
sike man in palasie, Synnes ben forjouen to thee, or for to 
seie, Ryse, take thi bed, and walke ? Sothely that jec wite 10 
that mannes sone hath powere in erthe to for3eue synnes,* 
he seith to the sike man in palasie, * I seie to thee, ryse vp, 1 1 
take thy bed, and go in-to thin house/ And anoon he roos 12 
vp, and, the bed taken vp, he wente bifore aDe men, so that 
alle men wondriden, and honouriden God^eyinge, *For we^^^ ^^^^ 
sayen neuer so.' And he wente out eflSon e to the see, and 13 ^ 
^V/ f(L ^^ ^^ cumpanye of peple cam to hym ; and he taujte hem. 
'"^^ And whenne he passide, he say Leui Alfey sittynge at the 14 

^kc/ tolbothe, and he seith to hym, * Sue fhou me.' And he j/vc^^^Y,k 
*^ rysynge suede hym. And it is don , whenne he sat at the 15 
mete in his hous, many puplicanys ^nd synful men saten 
togidre at the mete with Jhesu and his disciplis; sothely 
there weren manye that foleweden hym. And scribis and 16 
Pharisees seeyinge, for he eet with puplicanys and synful 
men, seiden to his disciplis, 'Whi joure maister etith and <r ) , 
drinkith with puplicanys ^and svnners?' This thing herd, 17 

I syni , 
Jhesus seith to hem, a Hoole man nan no nede to a jech e^^^w^^^t^N 
but thei that han yuele ; forsothe I cam not for to clepe ^^^ <\ 
iuste men, but synners.' And disciplis of Joon and the 18 
Pharisees weren fastynge ; and thei camen, and seien to 
.. ^ • hym, * Whi disciplis of Joon and of Pharisees fasten, but thi ^ ^ 


^ disciplis fasten nat?' And Jhesus seith to hym, 'Whether 19^ 
\ the sonn ys of weddg igis piown faste, as long as the spouse / 
*iiii is with hem ) Hou longe tyme thei han the spouse with '-\ 
hem, thei mowe nat faste. Forsothe dayes shulen come, 20 
whenne the spouse shal be taken awey from hem, and thanne 
thei shulen faste in thoo days. No man seweth a pacche of 21 
rude, or nhue, clothe to an old clothe, ellis he takith awey 
the newe supplement, or pacche, and a more brekynge is 
maad And no man sendith newe wyn in-to oold^ botelis, 22 


or zvyne-vesseh's, ellis the wyn shal berste the wyn-vesselis, 
and the wyn shal be held out, and the wyne-vesselis shulen 
perishe. But newe wyn shal be sent in-to newe wyn-ves- 

23 sells/ And it is don eftsoone, whanne the Lord walkide in /"^ 
the sabothis by the comes, and his disciplis bigunnyn to z.^' 

24 passe forth, and plucke eris. Sothly the Pharysees seiden,? ^ ? 

' Loo ! what don thi disciplis in sabotis, that is nat leeueful.' c--^- ^ 
fotii ih 25 And he seith to hem, ' Kada e jee neuere wha.t Dauyth dide, e '^ 1^ 
whanne he hadde neede, and he hungride, and thei that '^ ^ 

26 weren with him ? Hou he wente in-to the iious of God, 
/viW-Mutihtovndir Abiathar, prince of prestis, and eete loouy s of propo- 

1^1 I sicioun, the whiche it was nat leeful to ete, no-but to prestis 

27 alone, and he ^aue to hem that weren with hym.' And he 
seide to hem, * The sabote is maad for man, and nat a man 
for the sabote; and so mannys sone is lord also of the 

Cap. in. 

1 And he entride eftsoone in-to the synagoge, and ther was 

2 a man hauynge a drye hond. And thei aspieden hym, jif 

3 he helide in sabothis, for to accuse hym. And he seith to 
'g t 4 the man hauynge a drye honde, * Ryse in-to the mydil.' And 

'■ " > ' he seith to hem, * Is it leeueful to do wel in the sabothis, or 
V '' ''' yuele? for to make a soule saaf) whether to lese?' And thei 

5 weren stille. And he biholdynge hem aboute with wrathe, 
hauynge sorwe vpon the blyndnesse of her herte, seith to 
the man, *Holde forth thin honde.' And he helde forth, 

6 and the honde is restorid to hym. Sothely Pharisees 
Al^^ goynge out anoon, maden a counseil with Herodyans a^eins 

ojt; 7 hym, hou thei shulden lese hym. Forsothe Jhesus with 

'. J • : his disciplis wente to the see ; and myche cumpanye from 

8 Galilee and Judee suede hym, and fro Jerusalem, and fro 

Ydume, and bi^endis Jordan, and thei that aboute Tyre and 

\'^ " • -,N 

ZFJ7. (a) the gospel of mark. cap. III. 221 

Sydon, a grete multitude, heerynge the thingis that he 
dide, camen to Ijym. And Jhesus seith to his disciplis, 9 
that the litil ifoot shulde serue hjm, for the cumpanye 
j^^ of peple, lest thei oppressiden hym; sothely he helide 10 
many, so that thei felden fas t to hym, that thei shulden 
touche hym, Forsothe hou ma ny eu ere hadden soris,J^Oix/iovcfi 
or woundis; and vnclene spiritis, whenne thei seien hym, 1 1 
felden down to hym, and crieden, seyinge, * Thou art the sone ,>? z^ / 
of God/ And gretely he mana^i de hem, that fhei shulden 1 2 
na,t make hym opyn, or knowen. And he stymge iff- to an hil, 13 
clepide to hym whom he wolde ; and thei camen to hym. 
And he made, that there weren twelue with hym, and that 14 
he shulde sende hem for to preche. And he ^aue to hem 15 
power of heelynge siknessis, and of castynge out fendis. And 16 
to Symount he putte name Petre, and James of Zebede 17 
and Joon, the brother of James, and he putte to hem names 
Boonerges, that is, the sones of thondrynge; and Andrew 18 
and Philip, and Bartholomewe arid Mathew, and Thomas 
and James Alfey, and Thadee and Symount Cananee, and 19 
Judas Scariotb, that bitraide hym; And thei comen to an 
hous ; and the cumpanye of peple came togidre eftsoone, so 20 
that thei mi^te not nether ete breed. And whanne his 21 

lO^ . .^^. #» ., 

kynnesmen hadden herdde, thei wenten out for to holdeh> 
hym ; sothely thei seiden, for he is tiu^nyd in-to wodenesse . ^ 

And the scribis that camen doun fro Jerusalem, seiden, ' For 22 | ^. 
he hath Belsebub, and for in the prince of deuels he castith \ - 

out fendis.' And, hem gadrid togidre, he seide to hem in 23 \ ' 
,.. rrparablis, *Hou may Sathanas caste out Sathanas? And if a 24 s- 
f * -''.». rewme be departide in jtself. t}ie Uke ifewrne ^may not stonde.-''^J*Qt4 '^ 
\ AnJ if an hous be disparpoilid on it-self, thilke hous may 25 
, r^ not stondeLi And if Sathanas hath risen a^eins hym-self, he 26 
is disparpoilid, and he shal not mowe stonde, but hath an 
endei No man, gon in-to a stronge mannes hous, may take 27 


i^ciuuJ;njii awey his vessels, no-but he bynde firste the strcmge man, 

28 and thanne he shal diuersly rauyshe his hous. Trewly I 
P/.u>iuv»% seie to 50U, for alle synnes and blasphemyes, by whiche thei 

han blasfemed, shulen be forjouen to the sones of men. 

29 Sothely he that shal blasfeme a^eins the Holy Gost, shal not 
u- <«.it\>^w.»»^haue remissioun in-to with-outen eend , but he shal be gilty 

30 of euerlastynge trespas.' For thei seiden, * He hath an un- 

31 dene spirit.' And his modir and bretheren comen, and thei 
stondynge with-oute-forth, senten to hym, clepynge hym. 

32 And a cumpany sat aboute hym; and thei seien to hym, 
' Lo I thi modir, and thi bretheren with-outen-forth seken 

Ct> 33 thee.' And he answerynge to hem seith, * Who is my modir 

i ^^ 34 and my bretheren?' And biholdynge hem aboute, that saten 

in the cumpas of hym, he seith, * Lo ! my modir and my 

35 bretheren. Forsoth who that doth the will of God, he is my 

brother, and my sister, and modir.' 

y' Cap. IV. 



1 And eft Jhesus bigan for to teche at the see ; and myche 
cumpany of peple is gedrid to hym, so that he, styinge in-to 
a boot, sat in the see, and al the cumpany of peple was 

2 aboute the see, on the lond. And he tau^te hem in parablis 
many thingis. And he seide to hem in his techynjg^e, 

3 * Heere jee. Loo I a man sowynge goth out for to sowe. 

4 And the while he sowith, an other seed felde aboute the 
wey, and briddis of heuene, or of the eire, camen, and eeten 

5 it. Forsolhe an other felde doun on stony placis, wher it 
had[de] nat myche erthe ; and anoon it sprong vp, for it 

iv. ^ 6 hadde nat depnesse of erthe. And whenne the sunne rose 
' '-i-A. ^» ^^ welw ide for heete, and it dried vp, for it hadde not 

7 roote. And an other felde doun into thornes, and thomes 

8 stieden vp, and strangliden it, and it jaue not frujrt And 
'^^',-; an other felde doun in-to good lond, and jaue fruyt, swinge 





XVII, (a) the gospel of mark, cap, IV. %Q.^ 

vp, and wexinge; and oon broujte thritty-fold, and oon 
sixtyfold, and oon an hundridfold.' And he seide, * He tjiat 9 
hath eris of heeryng, heere.' And whenne he was ^ingu ier, 10 
or by hym-stlf, the twelue that weren with h)toi axiden nyrxib 
for to expowne the parable. And he seide to hem, * To 50U 1 1 
it is 50uen for to knowe the mysterie, or pryutte , of the ' 
kyngdam of God. Sothely to hem that ben with-oute-forth, 

^ alle thingis ben maad in parablis, that thei seynge se, and la 

J^ se nat, and thei heerynge heere, and vnderstonde not ; that 
sum ty me thei be conuertid, and synnes be forjouen to hem.' 
And he seith to hem, ' Witen not jee this parable ? and ho we 13 
^e shulden knowe alle parablis ? He that so with, sowith a 14 
word. These sothly ben that aboute the weye, where the 15 
word is sowun ; and whenne thei han herd, anoon cometh 
Sathanas, and takith awey the word that is sowun in her 
hertis. And also these ben that ben sown on a stoon, the 16 
whiche whanne thei han herd the word, a-noon taken it with 
ioye ; and thei han nat roote in hem-silf, but thei ben 17 

% temporal, that is, lasien a lityl t^me ; afterward tribulacioun 
V sprongen vp, and persecucioun for the word, anoon thei ben 
,'•; sclaundri d. And there ben other that bfen sowun in thornis ; 18 
r^ these it ben, that heeren the word, and myseise of the world, *1^ ' raw 
and disseit of richessis, and other (C^^iTge of coueitise en- 19 
trynge ynne, strangulen the word, and it is maad with-outen 
fruyt. And these it ben that ben sowun on good lond, the ao 
whiche heren the word, a nd taken , and maken fruyt, oon^^^ 
^-,vhi thritti-fold, oon sixti-fold, and oon an hundrid/ And he ai 

^ seide to hem, ' Wher a lanterne come, that it be put vndir a 
^^ bushel? wher not, that it be put vpon a candil-stike ? 
Forsothe ther is no thing hid, that shal not be maad opyn ; a 2 
nether ony thing is preuy, the whiche shal not come in-to 
apert. If ony man haue eeris of heryng, heere he.' And he ^3 
seide to hem, * See ^ee what ^ee heeren. In what mesure ^ee 

Ut^C ».•< 

224 ^^^^' (A) JOHN WFCLIF. 

25 meten, it shal be meten to 50U, and be kast to 50U. Sothely 
it shal be jouen to hym that hath, and it shal be taken awey 

26 from hym that hath not, also that that he hath.' And he 
seide, * So the kingdom of God is, as if a man caste seed in- 

27 to the erthe, and he slepe, and it ryse vp in nijt and day, 
and brynge forth seed, and wexe faste, the while he wote 

28 not. Forsothe the erthe by his owne worchjmge makith 
fruyt, first an erbe, or grene corn, afterward an eere, afterward 

29 ful fruyt in the ere. And whanne of it-silf it hath brou^t 
forth fruyt, anoon he sendith a sikil, or hook, for rype corn 

30 cometh.' And he seide, 'To what thing shulden we likene 
, £ the kyngdom of God ? or to what parable shulen we com- 

MiKtKi^'^ 3.r parisoune it? As a com of seneueyeTthe which, whann 

* it is sowun in the erthe, is lesse than alle seedisthat .ben in 

\^ ^ u "^32 erthe ; and whanne it is bredd, or quykmecLit stypm vp in- 

to a tree, and is maad more than alle worti s, or erbis; and it 

shal make grete braunchis, so that briddis of heuene mowe 

33 dwelle vndir the shadewe ther-of.* And in many siche 

parablis he spac to hem a word, as thei mitten heer^; 

; 34 sothely he spak not to hem with-outen parable. Forsothe 

■ '"»^s'.<'. '■- ^® expounyde to his disciplis alle thingis oiv^sidisjiond, or 

^« 35 ^ hem-self. And he seith to hem in that day, whenne 

36 euenyng was maad, * Passe we a^einward.' And thei leeuynge 

'\ the cumpanye of peple, taken hym, so that he was, in the 

3^ boot; and other bootis weren with hym. And a greet 

storme of wynd is maad, and sente wawis in-to the boot, so 

38 that the boot was ful. And he was in the hyndir part of 
the boot, slepynge on a pilewe. And thei reysen hym, and 
seien to hym, * Maistre, perteneth it nat to thee, that we 

39 perishen ?' And he rysynge vp, manasside to the wynd, and 
seide to the see, * Be stille, wexe doumb.' And the wynd 

40 ceeside, and greet pesililenesse is maad. And he seith to 

41 hem, * What dreden ^ee ? — Nat jit han jee feith ?' And thei 

-— > .• ^.^ ', S, '"^ t't ' , tf », , ^ d 


(a) rJ7£ GOSPEL OF MARK. CAP. V. 225 

dredden with greete dreed, and seiden to eche other, * Who, 
gesgist-thou, is this? for the wynd and the see obeyshen 
to hym.' 

, . Cap. V. 

yi J And thei camen ouer the wawe of the see into the cuntree i 

V^ ^ of Genazareth. And anoon a man in vnclene spirit ran out 2 

J ^ *^ of a biryel ; to hym goynge out of the boot. The whiche 3 

^•^'^^man hadde an hbus in graues, or hiriels^ and nether with 

(<eB chaynis now miite eny man bynde hym. For oft tymes he, 4 ^^j^i^ 
len m stocKS ^ and chaynes, hadde brokep the chaynes,y|w**w^/^/: 
adde brokun the stockis to smale gobeUs f and no man y r^/f(-f^ 

^^i^ mi3te daunted or make tame, hym. And euer-more, nijt and 5 ^^ 

^/, .' bounden 


day, in biriels and hillis, he was cryinge, and betynge hym- 
silf with stoones. Sothely he, seynge Jhesus afer, ran, and 6 
worshipide hym. And he, cryinge with greet voice, seide, 7 
* What to me and to thee, thou Jhesu, the sone of God . j 
^ hieste? I conioure thee bi God, that thou tourmente not ^ ^ 
me.' Forsothe Jhesus seide to h)an,*'Thou vnclene spirit, go 8 ^'^r 
out fro the man.' And Jhesus axide hym, *What name is to 9 
thee ?' And he seith to hym, * A le^oun is name to me ; for 
we ben manye.' And he preide hym myche, that he shulde 10 v , 
nat put hym out of the cuntreie. Forsothe there was there 1 1 ig^ 
aboute the hill a flock of hoggis Igsewynge in feeldis; And 1 2 J\ 
the spiritis preieden Jhesu, seyinge, * Sende vs into hoggis, ^tj\ 
that we entre into hem.' And anoon Jhesus grauntide to 13 
f'^ih hem. And, the vnclene spiritis entridea in-to the hoggis, 
V^ and with greet hire , or haste, the floe was cast doun in-to the 
see, to tweyne thousynde, and thei ben strangelid in the see. 
Sothely thei that fedden hem, fledden, and tolden in-to the 14 
citee, and in-to the feeldis ; and thei wenten out, for to see 
what was don. And thei camen to Jhesu, and thei seen 13 
hym that was traueiUd of the fend, sittynge clothid, and of 
VOL. n. ^I> /^M»,e^cC Q 

r. li' 


A .■ ^r^^ 
' 16 hoole mynde ; and thei dreden. And thei tolden to hem, 

that sayen, hou it was don to hym that ha<ide a fend, and of 

17 the hoggis. And thei bygunnen for to preie hym, tl^at he 

18 shulde go awey fro her coostis. And when he stiede in-rto 
a boot, he that was traueilid of the deuel bygan to preye 

19 hym, that he shulde be with hym. Sothly Jhesus resceyued 
hym nat, but seith to hym, *Go thou in-to thin hous to thine, ^^ 
and telle to hem, hou many thingis the Lord hath don to 

J r 20 thee, and hadde mercy of thee/ And he wente forth, and 

" • . j^ bigan for to preche in Decapoly, /haf is, a cuniree often citees, 

'^ how manye thingis Jhesus hadde don to hym ; and alle 

'''i>v2i men wondriden. And whanne Jhesus hadde stiede in-to 

the boot eftsoone ouer the see, myche cumpanye of peple 

22 cam togidre toTiym, and was aboute the see. And oon of 

^ ^ the princis of synagogis, by name Jaynis, cam, and seyinge 

\ 23 hym, fel doun at his feet, and preiede hym myche, seyinge, 

' .*i. '. ♦i'^ * For-wh i my doubter is in the last e thingis ; come thou, putte 

24 thin hond on hire, that she be saaf, and lyue.' And he 
wente forth with hym, and myche cumpanye of peple suede 

25 hym, and oppresside hym. And a womman that was in the 
J:" 26 flux of blood twelue ^ere, and hadde suffride many thingis 

f-urr A of ful many lechis, and spendid alle hir thingis, and no-thing 

'■"27 prophitide, but more hadde worse, whanne she hadde herd 

• of Jhesu, she cam in the cumpanye byhynde, and touchide 

28 his cloth. Sothly she seide, *For if I shal touche or his 

29 cloth, I shal be saaf.' And anoon the welle of blood is dried 
vp, and she felide in body that she was helid of the wound, 

30 or stkenesse. And anoon Jhesus knowynge in hym-silf the 
vertu that was gon out of hym, he, turned to the cumpenye, 

31 seith, * Who touchede my clothis ?' And his disciplis seiden 
to hym, ' Thou seest the cumpenye pressinge thee, and seist 

S2 thou, Who touchide me?' And Jhesus lokide aboute, for to 
Z^ see hir that hadde don this thing. Forsothe the womman 


dredinge and quakynge, witynge that it was don in, hir, cam, 
and fel down bifore him, and seide to hym al treuthe. 
Forsothe Jhesus seide to her, * Dou^tir, thi feith hath maad 34 ,^ 
thee saf; go in pees, and be saf fro thi sykenes.' jit him 35 \,^ 
'^ spekynge , messageris camen to the prince of a synagoge, % ^ 

\ seyinge, *For thi dou^tir is deed; what traueilist thou the *^^?, 

^^maistir ferthere?' Forsothe the word herd that was seide, 36 rf (^ 
• Jhesus seith to the prince of the synagoge, * Nyle thou dr ede, r; A ^: 

oonly byleue thou/ And he resce yueae not ony man to sue 37^^. ^"? 
w^ him no-but Petre, and James, and John, the brother of \ r C 

^^ James. And thei camen in-to the hous of the prince of the 38 ^ 

A synagoge. And h e sij noyse , and men wepinge and weilinge 
t moche. And he, gon yn, seith to hem, * What ben ^ee troublid, 39 ^ ^'-^^^ 
?andwepyn? The wenche is not deed, but slepith/ And 40*^^^ /., 
thei scorneden him. Forsothe alle kast out, he takith the %^, 
fadir and modir of the wenche, and hem that weren with O/^^^ 
him, and thei entren yn, where the wenche lay. And he 41 '*<^, 
holdinge the hond of the wenche, seith to hir, * Tabita, cumy, 
that is interpretid, or expownid, * Wenche, to thee I seie, rise 
thou.' And anon the wenche roos, and walkide; sothly she 42 
was, of twelue ^eer. And thei weren abaischt with greet ^* ';:/'' *! 
, stoneymge. And he comaundide to hem greetly, that no 43"/^/.^* 
man schulde wite it. And he comaundide to 3iue to hir for lU ] 
toete. < 0> ^-ni^v,.'^.. ^'^i< ^=. ^^^^^ 

ul^Ut^f^^^''' Cap. VI. '"^'^ f,. 

And Jhesus, gon put thennis, wente in-to his owne i 
cimtree; and his disciplis folwiden him. And the saboth 2 ^^Ha^- 
maad, Jhesus bigan for to teche in a synagoge. And "^^ 
manye heeringe wondriden in his techinge, seyinge, *0f 
whenhis to this alle these thingis? and what is the wys- 
dom that is ^ouun to him, and suche vertues the whiche 
ben maad by his hond? Wher this is not a smyth, 3 


228 XVII. (a) JOHN WrCLIF. 

or carpenter, the sone of Marie, the brother of James and 
Joseph and Judas and Symound ? wher and his sistris ben 
4 nat here with vs?' And thei weren sclaundrid in him. And 
Jhesus seide to hem, * For a prophete is not with-outen 
y. 'V honour, no-but in his owne cuntree, and in his hows, and in 

-r • *^. 5 his kyn/ And he my^te not make there ony vertu, no-but 
^V^\ 6 heelide a fewe sike men, the hondis put to . And he 
^C;^^ wondride for the vnbileiie of hem. And he wente aboute 
f'c^^ 7 castelis in enuyrown, techinge. And he clepide twelue, and 
^ bigan for to send hem bi tweyne; and ^af to hem power ^ 
%^ 8 of vnclene spiritis, and comaundide hem. that thei schulde ^^ 
S*^^ not take ony thing in the weye, no-but a ^Jrd oonly, not a ^ 

*'% *^ 9 scrippe, not bred, neither money in the girdil, but s choon ^ ^ 
^xl; with sandalie s, that ben op)m aboue, and that thei weren not \^ 

10 clothid with tweie cootis. And he seide to hem, * Whidir 
euere ^ee schulen entre in-to an hous, dwelle ^e there, till y/^ " 

11 gon out thennis. And who euere schulen not resseyue, ne 



'r^ heere 30U, ^e goynge out fro thennes shake awey the powdre 

*^^ 12 fro 30ure feet, in-to witnessinge to hem.' And thei goynge 

'// V^ 'H 13 out, prechiden, that men schulden do penaunce. And thei 

^^^^ % castiden out many fendis, and anoyntiden with oyle manye 

'^ 14 syke men, and thei weren heelid. And kyng Eroude herde, 

• forsothe, his name was maad opyn, and he seide, * For Johne 

^'.u.-U'lC^ Baptist hath risun a3en fro deed men, and therfore vertues 

/wLiftwia'v ^5 worchen in hym.' Sothely othere seiden, * For it is Ely;' but 

othere seiden, * For it is a prophete, as oon of prophetis.' 

1 6 The whiche thing herd, Eroude seith, *Whom I haue bihedid, 

17 John, this hath risun fro deed men.' Forsothe the ilka 
Eroude sente, and held Joon, and bond him in-to prisoun, 
for Erodias, the wyf of Philip, his brother; for he hadde 

18 weddid hir. Sothly John seide to Eroude, * It is not leefful 

19 to thee, for to haue the wyf of thi brother/ Erodias forsothe 
leide aspies to him, and wolde sle him, and miate not. 

I II _ ■■ ■* ■ — I — - I ^_^,^^.^ 




XVII. (a) the gospel of mark. cap. VI. 229 

Sothly Eroude dred[d]e John, witinge him a iust man and 20 

hooly, and keptej iim. And him herd, he didemany thingis, ^C^^ 

and gladly herde hym. And whanne a couenable day hadde 21 ^^ 

fallun, Eroude in his birthe-day made a soupere to the 

princis, and tribunys, and to the firste, or gretieste^ of Galilee. 

And whanne the doubter of thilke Erodias hadde entrid yn, 22 

and lepte, and pleside to Eroude, and also to men restynge, 

the kyng seide to the wenche, *Axe thou of me what thou 

wolt, and I schal jyue to thee.' And he swoor to hir, * For 23 

what euere thou schalt axe, I schal ^yue to thee, thou^ the 

half of my kyngdom.' The whiche, whanne sche hadde gon 24 ^ 

|. out, seide to hir modir, 'What schal I axe?' And she seide, ^--^ 

I * The heed of John Baptist.' And whanne she hadde entrid 25 ' J, 

anon with haste to the kyng, she axide, seyinge, * I wole that g^ t; 

"^ anoon thou ^yue to me in a dische the heed of John Baptist.* ?r. r 

^ And the kyng was sory for the ooth, and for men sittinge 26 *:1^ 
x_j» g_ to-gidere at mete he wolde not hir be maad sory; but, a 27 X ' 

^ manqu ell ere sent , he comaundide the heed of John Baptist 

for to be brought. And he bihedide him in the prison, and 28 \ 

. Jy brou^te his heed in a dische, and ^af it to the wenche, and V 

^' '\^<^H the wench ^af to hir modir. The which thing herd, his 29 

disciplis caJnen, and token his body, and puttiden it in a ;. 

buriel. And apostlis comynge to-gidere to Jhesu, tolden to 30 t? 

hym alle thingis, that thei hadden don, and taujt. And he 31 
seith to hem, * Come je by ^ou-selue in-to a desert place ; 
reste ^e a litel.' Forsoth there weren manye that camen, ^ 3^ 
and wenten a^en, and thei hadden not sp ace for to ete. \ ^ 

J And thei, sti^ynge in-to boot,^. wenten in-to a desert place by 32 V 

»/ -'. '•■ 

hem-selue. And thei sy3en^em goynge awey, and manye 7,^ \ 
knewen, and goynge on feet fro alle citees, thei runnen 
to-gidere thidir, and came bifore hem. And Jhesus goynge 34 
out sy3 moche cumpanye, and hadde mercy on hem, for thei 
weren as scheepe not hauynge a shepherde. And he bigan 

JW ^ 230 XVII. (A) yoHif wrciiF.^ j^^ , ^.^ 

35 for to teche hem manye thingis. And whanne moche our 

dlurvvvtAX ^as maad now, his disciplis camen nyj, seyinge, * This place 

^^"^ 36 18 desert, and now the our hath passid; leeue hem , that 

thei goynge in-to the nexte townes or vilagis, bye to hem 

37 metis whiche thei schulen ete/ And he answerynge seith to 

eiudv-i hem, * 5yue je to hem for to ete/ And thei seiden to hym, 

^i)vtn>tt^o * Goynge bye we loues with two hundrid pens, and we 

j/vuvu^otJ^g schulen jyue to hem for to ete ?' And he seith to hem, *Hou 

/ici.v., o» Diany loues han je? Go je, and se.' And whanne thei 

39 hadden knowun, thei seien, * Fyue, and two fyschis/ And he 

comaundide to hem, that thei schulden make aUe men sitte 

^^ 40 to mete aftir cumpenyes, vpon greene hey. And thei saten 

% ^^^41 down by parties, by hundridis, and fyfties. And the fyue 

•^ •• looues taken, and two fyschis, he biholdynge in-to heuene^ 

^4 blesside, and brak loouis, and ^af to his disciplis, that thei 

^ schulden putte bifore hem. And he departide two fyschis w 

'**^ ' ^^ to aUe; and alle eeten, and weren fiUid. * And thei token 

^-'^^'<w t ^^ reJyues of broken mete, twelue conyris full, and of the /'^ 


*' *-i 44 fyschis. Sothli thei ihat eeten, were fyue thousynd of men. 

45 And anon he constreynede his disdpUs for to sti^e vp in-to 
a boot, that thei schulden passe bifore him ouer the see to 

46 Bethsayda, the while he lefte the peple. And whanne he 

47 badde left hem, he wente in-to an hil, for to prcie. And 
whanne euenyng was, the boot was in the myddil see, and 

48 he aloone in the lond ; and he sy^ hem trauelinge m rowo> 
ynge ; sothli the wynd was contrarie to hem. And aboute 
the fourthe waking of the nyjt, he wandrynge on the see 

49 cam to hem, and wolde passe hem. And thei, as thei sy^en 
' him wandrynge on the see, gessiden [him] for to be a 

50 fantum, and crieden; forsoth alle sy^en hym^ and thei 
weren disturblid And anon he spak with hem, and seide 

51 to hem, * Triste_ ;e, I am ; nyle ^e drede.' And he cam vp to 
hem in-to the boot, and the wynd ceesside. And thei more 



w^ -^U 


wandriden with-ynne hem ; for thei vndirstoden not of the 52 
looues ; sothli her herte was blyndid. And whanne thei 53 
hadden passid ouer the see, thei camen in-^to the lond of 
Genazareth, and setten to londe. And "whanne thei hadden 54 
gon out of the boot, anon thei knewen him. And thei, 55 
rennynge thurj al that cuntree, bigunnen to bere aboute in 
beddis hem that tiadden hem ynele, where thd herden him 
be. And whidiir euere he entride yn-to vilagis and townes, 56 
or in-to citees, thei puttiden syke men in stretis, and preieden n 
him, that thei schulden touche either the hem of his cloth ; 7 

and howmanye euere touchiden him, weren maad saf, i/ejC k-n^i'Ha 

XVII. <B). 


ASOUT A.D. 1380. 

For the sake of comparison with some of the Psadms in 
Section II., Psalms xiv., xxiii., and cii., in a Midland dialect, are 
here given, from the translation of the Psalter made by Nicholas 
Hereford ; as printed in the Wycliffite versions of the Scriptures, 
edited by the Rev. J. Forshall and Sir F. Madden; Oxford, 

Psalm xiv (xv). Domine quis, 

1 Lord, who shal duelle in thi tabernacle ; or who shal , 
«ft resten in thin holy hil ? j^tfjui n hi '«t»K f j ((•< /'^ ''/•'^ ^ 

2 That goth in withoute wem ; and werkith ry^ttwisnesse* 

3 That speketh treuthe in his herte ; that dide not trech- 
erie in his tunge. Ne dide to his ne^hebore euel; and 
r^prof toe not to ajen hise ne^hboris. 

4 To nojt is bro3t doun in his sijt the malice-doere; 


forsothe the dredende the Lord he glorifieth. That swereth 
r^ to his nejhebore, and desceyueth not ; 

UiUv^ 6 that his monee yaS not to vsure; and ^iftis vp-on the 

^^^^ innocen t tpc not. He, that doth these thingus, shal not be 

moued in-to without ende. k. oe^wNtc 


PsALM xxm (xxiv). Domini est terra, 

(ft- iH 'I I Off the Lord is the erthe, and the plente of it ; the 

(^'^^'^^^''^roundnesse of londis, and alle that duellen in it. 

2 For he vpon the ses foundede it ; and vp-on the flodis 
A ... '>a\jutC? befor greithide i t. piraa^h oa a w 1 1 ^^ ' '^ • 
^S" ihoov. 3 W^o shal Steven, vp in-to the hyl of the Lord; or who 

* shal stonde in his holy place? ^^^^ cv<,(ivfiU u* UO'tto cuuyn(X^wy ^it\ 

4 The innocent in hondis, and in clene herte, that toe n ot 
Jo in ve yn his soule ; ne swor in treccherie to hys ne^hebore.^ 

5 This siial take blessing of the Lord; and merc y of God\7S 
his helthe-^iuere. tl ')H^w.uc«or«tta»»v a B^ ^JajUcuiA' Ua^o^' "*'^ 

rKt ^tJc*v{ 6 This is the ieneracioun of nien'^ecnenue God; of men 

sechende the face of God of Jacob. (Xl^rtLk. fa^i^i^^ 

7 Doth awei ^o ure ^atus , ^ee princis, and beth rerid out, * ^/^ 
jee euer-lastende jatis ; and ther shal gon in the king of 

8 Who is this king of glorie ? a Lord strong and mj^ti, 
a Lord my^ti in bataile. 

9 Doth awei ^oure ^atis, ^ee princis, and beth rered vp, 
jee euer-lastende jatis; and ther shal gon in the king of 
glorie. I; f >»it »ve<. a «^,w -, v.' • ■ >«*. 

10 Who is this king of glorie ? the Lord of vertues, he is 
king of glorie. 

Psalm en (cm). Benedic^ anima mea. 

I Blesse thou, my soule, to the Lord; and alle thingus 
that withinne me ben, to his holi name I 

XVII. (b) Hereford's English psalter. 233 

2 Blesse thou, my soule, to the Lord ! s md wile thou no t €;'c<^ 
forjete a lle the ^eldingu s of hym. krU cfO^vcici r^n^Hjb^ /ift^UU^^.tf^^A^ 

3 That hath mercy to alle thi wickidnessis ; that helith 
alle thin infirmytees. ^ 

4 That ajeen-bieth fro deth thi lif ; that crouneth thee in 
^ mercy and mercy Hingis, "^Y^ ^^^ ^U/^^tt**- of AlcLi^^.I L 
^^ A^S 5 That fulfilleth in goode thingus thi diseyr ; shal be 
^^^Tk^, renewid as of an egle thi jouthe. C(x ^ t/ti 

6 Doende mercies the Lord ; and dom to alle men suf- 
frende wrong. ?. «t <ut w w '}y^'9JL\^ u t ol< i v Vi^ rvii, nM/Si 

7 Knowen he made his weies to Moises; and to the 
sones of Israel his willis. 

8 Reewe re and merciful the Lord; Ipng-abidende and 
myche merciful. 0- A^<J^^^ ^>^ ^^s^i Ai A/u«uan, 

9 In-to euermore he shal not wrathen ; ne in-to withoute 
ende he shal threte. __ 

i^iK^yt^ 10 Aftir oure synnes he dide not to vs; ne aftir oure ^ 
wickidnessis he jelde to vs. ^ ^^ ^^^ ""^^^ '*^ ^ 

1 1 For after the hei^te of heuene fro erthe ; he strengthide 
his mercy vpon men dredende hym. ?* 

12 Hou myche the rising stant fro the going doun; aferr 
he made fro vs our wickidnessis. 

13 What maner wise the fader hath mercy of the sonus; 
the Lord dide mercy to men dredende hym ; 

14 for he knew oure britil making. He recordide for 

7 15 a man as hey his da^es; as the flour of the feld so he 
shal floure out. 

16 For the spirit shal thur^-passen in hym, and he shal 
not stonde stille ; and he shal no more knowen his place. 

17 The mercy forsothe of the Lord fro withoute ende, 
and vnto withoute ende, vpon men dredende hym. And the 
fi3twisnesse of hym in-to the sones of sones, ^-.'^rf'^ ,,u 




^ },xc^^u, iB to hem that kepen his testament. And myndelullhei 

*^ c< »Hv«^^ hen of his maundemens, to do thetn. S^ »'>v^a^ *wfc^ If 

19 The Lord in heuene made redi his sete ; an d his re nme 
to alle shal lordshipen. IrUJx C>i^ 

^o BHsse ^ee to the Lord, aUe his amig^ ; mijti ha vertu e, 
doende the woord of hym, to ben herd the \iO(is of his 

21 Blessith to the Lord, alle ^ee his vertties; ^ee his 
seniauns, that don his m\. 

22 Blessith to the Lord, alle ^ee his werkis: in alle {>laoe, 
^ his domynaciouns ; blesse thom, my soule, to the Lord 1 

J \ 




A.D. I3.8J. l-rx^''^"-^ 

John of Trevisa was a native of Cornwall, but resided 
chiefly in Gloucestershire, being vicar of Berkeley, and chaplain 
to Thomas Lord Berkeley. He is said to have been tbe author 
of an English version of the Old and New Testaments; of which, 
however, nothing is now known. 

His best 'known work is a translation of * Higden's Poly- 
chronicon,' which was completed in A.JD. 1387. It was printed 
by Caxton in 1482, with a continuation of the narrative from 
1357 to i46ou 

The first three volumes of a complete edition of * Higden's 
Tolychronicon,* with Trevisa's translation, have been piAlishcd 
under the direction of the Master oi the Rolls ; but as the 
English MS. selected for that •edition is not, philologically, a very 
Important one, the contemporary MS. Tiberius D. vii., in the 
teuthem dialect, has been resorted to for the following extracts. 

The last extract, * The Norman Invasion,* exhibits more of the 
translator's provincialisms than are apparent in the former ones ; 
jand may be advantageously compared with Robert of Gloucester's 
narrative of this event (p. 1) in the same dialect, 

(A) Description of Britain ; Lib, I, Cap, 41. 

(Cotton MS. Tiberius D. vii., leaf 3^, bach. See vqI. ii. p« 13 of the 

printed edition.] 

As Fratuice passe^ Britayn, so Brytain passe)> Irlond yn 
fajrr weder & noblet^, bote no3t in helthe; For J)is yjfcnjd ys 

2^6 XVIII. yOHI^ OF yTREVISA. "^ ^^ 

best to brynge for)> tren, & fruyt, & ro)won , & o))^re bestes, 
and wyn groweJ> jj^r-ynne in som places, pe lond haj> -j^ 
5 plentd of foules & of bestes, of dyuers manere kunde ; ))e *-^ 
lond ys plentuos & J?e se also ; J>e lond ys noble, copious, & ^ 
^<t(u cr ryche of noble welles , & of noble ryuers wi)) plenty of fysch. ""■ 
' ^ '' par ys gret plenty of smal fysch & of eeles, so bat cherles in ^" 
rtf [ oj^ ^^ place feedej> sowes wib fysch. par hu^ ofte ytske 5 
^ ^ lo delphyns, & se-calues, & bfuenes ^(gret fysch, as hyt were •■ 

of whaales kunde), and dyuers manere schyl-fysch, among )>e 
/ whoche schyl-fysch buj> moskle s ]fat habbej) wib-yime ham 

iv\ki„ jg^rgery perles of al manere colour of hu^ ^, of ro^ nfe reed,^<>-^ 
of pwrpre & of blu^ ^, & specialych & moost of whyyt par 
15 ys also plentd of schyl-fysch jwzt me dye)) wij) fyn reed ; J)e 
reednes |)^r-of ys wondre fayr & stable, and steyne)> neuer^ 

wij> cold ne wi)> heete, wib weete ne wi)> drythe ; bote euer ))e 
iM ridiK^^^i elper, ^e hu ys be^veyrer; ))ar buj> also salt welles & hoote 
'5 w'.aa.'. welles, Wr-of eorhe)) stremes of hoot babes, t o-(leled yn 




20 djoiers places acordyng for man & wo/wman, & for al maner v 
age, 5ong & old. Basilius sei)> J>at J>e wat^r Jwzt eorrie)> & 
passe]> by veynes of certyn metayl takej> in hys cours gret 
heete. pys ylond ys plentuos of veynes of metayls, of bras, 
of 'yre, of leed, of tyn, & of seluer also ; yn J>is ylond, vnd«r -*^ 

25 \>e torf of )>e lond, ys good man yfounde. pe thr}^t of fe^ e^ 
fsiitnes drye)> hym-sylf yer-ynne, so jwzt euer j)e )>ykker Jie - ' ^^ 

' * '^eSld ys jr-marled, J?e betre corn hyt wol here, per ys also Vv 
anojj^r maner whyt marl ; J>e lond ys \>e betre four score jer ^ 
\ai j)fr-wij> ys y-marled. Yn ))is ylond groweJ> a ston JHJt 

30 hatte gagates ; jef me axej> hys feyrnesse-r-a ' ys blak as 
gemmes biif ; jef me axe^ hys kunde — i^ br enne)? yn wat^r 
& quenchejj in oyle ; j^if me axe)> hys myjt — ^\i 2l^ ys yfroted 

* Harl. MS. 1900 reads • & hcwc* * For • blw* or • blew.' 

» Harl. MS. I900 reads « it,* • hit.' * Harl. MS. • he.' 

k'.-: > '^ * ^^"' - / 


f '^ 

.v^ XF7/7. (a) description OF BRITAIN. 1 237 

'^^ & yhat, a* holde)) what hym ney^he)) ; ^ef me axej> hys /a^iLU 
^ goodnes — hyt heeleb be dropesy &* hyt be ydrongke; ytend ^^ ** 
f^^yn ))e fuyr, hyt fere}? a- way s<?rpentes; ^ef hyt ys hat, hyt35 'J/*^' / 
' holde)) what hym ney^he)), as succinis a ston }^<7t so hatte.tocct/ 
par bu]> scheep ^at bere]> good woUe ; ))ar buj) meny hertes 
. & wyld bestes, & few wolues, \>er-foTe scheep buj) J>e more - 
*jl sykerlych , wijj-oute kepyng, yleft in j^e foold ; yn ))is ylond 
also bu)) meny cites & tounes, faire, noble, & ryche ; meny 40 
gret ryuers & streemes wi)> gret plenty of fysch ; meny fayr 
wodes & gret, wi]> wel meny bestes, tame & wylde. pe eor))e 
of ))at lond ys copious of metayl oor & of salt welles ; of 
quareres of marbel of dyuers manere stones, of reed, o^^S (^^ 
whyt, of nasche, of hard, of chalk, & of whyt lym ; bar ys 45 '^ri ''' 
also wh)t cley & reed, for to make of drokke s & steenes &4:/.'M.ya'. v. 
o^er vessel, & bamH ^yt to hele wi)) hous & churches, as hyt ^Ju^i c^ 
were in )?e o]fer Samia , J>^t_hatte Samos also. Flaundres ^ 
louej) J)e wolle of J>is lond, & Normandy ^e skynnes & ))e 
fellys ; Gaskuyn J>e yre & )?e leed ; Irlond J>e oor & )>e salt ; 50 
al Europa louej) & desyre)) J)e whyt metayl of ))is lond. e^^^-v* ^^* ]"^^^ " 

Brytayn ha)) y-now of al matyr ]>at neodej) bugge & sylle, -. d ,v 
ojj^r ys neodfol to mannes vse ; ))ar lakke)) neuere salt & yre, 
j)ar-fore a vercefyoar in hys metre preysej) ))is lond in ))is 
manere: — <^ t*ci <.// 1* i i^/i't* tv 'c <.•«,.. ii^C u ti aIu. ^ 55 

Engelond ys good lond fruytfol of ))e wolle, bot a komere I 
Engelond fol of pley ! freo men wel wor))y to pleye ! Freo / 
men, freo tonges, hert freo ! Freo buj) alle j)e l eden ; here 4 ^ 
bond ys more freo, more betre j)an here tonge. '^♦^u. "J 

Also : EngelonS' ny^f of lond * flour of londes al aboute ;' 6q ^ 
'r ))at lond ys fol payd wi)) fruyt & good of hys oune, Straange . 
men ^t neode)) j)at lond wel ofte releuej); whan hongwr 
greuej), j)at lond al such men' feede)?; j)at lond ys good ynow; 

* Harl. MS. 1900 has • it/ • For • an.' • MS. • men such.' 

f ^1 


'•; ' '. f: 


^^ 'i /-fg-i'x/ui '- ^UxA ff^ 'T^^/uPU/i 

V . r V * <. 


wonder moche frujrt berej) & corn ; )>at lon(} ys wel at eese, 

, [ji^ 65 as longe as men lyuej) in peese.. Pst & west al lond knowej) 

,'> y .". ^ haunes ry^t wel of Engelond ; here schypes foondes & ofte 

helpe)> meny londes. par mete, jjar monay, men habbe|> 

more comyn alway, For heer jwzt creftes men wol gladlych 

jeue ^yftes ; yn lond, & yn strond, wel wyde men speke)) of 

70 Engelond. Lond, hony, mylk, chyse ! )>is ylond schal here 

))e pryse; as [of] al londes ry^t^ pis ylond hajj neode to 

noone: al londes inot seech helpGieo^s'^OT bis al-one: of 

lykyng }p€r woon, wondrye my3t Salomon ; rychesse j)flt )>ar 

ys an, jern wold Octauian. fntowri. VddM fe (Wk.J 

75 Cap, 42. In Brytayn buj> hoot welles, wel arayed & yhy^t 

f'' 7ir^<*'^ to J>e vse of man-kunde. Maystf r ^ of ))ulke^ welles ys )>e 

,u -'^^ '^ §^^^ spyryt of Minenia. Yn hys^ hous fuyr ^lyre)? al-wey 

)«rt neuer chaunge)) in-to askes, bote )>ar jie fuyr slake)), hyt 

change Jj yn-to stony clottes. , .-..*.v-, v 

80 Yn Brytayn bu)> meny wondres, no^lej foure buj> most 

. ceto^u wonderfol. pe furste ys at Pectou/i, )>ar blowej) so strong 


urste ys at Pectouw, bar bloweb 
be cnenes of be eorbe b^t hyt 


a wynd out of j)e chen^ of ))e eorjje )>flt hyt castej? vp 

i ]rf ^' aje clo)>es J>(2t me caste)) yn. pe secunde ys at Stonhenge, 

bysydes Salesbury, ))ar gret stones & wondar huge bu)) 

85 arered an hyj, as hyt were ^ates, so \ai ))ar seme)) jates yset 

• apon o))<?r ^ates ; no))eles hyt ys no^t clerlych yknowe no))<?r 

^^ . parceyuet houj & whar-fore a bu)) so arered & so wonderlych 

yiiongea f' pe ))ridde ys at Cherdhol, ))^r ys gret holwenes 

vndwr eor))e ; ofte meny men habbe)) y-be ))^r-ynne & 

90 ywalked aboute wi))-ynne & yseye ryuers & streemes, bote 

nowhar conne)> hy fynde non ende. pe feur))e ys, ))at reyn 

I'i. - . «^ ys yseye arered vp of ))e huUes, & anon yspronge aboute yn 

\ " . ^ )>e feeldes. Also }^r ys a gret pond, ))flt conteyne)) ))re score 

ylondes couenable for men to dwelle ynne ; j)at pound ys by- 

* St. John's Coll. MS. * Of alle londes richesse.* 
• St. John's MS. • Maistresse.' » St. John's MS. ' hire.' * 

XVIII. (a) description of BRITAIN. S59 

clypped aboute wij) six score rooches; a-pon euerych rooch 95 ^. s/y' 
ys an eglenys nest t and jjre score ryuers eomej) in-to ))at '^^ 


pound and non of ham alle eorne^ in-to be se bot on. par 
ys a pound yclosed aboute wi)> a wal of^m & of ston ; yn 
)>at pound men wasche)) & ba|>e)> wel ofte, and euerych man 
feelej) J>e wat^r hoot o]>er cold, ryjt as a wol hym-sylf. par 100 
• buji also salt welles fer fram )>e se & buf salt al )>e woke long isso^ 1 
for-to Saturday noon, and fersch fram Saturday noon for-to ^u^ 
Moneday. pe wat^r of Jjis welles whanne hyt ys j^sode fyHiuJi 
tumej) in-to smal salt, fayr & whyyt Al^^ar ys a pond, Jje 
wat^r ]fer-o^ haj> wonder worchyng; ffor ^ey al an^ist stood 105 ^^^ 
by ))e pond & turnede )>e face ))yderward, \>e wat^r wolde 
drawe hem^ vyolentlych toward ))e pond & hereof ^ '^-^^ • 
clo))es ; so scholde hors pe drawe yn )?e same w)jse ; bote 5ef ''^V^ ^ *" ^ j 
J)e face ys a-weyward fram j^e wat<?r, \>e wat^r noyef no3t. per 
ys a welle j^at^ non streem eome)> jiar-fram nojj^r )>^r-to, no 
and ^et four maner fysch bu]> ytake j^ar-ynne. pat welle ys 
bote twenty foot long & twenty foot brood, & no^t deop bote 
to ]je kneo, and ys yclosed wij> hyj bankkes in euerych syde. *^ 

Yn ]te contray aboute Wynchestre ys a den; out of Jjat — ^^4. ^ t-^ 
den alwey blowe]> a strong wynd, so ]>at no man may endure 115 
for to stonde to-for )>at den. par ys also a pond )wrt turneb ^^ r-fo^^ 
trem-toyre, & hyt be J)^r-ynne al a 3er; and so tren buj) ^"^u. 
yschape in-to whestones. '*^ ^'^^^'^^ J '^'^^farvjL''^^''^^ ^ /i«^/^-'C.r.:>- 
/\^ -O^ Also ]ferys yn J>e cop of an hul a buryel; euerych man^'S^twa^.Jc 

• & metejj J)at buriel, a schal fynde hyt euene ry^t 
"**^hys oune meete ; and ^ef a pylgrym o]>er eny wery man kneole)) 

^ })^ come)) & ^metejj J)at bunel, a schal fynde hyt euene ry5t of 120 j 

J)<?r-to, anon a schal be al fersch, and of werynes schal he ^ . 
feele nonnuy. Fast by jje Ministre of Wynbu rnej^ ]>ai ys ^f ^" . 

no^t fer fram Bathe, ys a wode ^at berej> moche fruyt. Jef 
)>e tren of jjat wode falle in-to a wat^r ojj^r grounde ]>at^ J)ar 125 

* The words •hem' and *])at' arc supplied from St. Johifs MS. 


ys ny3, & lygge j^ar ^1 a B^jyJ^e tren teorae)> yn-to stoones. 

Vndwr )>e cit^ of Chestre eornej) )>e ryuer Dee, jwit now to- 

^e^Au^Mn dele)? Engelond & Wales ; j^at r}'uer eu^rych monthe chaungej> 

hys fordes, as men of jje contray telle)), & leue)> ofte )>e 

130 chanel. Bote whe))(?r ))e wat^r drawe more toward Engelond 

o))^r toward Wales, to what syde ^ai hyt be, ))at ^er men of 

))at syde schal habbe )>e wors ende & be ouerset, and ))e men 

of ))e ot)<?r syde schal habbe j)e betrf ende, & be at here 

aboue. Whanne ))e wat^r chaunge]> so hys cours, hyt bode)> 

U^'.i:>l. '35 such happes. pis ryuer Dee eorne)? & come)> out of a lake 

'^^ '- /" L/f*^^^ f^^ haXie Pjmbilmere. Yn ]>e ryuer ys gret plentd of samon, 

' '^ ^ bijuL, iiofeles in j>e lake ys neuer samon yfounde. 

> r«^<^ '^^^ heede hou^ gret ly^t & bry3tnes of God hys myldenes 

L fvJL ^^ ^^ byschyne Englysch men, se)>the ^ai hy turnede furst to 

140 ry3tfol byleue; so jj^t of no men yn on pr<?uynce bu)> yfounde 

so meny hole bodies of men aft^r here dee)>, yn lyknes of 

euertestyng lif^ \ai schal be aft?r ))e day of doom; as hyt 

I ^1^1"-^ wel seme)) in ))is holy seintes, Etheldred, Edmund ))e kyng, 

■^^ Elphege, & Cuthbert. Y trowe }pai hyt ys y-do by special 

145 grace of God Almy3ty, For ))e naciqn ))at ys yset, as hyt 

were, wi))-oute ))e world, scholde take hede to duyiyng of 

bodyes wi))-oute corrupcion & rotyng, and be J)e more bold 

& studefast for to tryste on J)e fynal arysyng of ded bodyes 

for to leste euere-more aft^r ))e day of doome. • • • « • 

De incolarum Unguis; cap, 59. (Vol.ii. p. X57.) 

150 As hyt ys yknowe hou^ meny maner people bu)> in \\^ 
'^ r. 4 . • ylond, ))^r bu)> also of so meny people longages & tonges; 

no);eles Walschmen & Scottes, \a\. bu]^ no^t ymeued wi)> o\er 
nacions, holde)) wel ny3 here furste longage & speche, bote- 
% jef Scottes, \a\. were som tyme confederate & wonede wiji 

A The word *Iif' is supplied from St. John's MS« 

/. J. 

ji( \ i^c^pM ^ (i^^*-- S^oA, V-. -c /fijh^v^ 

^ XF//7. (a) description OF BRITAIN. %\1 

J)e Pictes, drawe somwhat aft^r here speche. Bote ))e Flem- 1 55 
mynges, Jwt wone)) in ))e west svde of Wales, habbe|> yleft ^X^ 

;keji Saxonlychynow. Also Eng- ^^ ^^ 

here strange, speqhe & speke^ Saxonlych ynow. Also Eng- ^^ ^ 
lysch men, feyj hy hadde fram )>e bygynnyng jire maner /^^^^^^ ^ 

speche, Souj^Tron, Norjj^ron, & Myddel speche (in })e myddel ^^^^/^ 

of Jje lond), as hy come of J>re maner people of G^nnania ; 160 \ ^ 
nofeles, by co^^myxstion & mellyng furst wij) Danes & ^^^^' i^JkajiysJ^ 
'. -^S ward wij) Normans, V^ ffigjy^ HS8^^^^ loiigJ&6 ysapeyred,J^i^Aiet 
.;. "t^^ & som vse)> strange \mSyn^ , cnyteS^g , hariyi% .& garryng ^^^^. • 

'*^<^-4' ^ grisbittyn g. pis apeyryng of }>e/ burb- tonge ys by-cause ^^(i,,; 
,^Vt:.j, '- of twey )>inges: — on ys, for chyldern m scole, a^enes ))e vsage 165 
-*. ^^^'fand manere of al o^er nacions, bu]j compelled for to leue 

here oune longage, & for to construe here lessons & here •, 
))inges a Freynsch, & habbe)), su))the ^e Normans come furst / J ^ ' .;. l^ 
in-to Engelond. Also, gentil men children bu)) ytau3t for to .^^cJ^JL 

wi)) gret bysynes for to speke Freynsch, for to be more 

ytold of. IM.1I-. w U o ^- ^^^ yy J ^(f/^7.iM ii^^-i l)irK.-^ 

pys mane^^ was moche y-vsed to-*for e fe furste m OTeyn, & 175 ^'"^ 
. ys se))the s om(iel ychaunged. For loh^n Comwal, a mayst^r 
'1^ of gram^re, chayngede ^e lore m gram^r-scole, & construct w * ^ '. 
^' cion of Freynsch in-to Englysch ; & Richard Pencrych 
^ lurnede ))at manere techyng of hym, & o\fer men of Pen- 
^ crych ; so ]fat now, )>e ^er of oure Lord a jjousond \>tc 1 80 
hondred foure score & fyue, of J>e secunde kyng Richard 
aft^r Jje conquest nyne, in al )>e gram<?r-scoles of Engelond 
childerp leue)> Frensch & construe)) & lurne)) an Englysch, 
and habbejj yer-hy avauntage in on syde & desavauntage yn 
ano|)^r ; here avauntage ys, hat a lurnej) here gram^r yn lasse 185 
tyme J>an childern wer^ ywon e^ to do — disavauntage ys, ^at 
now childern of gram^r-scole conneJ> no more Frensch fan 
VOL. II. J ^ ^^u..W^:^. .V.V...W ^ 

can herg lift heg le, & ])at ys harm for ham, & a 'schoUe p asse 
])e se & trauayle in strange londes, & in meny caas also. 

190 Also gentil men habbe]) now moche yleft for to teche her^ 

childern Frensch. Hyt seme]) a gret wondwr hou^ Englysch, 

• ^ "^ J J)at ys Jje burjj-tonge of Englysch men & here oune longage 

/^^ *A> & tonge, ys so dyuers of soun^ in J)is ylond; & )>e longage of 

Normandy ys coMyng of a-noJ>^ lond, & haj> on man^r 

i95Somi^ among al men j>at spekej? hyt aryjt in Engelond. 
Noj>eles ^r ys as meny dyuers man^r Frensch yn }>e rem 
of Fraunce as ys dyuers manere Englysch in jie rem of 

Engelond. A*^^ ^^ iJ;:a2t^ at><^J«^^ 

Also, of J>e forseyde Saxon tonge ^at ys QeieQ ^)?re, and ys 
200 abyde scarslych wij> feaw vplondysch men, & ys gret wondar ; 
/ » riit'uui tir for men of Jje est wij> men of Jje west, as hyt wer^ vndwr 
^.»U^*j^ jje same party of heue ne, ac^del? mor^ in sounyng of speche 
j)an men of J)e norjj wij> men of Jje sou)?; j>^r-fore hyt ys 
J>flt Mercij, )>at buj> men of myddel Engelond, as hyt were 
205 parteners of ))e endes, vndarstondej? betre J)e syde longages, 
Norjj^ron & Sou))^ron, j>an NoT]>eron & Soujj^ron vndwr- 
stondejj ey^er o\er. ^ [t-^K^WL 

^tL,.cc^o Al J>e longage ofbe Norfhumbres, & specialych at Jork, 
^' " ys so scharp, ' slyttyn g & frotyng . & vnschape, j>at we ^. 

' '' a 10 Sou))^ron men may J>at longage vnr^e Vnd«rstonde. Y ^ 
V' trowe Jjflt Jjat ys bycause \a\. a buj) nyj to strange men & 
aliens \aX. spekej) strangelych, and also by cause \aX. j>e 
kynges of Engelond wonej) alwey fer fram )>at contray : For 
a buj? more ytumd 10 jie sou)? contray ; & jef a go)> to )>e 
215 norJj contray, a go)> wi}) gret help & strengthe. pe cause 
why a bu]) mor^ in Jje sou]) contray jjan in J)e norj) may be, 
betre cornlond, more people, more noble cytes, & more 
pr^fytable hauenes. 

^ Harl. MS. *soun'; Cotton MS. *soon.' 


(B) The Norman Invasion ; Lib, VL cap. 29. 

pANNE Harold was yset op in ]?e kyngdom & Jjo^te no^t on 
J>e couenantes ]?at were y-made bytwene hym & William. 
He huld hym-sylf deschargede of )>e ob, vor William hys ^o^-j^''-' 
dou^ter^ ))at he hadde yspoused was ded wyj?inne age of ^ . Xy^^ 
wedlok, and alsp vor William was ocupyed wyj> werres in 5 ^i 
londes jjat wer^ ny^ \iyxci, OT" K*iX^ ^f^rtttr^w o^mo^«^v- 

Bote William wamede hym of couenaunt ybroke, & mellede hvtk^is^ 

manas wyjj proiyers. Harold seyde \dX a nysa foly coue-^^,^^e.^oii.^, 
nauwt scholde noat be yholde, & namelich<? be hfSj^^f^ P^^ 
opere menne kynffdom, wyJ>oute comyn assent of alk ))e lo f^./ 
senatours; barg ar lewede o}) scholde be ybroke, namely che ^1 ^ /'- 
while hyt was r^/?zpelled to be yswore vor nede in an nedfol 
tyme. ^ 4 f C^c i^aU: s 

In J>e mene tyme William arayej? al ]?at nede}> vor J>e 
journey, & geteth assent of J)e lordes of hys lond, and 15 
purchaseth fauour^ of Alisaunder J>e pope, wyj) a baner Jjat 
hym was sent. 
/Li: it pues were j>e causes why due William axede & chalangede 
' j Englond a3enes Harold : — pe de)) of Aluredus ]>at was hys 
c:^ cosyn, ]>e sone of Emma, (on Aluredus hadde yproc[u]red 20 
, ^ i his dej>) ; J>e secunde jje exilyng^ of Robert Arc hebyschop of ^ 
i : Canturbury ; \>e J?rydde cause was, vor kyng^ Edward hadde 
^-JS, byhote due William jjat a scholde be ky«g^ after hym ef he 
^.^ dyede wyj>oute chyldern ; ^& Harold was yswore to vol-vulle 
J>at byheste. /V ^"^ ^ (^ |V'ar.<\ -^-V. , 25 

■^ pe lordes of Normandy cons2iy\de a-mong^ ham-sylf what // 


^ %A ^^^^ beste to do of jjys journey ; & William J)at was l^e (^ ^ v 

^ ^. \duchys_sewer, jje son e [ofl Osbert , r^saylde to leue & \/'^ t^ '*' 
^ Yorsake })e journey, bojje vor scarst^ of vyjtynge men ^ & vor -''<?, 

1 The word *men' is supplied from Harl. MS. 

i j^ 1^0 ' TciLiAtva^ - ^^' '^' 


i^if^^lk. C-r^'iAj^'^ vT/M/kX/^^. 

30 stryngjje, hardynes, & sturnnes, & cruwelnes of enemyes. 
pe o))er lordes ^ were glad her^-of & pot here answers & her^ 
wordes oppon ]?es Willia»j hys mouj), al as he wolde sygge. 
Whanne he com tovore })e due, he seyde J?at he was redy to 
•^v, fe journey, & alle J>e ojj^re lordes; Jeanne my3te nojt J)e 

^,/ -^'©tt,. 35 lordes wyj>-drawe vor schame. £oL^^x^uitL 

S>-(^{ Whawne due William & hys men were long^ yt aryed in^ 

e> tt^^^i^ Seynt Valeric^ hys hauen, vor Jie wynd wa&a-aenes ham, Ipe 1L 
lyji^-f^U. pupel grucchede, & seyde jjat hyt was a wodn^ to chalange ^ 
by stryngjje o)>^re menne lond, & namelych^ while God strof K 
40 a-jenes ham, & God most graunte ham good wynd ef hy 
scholde seyle. Duk Willia/» made brynge out Seynt Vale- 
ricus hys holy body, &/Sf tt^ hym jj^r-oute vor to haue wywd. 
"' d-u.iai-^SL Anone lykyng^ wynd vulde j?e seyles. 

'-" *' I pawne due Willam cam toward Englond, afters Michel- 

45 masse day, & londede at Hastyng<? in a plas J)al ..hatte 

Peueneseye. In hy^ goyng<? out of hys schyp a sloa wy)> 

^nJi^nr lok hys o voot! & stykede in ]>e sond ; & J?e kny^t jjat was nexte 

'^"U ci6b>tmt^ cr/ede to hym anon & seyde; — * Now, Ser^ Erl, Jj^u boldest 

'"^f i-cco Englond, jwni schalt ry^t nenli cy be kyng^.' panne he 

50 chargede jjat hy scholde take no pfSyes, & seyde j>at a 

moste spar^ l>ynges |)at scholde be hys~oune. And he* 

'._i.,rt<(. \x.Jefte so vyftene dawes. 9t</ ft';t(u-J /"^^CtcU^ 

Harold come \ram werre of Noreganes & hurde tyj?ynges 

,^ .1 , : ^ • V. A hereof, & hyede wel. vast, & hadde bote veaw kny3tes aBSnte 

55 hym ; vor he hadde ylost meny stalword men in )>e rab^r ^^t^: 
batayl, & he hadde no^t y-sent vor more help; and, j^eyj **^v- 
a hadde, men were wrojje & wolde haue wybdrawe ham, 
vor hy moste haue no part of ]>€ prayes atte batayl of 
Noreganes. Bote Harold sent vor|) spyes vor to aweyte 

* MS. * [>e o|>er lordes \>t oJ>e lordes.' 

' * he' supplied from Harl. MS. Several words, indistinct in the Cotton 
MS., are corrected by collation. 



& se }?e number & j>e stringlpe of hys enymyes. Due William 60 
, touk }jues spyes ana Ta3de ham aboute hys tentes & hys 
pauylons, & vedde ham ry^t realyche, & sent ham to 
Harold aje. ' ^ | \- U -i^o^da^ ^'^'^'''^ 

pa«ne hy tolde Harold tybynges & seyde J>at al j>at wer^ 
in due William his ost wer^ prustes, vor hy hadde jje ehekes 65 
& bojje lyppes ysehaue. Engh^sch^ men vsede jjat tyme 
j)e her^ of her^ ou^rlyppes to-sened/ & no^t yschore. * Nay,' >-*' r ^^ 
quajj Harold, * hy bej? no prustes, bote a be^wei stalword 
knyjtes/ panne qua)? Gurth, Harold hys ^uneeste hTo\>er; — 
* why wolt l)g'u Vnwan? vy^te wyjj so meny orpeo men ? We 70 
swore hym neu^r non oj?; J?anne hyt ys beter^ j>at Y^u yaX 
art yswore to hym wyjjdrawe Ipe vor a tyme, and lete vs 
J)at bej? no3t y-swore vy3te vor j>e contr^zy; and ef we 
habbej? j>e maystry, wel hyt ys ; & ef we bej) ou^rcome, ^e 
cause & J)e qwerel ys saf to j>e/ 75 

si^ Jut due William sent a monk ^ to Harold, & profrede hym 
])re weyes : — Ojjer Jjat a scholde leue j>e kyngdom, oj)er holde 
the kyngdom of due William & regne vndyr hym, oJx?r hy 
tweyne scholde vy3te eyj?er wy]) oj>er in J?at querel, in sy3t 
of bo))e ostes, namelyche whyle Kyng^ Edward was ded, )>at 80 
hadde ygr^unted hym Englond ef he dyede wyj>-oute heyr^, 
and by consayl & assent of Stigandus j>e archebyschop & of 
'^ ))e erles Godwin & Siward, in token ))ar^-of Godwin hys 
i sone & hys neuew wer^ y-sent to due William. Bote Harold 
- wolde no5t assente to jje monk hys^^pn^ssage, bote seyde j>at 8« 
. J)e cause scholde be (feireynea by clent of sword, & prayede ^ ^ y 
onlyche ))at God scholde deme by-twene ham tweyne. ji^t^^^ 
panne )>e ostes in eyj)er syde come to \>e plas of |?e batayl 
in Jje day of Seynt Kalixt, jje pope, ]>e vourtefe^ day of 

* Harl. MS. *monk'; Cotton MS. *mon.' 

• Cotton MS. * mong hys*; Harl. MS. 'monkes.* 
» Cotton MS. 'te^je'; Harl. MS. *xiiij.* 

^3 — 240 Zr///. >Ofli\r OF TREVISA. *^*^ « 

90 Octobers, in a Saturday, in J>e plas ])ar Jje Abbay of Batayl 
ys ybuld, as we be]) enformed. 

pe ny3t to-vor^ ))e batayl Englysch^ meiyaf ham to songe^^h^ 
& to drynke, & woke al ny^t. Erlyche a-morwe vot-men /J^ 
mth here axes made a gret stryngjje of schyldes & setteTiam ^^^^^ 
95 to-gedders, & hadde y-hadde Jje meystry, nadde J>e Normans 
I p y-feyned to vie. A^% v^jKh^-^^ 

fV^^ Kyng<? Harold stod on hys veet by hys baner wy)) hys 

twey brejjem ; (])at baner was afterward ysent to J)e pope). 

pe Normans ])e ny^t tovore )>e batayl scnrotnani of her^ 
100 synnes & were yhousled. Erlych<? a-morwe vootmen & 
archers were y-set in J>e batayl, & Jjawne kny3tes, wyj) 
whynges in ey)>er syde. 

Due William confortede hys men to I>e batayl, & wasj|^*j^ 
f^^SiJjiCuXwBxe j>at hys haburjon was ytorn d in & out , & amendede 1^ 
ajX/*^ 105 j)at hap wyj? a bourd, & seyde — *pe str?hgj?e of^ erldom 
, Lcv,*^^ schal torne into a kyngdom.' Bote, ar be scheltroms come 

to-gedders, on of J)e Normans syde, Jjat hy3te Tailefer ^V^^j 
by Iws name, casi hys sword & pleyde to-vore ])e ostes, 
& sIoii3 a i SaSyour oiEnglysch^ men )>at cam a-3enes hym, 
1 10 & dude eft jie same of an p})er ; al-so a slouj J>e Jjrydde 
& was y-slawe hjrm-sylf. 

panne anone J>e scheltroms smyte to-gedders wy)> Roland 

hys song^, J>at was bygonne in J)e Normans syde. pe 

- lis. u< ** batayl durede vram vndern of )>e day to euesong tyme, & 

i.^Li "5 nerg no^r party wolde wy))-drawe ; bote J)e due hys archers 

»^* hadde her^ vorj>. pawne jje due made a token to hys men 

, . ■ - . j>at hy scholde feyne to vie, and by J)at wyle Englysch^ men 

^ - were bygyled & desarayed ham, as hyt were, vor to pursywe 

' & to rese on here enymyes. Bote whawne Englysch^ men 

120 wer^ so out of aray, jje Normans arayede ham efte, & tornde 

a3e oppon ))e Englysch^ men Jjat were out of aray, & chasede 

ham in eu^ryche syde. Atte laste Harold was y-hyt wy]) an 

'■ . . 


arewe & loste hys on ye, & was yhurt on Jie breyn, & vul ^'a cwu 
doun in j>at plas, & on of j>e knyjtes stykede hym in J;e jjy^ 
whyle a lay ^re; j>ar^-vore William potte ])at kny^t out of 125 
cheualry, vor he hadde ydo an vnkunnyng^ dede. pat day 
William loste Jjre j>e beste hors Jjat he hadde, & were jstyke d A tr^ ^^ a. 
ry3t vnder hym ; bote he bar^ hym so Jjat no blod com out' 
of hys body. 

Wha»ne j>e victory was ydo, William buryede hys men Jwt 130 
were y-slawe, & grauntede hys enymyes to do j>e same, who 
^-^i )jat wolde, Mid sejt Harold hys body to Harold hys moder / 
''V^ . wyJ>oute eny medP , as hue hadde yi>rayed ; and hue buryede Iv^ 
hym at Waltham, in Jie Abbay of Chanons J)at Harold hadde 
yfounded. 135 

Bote Girald Cambrensis in hys bok, j>at hatte ItmerariuSy 

wol mene J>at Harold hadde meny woundes, & loste hys lyft 

1^/e ye wyj> a strok of an arewe, & was ou^rcome & scapede to J)e 

coniray of Chester ; & lyuede j>ar holylich^, as me troweJ>, an 

^,,i»»l^ anker hys lyf in Seynt lames celle, vaste by Seynt loh^n hys 140 

<J*ccV6imX<^ cherche ; & made a gracyous ende, and ]>at was y-knowe by 

hys laste confessyon ; & Jje comyn fame in J?at cytd acordeth 

to J)at sawe. f^^-x^ 

* Harl. MS. • mcde*; Cotton MS. • mydc* 

J^vfi.^JU^ oct< /■i-i.^^u,.J^ M^^kA^d ^ fUy^i^^h,. t cr^*.(WfA^) 



A.D. 1340 — 1400. 

Chaucer was bom about the year 1340, as in 1386 he deposed 
that he was forty years of age, and upwards. He was frequently 
employed in diplomatic service during the years 1370 to 1380. 
He died (as is said) on Oct. 25, 1400, and was buried in West- 
minster Abbey. His writings are very numerous, but his most 
famous and best-known work is the * Canterbury Tales/ which 
we may roughly date about 1390, t hough it was never finished. 
Amongst his chief works we may specially mention : — 

{a) 'The Dethe of Blaunche the Duchesse' (1369), *The 
Parlement of Foules,' and a translation of * Boethius de Consola- 
tione Philosophiae* (in prose), in five books. 

(A) ' Troilus and Creseide/ in five books ; * The House of 
Fame,' in three books. 

(r) * The Legende of Good Women,' the ' Canterbury Tales,' 
and a ' Treatise on the Astrolabe' (in prose), written for his son 
Lewis, abou^ a.d. 1391. 

Several works have been ascribed to him which are not his ; 
amongst them are * The Testament of Love,' in prose and anony- 
mous, ' The Complaint of the Black Knight,' by Lydgate ; also 
* The Dream/ * The Flower and the Leaf,' and ' The Court of 
Love,' all by unknown authors. He is known to have translated 
the * Roman de la Rose,' but it does not appear that the sole 
translatioil of it now extant is his. In the former edition of this 
work will be found the *Pardoneres Tale' and 'The Prioresse 


Tale/ chiefly from MS. Harl. 7334, The publications of the 
Chaucer Society now enable us to give a large portion of * The 
Man of Lawes Tale/ in which the Ellesmere MS. (denoted by 
E.) is followed verbally, except where notice to the contrary is 
given in the foot-notes; but in some instances the spellings of 
the words have been altered so as to agree with the spellings 
in the other MSS., viz. the Hengwrt, Cambridge, Corpus, Pet- 
worth, Lansdowne, and Harleian. _^ Lvxj Jiuy*^ dc^^ '^ 's '^^'-'y 

Here beg^ynneth. tne man of lawe his tale. 

In Surrye whilom dwelte a companyS^ .X ^-^ o^-*-^-^^ 
-iiucAcAcuvfc Of chapmen riche, anatherto sadde an J trewfe' , A^vt^ias ^^ 'Ai.^'t'<. 
^\ S "^W^ _^That wyd^'-where senten hir spiceryg, 
/itlt> \<^ '^^ Clothes of gold, and satyns, riche of hewfe* ; ct/tA«Aiou» «c. <kck)r 
c.kox>^^^X'X Hir chaffare was SO thrifty and SO newe, .^ : cuia- ,.f'-'- 
'* That euery wight hath deyntee to chafFarg 1 ■ * - 

A^ 'lAC. . With hem, and eek to sellen hem hir warS. 140 

Now jFel it, that the maistres of that sort 
Hail shapen hem )to R^ome for to wendS ; 
t. ' ). I'v'-t Were it for chapmahliode or for disport, , •: » -^ , 
Noon other message wolde they thider send^'. 
But comen hem-self to Rome, this is the ende; 145 

And in swich place, as thoughte hem auantagS 
For hir entent,* they take hir herbergagS. ^t i( :. 

I wv lil 


Soioumed han thise mar.chantz in that toun 

A certein tyme, as fel to hir plesanc€. 

And so bifel, that thexcellent renoun 150 

Of themperoures doughter, dame Custancfi, 

Reported was, with euery circumstance, 

Vn-to thise Surryen marchantz in swich wys€*, ' . 

Fro day to day, as I shal yow deuysfe*. 

"• ■C J / ' » 

■ / 

» c 

^ E. * swich a wyse*; but the other MSS. omit * a.' 


This was the commune voys of euery man — 155 

* Oure Emperom- of Rom€, god him see , H^ ^ V]][ (-tui^ ^^ 
' r \ti..ev^ A doughter hath that, syn the world bigan, U^- 

/Lt tMjn^ To rekn e as wel hir goodnesse as beautee, 

Nas neuere swich another as is she ; 

I prey to god in honour hir susteene, 160 

And wolde she were of al Europe the queene. 


In hir is heigh beautee, with-out6 pride, 

Yowthfe', with-outfe* grenehede or foly€; ^tvc^- ''^'* 

To alle hir werkes vertu is~liir gyde, 

Humblesse hath slayn in hir al tiranny^. 165 

She is mirour of allfe* curteisyfe* ; 

Hir herte is vefray 'chambre of holynessfi, 

Hir hand, ministre of fredom for almess€.'<3^^'^ 

^1 1 <3£/4fva'<u9* f^"^ "^ e^ci^*^. *»*yMa. . ^i-A^*-^ *W'«>^ 7"^*"^ 

i r-c«.. 

Uf^A, And al this voys was soth, as god is trewfe', 
Uivv i'^^'-r^^ ' But now to purpos lat vs turne agayn; 170 

f...,.xi t -«^ Thise marchantz han doon fraught hir shipp€s newfe', 

And, whan they han this blisful mayden seyn, 
u .*-^ '-^ V " Hoom to Surr^^en they went ful fayn, 

And doon hir pedes as they han doon yorg. 

And lyuen in wele ; I can sey yow no mprfe*. 175 

Now fel it, that thise marchantz stode in gracg |^^ ^ ^^-^^^^ 

Of hym, that was the s^rdKn of Surryfi ; 

For whan they came from any strangfe* placS, 

He wolde, of his benignfi curteisyfe'. 

Make hem good chere, and bisily espyS 180 

Tidynges of sondry regnfe's ^ for to ler€ 

The wondres that they myghte seen or herC. 


AmongSs othere thingfe*s, specially 

This marchantz han hym told of dame Custancfe* 1^ . _ ,l 

So gret noblesse in ernest, ceriously, \i^J^ 185 

That this sowdan hath caught so gret plesanc^ 

To han hir figure in his remembrance, . , , 

That all his l^SS'd al his bisy cure /f ^^ ^- '^ ^^'-^ 

Was for to loue hir while his lyf may dure. 


Parauenture in thilkS largS book 190 

Which that men clepe the heuen, ywriten was 

With sterrfe's, whan that he his birthfe' took, 

That he for loue shulde han his deth, alias I 

For in the sterrfe's, clerer than is glas, 4 5 ry^^cu. ^^'^^''^ 

Is writen, god wot, who so coude it rede, 195 

The deth of euery man, withouten dredg. ^^' *^- "^ ^^^1-' 


In sterres, many a wynter ther-bifom, 6^k, ^t^ 

Was writen the deth of Ector, Achilles, 

Of Pompei, luli'us, er they were born ; 

The strif of Thebfe's ; and of Ercules, 200 

Of Sampson, Turnus, and of Socrates . 

The deth ; but mennfe's wittfe's ben so dulle, A^ '^^ 

That no wight can wel rede it att€ fullfe*. 

This sowdan for his priuee conseil sentS, 
And, shortly of this mater for to paofe*, (^ rf^,a/^^ 205 
He hath to hem declared his entente', L<,k '"* <- 
And seyde hem certein, * but he myghte haue gracfe* 
To han CustanM with-inne a litel spacfe*, ^ , 

Hennas but ](!e^;' and charged hem, in hy€, ^^ " t'-w^^^^ 
yf^v^M^ To shapen ifor his lyf som remedy^. 310 ' 


Diuersfe* men diuersfi thinges seyden ; 
^nfl a-oi<^'^ They argumenten ^, casten vp and doun; 
Many a subtil resoun forth they leyden, 
They speken of magik and abusiou n; iAw^^^^U.^ ^ ^e*wl 
But finally, as in conclusioun, 215 

They can not seen in that non auantagS, 
' ' j^ ^ i Sci. Ne in non other wey, saue manage*. 

' Than seyS they ther-in swich difficultee 

By way of resoun, for to speke al playn, 
By cause that ther was swich diuersitee 220 

Bitwene hir bothS lawes, that they sayn, ^ '^ 
They trowfe' * that no christen prince wolde fayn 
Wedden his child vnder oure lawes sweetfe* 
That vs were taught by Mahoun oure prophet^.' ^^''t>.viU. 

(c iKii ^h"-' And he answerdfe*. ' rather than I lesS 4 : e.^^- "^^^225 
.'C Ji'C'i*^ '-'\'^'^ Custance, I wol be cnsthed doutelees; 

I mot ben hires, I may non other ches6. 

I prey yow holde ^joure argumentz in pees ; ^ ^, Ct „ - c ^wjEc* 
vv . V wa., V Saueth my lyf, and be th nought recch^lees ^. o, . .;,o.^J- 

To getten hir that hath my lyf in cure, 230 

For in this wo I may not longe endure/ 


V .*. .' Jl »-» 

'r*> > «--* 

What nedeth gretter dUatacioun ? c< 

I seye, by tretys and embassadrie, 

And by the popes mediacioun. 

And al the chirche, and al the chiualrife*, 235 

That, in destruccioun of Maumettrifi, Ido ' > . , . t- 01 '"<^^ ... .'. 

And in encrees of cristas laws der€, l/<^ « .. '-*^^vtl 

They ben accorded, so as ye shal herS ; 

^ Harl., Corp. 'argumentes*; but see 1. 228. 


How that the sowdan and his baronagfe* «^»^rv.i^ n va^uvw^ 

And alle hise lieges shulde ycristned be, 240 

And he shal han Custance in mariage. 

And certein gold, I not what quantitee, ^ t^/ffi-^c^'^* ^ 

And her-to founden suffisant seurtee; ^v<.u tf 

This same accord was sworn on ey ther sydS ; 

Now, faire Custance, almyghty god thee gydfe* ! 245 

Now wolde* som men waiten, as I gessfe*, 

That I shulde tellen al the purveiance ^^^r c.v/. ,. wi«.l 

That themperour, of his gret noblessS, 

Hath sj^en for his doughter dame Custancfe*. 

Wei may men knowe that so gret ordinance 250 

May no man tellen in a litel clause c ^ r-v- • ^ 

As was arrayed for so heigh a cause. 

Bisshopes ben shapen with hire for to wendfe*, 

Lordes, ladife's, knyghtes of renoun, . ^_ 1 

And other folk ynow, this is the ende; ^ Ir^^^ ^" 'as5 

And notified is thurgh-out the toun 

That euery wight, with gret deuocioun, 

Shulde preyen crist that he this mariagS 

Receyue in^gree, and spede this viagS. \n't^^ 


The day is comen of hir departyng, 260 

I sey, the woful day fatal is come, 

That ther may be no lenger tariyng. 

But forthward they hem dressen, aJle and some; 

Custance, that was with sorwe al ouercome, 

Ful pale jirist, and dresseth hir to wende ; 265 

For wel she seeth ther is non other ende. 

' - L 




Alias ! what wonder is it though she weptS, 

That shal be sent to strangS nacioun 

Fro frend^s, that so tendrely hir keptfi, 

And to be bounden vnder subieccioun i 270 

Of oon, she knoweth not his condicioun. * ^ ''^'vx>ii^ . 

Housbondfes ben alle goode, and han ben ]^6, A ^ <^^ora 

That knowen wyufe's, I dar say yow no morS. 

* Fader/ she sayde, * thy wrecched child CustancS, 

Thy yonge doughter, fostred vp so softfe', 275 

And ye, my mooder, my souerayn plesancg dL^<jd,/Sx^xiW\x . 

Ouer alle thing, out-taken crist on lofte, 

Custance, your child, hir recomandeth oftg 

Vn-to your grace, for I shal to Surryg, 

Ne shal I neuer seen yow more with yfe'. 280 

Alias ! vn-to the Barbre nacioun 
v^Vt^' '•"^'^ I mostfe* gon, syn that it is your wills ; 

But crist, that starf for our ^jjadpunx SciSu<*Avcv ^^ [^ ^ 
;, K.rJivv^ So yeue me grace, hise hestSs to fulfille ; t<^Y*^c^^^^ ^i.v^c^t. 

I, wrecchfe* womman,fno fors\though I spillS. V>v»k 285 

Wommen are born to thraldom and penancfe*, 7 ^^^^ , 

^c ^'^ An(j to ben vnder mannes gouernancg/ 

I trowe, at Troye whan Pirrus brak the wal, 
Or [Theseus]^ brendS Thebes the citee, 
'•'- * N?^t* Rome', for the harm thurgh Hanybal 290 

That Romayns hath venquysshed tymes thre, 
Nas herd swich tendre wepyng for pitee 

^ All the best MSB. read ' ylion/ which is obviously wrong ; the substitu- 
tion of Theseus' is without authority, but receives some support from the 
*Knightes Tale/ 1. 132. 

• *Nat* is the reading of the EUesmere, Hengwrt, and Cambridge MSB.; 
but in this instance it is probably a contraction of * ne at/ instead of being 
equivalent to 'not/ as usual. The Hail. MS. reads 'Ne at' accordingly. 


i~ ri- 


As in the chambre was for hir departyngS; 
' Bot forth she moot, wher-so she wepe or syngfe*. 

O firsts moeuyng cruel firmament, 295 

With thy diurnal sweigh that crowdest ay 

And hurlest al from Est til Occident, K*;^^^ 

That naturelly wolde holde another way, 

Thy crowdyng set the heuen in swich array 

At the bigynnyng of this fiers viagS, 300 

That cruel Mars hath slayn this mariagS. 

Infortunat ascendent tortuous,^^ ^"^ * ' 

Of which the lord is helpfees jaUe^ alias I 
Out of his angle in-to the derkest hous. 

O Mars, O Atazir, as in this cas I - j k^ 305 iv*^-c J ^^ '/ 

O feble moone, vnhappy ben thy pas J'^'^^^''^'^^:/v(>v o.^^ i> ^*v '*^' ' 7" ' 
, ^ Thou knyttest thee ther thou art not receyued.^*^ u.U^,cl^rc^'<^ '^'' ' ' 

>)^,^h^^*^ '^ Ther thou were wel, from thennSs artow weyu€d. 

Imprudent emperour of Rome, alias I 

Was ther no philosophre in al thy toun? 310 

Is no tymebet than other in swich cas ? 

Of viage is ther non eleccioun ? — io /^- .; » u o/iria « 3 *^ ^'^'' ''- '* 

Namely, to folk of heigh condicioun, ^ '-^^^^ 

Not whan a roote is of a birthe yknowS ? 

Alias! we ben to lewSd or to slow6'.. -t<^^ 315 

To shippe is brought ^ this woful fairfi maydS 


K .>jv|i Solempnfe'ly with euery circumstance. 

' Now Ihesu crist be with yow alle/ she sayd€, 

Ther nys no more but * farewel ! faire Custancfi !' 

She peynetn hir to make good contenancS, 320 

And forth I lete hir saile in this manerfe*, 

And tume I wol agayn to my materg. 

* R * come'; * brought* in the rest. 


The mooder of the sowdan, welle of vices, 
/ ! ir.tM.'-^^ Espied hath h^r songs pkyn entente, l<^^ /j W*^"^ 
A S -^x^lcu^ How he wol lete his oldS sacrifices, 325 

And right anon she for hir conseil sentS ; 
And they ben come, to knowS what she mentfe*. U i^'^^i/e 
And whan assembled was this folk in-ferfe', Ir^i^j/^ /^^^ 
She sette hir doun, and sayde as ye shal here. 

_ a.'ii^ ,^tu.\^ * Lordes,* quod she ^, * ye knowen euenchon, 330 

AtuM t (U- How that my sone\in point! is for to lets /cwoAjl 

The holy lawfe's of oure Alkaron, ul O^t-ito*^ '^ K,n^f^. 

Yeuen by goddes message ^ MakometS. / v. ^ ^- 1 .^ U 
• a/- 'u t-iMio* But oon auow to grete god I hetfe ', ^r^»vc^u. .K ^^i^^ Uh^^'-j** 

The lyf shal rather out of my body stertS j^a^a^c^ 335 

Than MakometSs lawe out of myn hertfi I 

What shulde vs jyden of this newfe* lawS 
But thraldom to our bodies and penancfe* ? . 

' ' . ntjLPot^c And afterward in helle to be drawe '^^** ^ in. ' ^"-^ , ' V 

For we reneyed Mahoun oure creancfe r ~"iKf.»'»\'^ " 340 
But, lordes, wol ye maken assuranc?, ^^^"^ 
As I shal seyn, assentyng to my lorfe ', l^u-^u.^^ AS fo.'v-. 
And I shal make vs sauf for euermorS?* 

They sworen and assenten, euery man, 

To \yue with hir and dye, and by hir stonde; 345 

And euericn, in the bests wise he can, ^fe.-,'^:. 

(J f- S, V rvv-*^ 

To strengthen hir shal alle hise frendfes fondfe r ' ^J^vf.v,^ i 
And she hath this empfise ytake on hondS, , v - j,^^ 
Which ye shal heren that I shal deuysS, *^ 
And to hem alle she spak right in this wysfe*. 350 

* E. *she seyde'; * quod she' in the rest. 

message! ' Corp., Petw., and Laosd. MSS. ; but see the note. 

a ( 


* We shul first feyne vs cristendom to takS, 

Cold water shal not greue vs but a litS ; U (/^ ^ (i| r 

And I shal swich a feste and reuel makfe*, 

That, as I trowe, I shal the sowdan ^uitS. Jct^tojv 

For though his wyf be cristned neuer so whitfe*, 355 

She shal haue nede to wasshe awey the red€, A. r Wl **^'r 

Though she a font-ful jatfir with hir ledS/ ^/^"jT*^,^ ^T. f^>^ 

O sowdanesse, roote of iniquitee, 
[ yuu^oT*" Virago, thou Semyrame the secoundS, , ^^ ^^^ ^^^.^ 

i..«,^w<«it^ O serpent vnder femynynytee , . ^\^^ tvo(xi' 360 

Lik jto the serpent depe in helle yboundfe*, 

O feyned womman, al that may confounds 

Vertu and Innocence, thurgh thy malicS, 

Is bred in thee, as nest of euery vice ! 

O Satan, enuious syn thilkg day 365 

That thou were chased fro oure heritage', 
Wei knowfe'stow to wommen the olde .way ! 
^a^=j^ jT Thou madest Eua brynge vs in seruag g. vTfrK^^***- ^ ^ 

^ cU Wr Thou wolt fomoon this cristen manage, a^ o^o- '^ '*"*^ ^^^' V 
Thy mstrument so, w eylawey the while ! 370 

Makestow of wommen, whan thou wolt begil6. 

,^ojJL This sowdanesse, whom I thus blame and warye , ^^^^> *^ 
jJiLOfvUL) Let gnuely hir conseil goon hire way. 
^\^lat shulde I in this tal6 lenger taryS ? 
She rydeth to the sowdan on a day, J /■'^•'^^'^ 3^5 
And seyde him, that she wolde reneye hir lay, ^^^ f < ^ , ' ^ 
And cristendom of preestes handfes fonge,Axc£ , t- ^-^' 
Repentyng hir she hethen was so longS, 




^X ^ \'^ Bisechyng him to doon hir that honour, 
^^ ^^M That she moste han the cristen men to festS ; 380 

^ * To plesen hem I wol do my labour.' \ - ^<^^-o^ 

The sowdan seith, * I wol doon at youre hestS/ u>*^<^^ 
And knelyng thanketh hir of that requests. ^ ^ n.,r ^ ; 
So glad he was, he jr^fe* what to sey6 ; ' hx^JL^ ^^ • 
She kiste hir sone, and hom she goth hir weyfe*. 385 

Explicit prima pars, Sequitur pars secunda. 

ArryuSd ben this cristen folk to londfe', c^iA.x.t;| .Cl<vl', 

In Sunye, with a gret solempngj outfe', c^- pn^',^^-^^] 

And hastily this sowdan sente his sondS,hKj^*^^ 4^^^eU^ 1-u.j 

First to his mooder, and al the'^rlgnS aboutS, 

And seyde, his wyf was comen, out of dout€, 390 

And preyde hir for to ryde agayn the queeng, 

The honour of his regnS to susteenS. • 

Gret was the prees, and richS was tharray -. 1'^ ^'^ ^ 
Of Surryens and Romayns met yferg ; Itj^^ . 
The mooder of the sowdan, riche and gay, 395 

Receyueth hir with al so glad a cherd* 
As any mooder myghte hir doughter derfe*, 
And to the nextfe" gite ther bisydfi 
-7 A §oft€ pas solempnSly they rydS. 

sA « <. v» a • 

I.* < ' 

\ ^' '. ^ c^' '^*^ Nought trowe I the triumphe of lulius, 400 

X. t -^'- ^^ Of which that Lucan maketh swich a host, 

^ CA y. Was roialler, ne ^ morS curious 

Than was thassemblee of this blisful host. 
But this scorpioun, this wikked gost, 
The sowdanesse, for al hir flaterynge, 405 

-^ Caste vnder this ful mortally to styngfe*. 

* E. * or*; * ne* in the rest. 


The sowdan comth him- self soone after this 

So roially, that wonder is to telle, 

And welcometh hir with al ioye and blis. 

And thus in merthe and ioye I lete hem dwellfe". 410 

The fniyt of this matere is that I tell€. 

Whan tymfe* cam, men thoughte it for the bestfe" / ^ / 

That ^ reuel stynte, and men goon to hir reste. , .,-^ 

The tymfe* cam, this old€ sowdaness€ ^^ '* r 

Ordeyned hath this feste of which I toldfe*, 415 

And to the festfe* cristen folk hem dressg |v\^oclh*. 

In general, ye ! bothfe* yonge and old€. 

Here may men feste and roialtee bihold^, 

And deynte es mo than I can yow deuys6*, 

But al to dere they boughte it er they rysfe'. 420 

O sodeyn wo ! that euer art successour 
To worldly bliss^*, spreyno^'ith bitterness^ ; 

Qd with bitterness^ : ^ 


Thende ^ of the ioye of oure worldly labour ; 
Wo occupieth the fyn of oure gladnesse. 
Herkg this conseiffor thy sikerness€, ,a.tu.»t.<.^'j 425 

c.*u^r*"''^ Vp-on thy gladS day haue in thy myndg 

The vnwar wo or harm that comth bihynd€. 

^ For shortly ' for to tellen at a word, 
f^^ t \ '^he sowdan and the cristen euerichone C^^'^M ^^^ 
^^ixcA^ ^^ Ben al tohewe and stikgd at the bord^^xuA. Cf ^'''^'4^ 
u '^'^^"^ But it were oonly dame Custance allone. 

This olds sowdanesse, this * cursed crone, avt ^v tf» ''^ 
Hath with her frendes doon this cursed dedfi, ' , 

For she hir-self wolde al the contree ledS. i!<: ^^ • i-» /^ J" ^-"^ * "^ 


^ E. * The'; * That' in the rest. 

■^ So in Camb.; the rest have * The ende.' • So in the rest ; E. * soothly/ 

* So in Petw. and Harl.; the rest omit * this/ 

S 2 


Ne ther^ was Sunyen noon that was conuerted 435 

That of the conseil of the sowdan wot, 

Thas he nas al tohewe er he asterted. 

And Custance han they take anon, foot-ho t, 1*^^-^^ 

And in a shippe al sterglee s, god wot, Uvl^«\Jr ». au^Cpua* 

They han hir set and bidde ^ hir lern€ saylS 440 

Out of Surrye agaynward to Itaylfe'. 

A certein tresor that she thider ^ ladd6*, ?slJ^ 

And, soth to sayn, vitaill e gret plentee vtcJ^^^ 

They han hir yeuen, and clothes eek she hadd€, 

And forth she sayleth in the saltS see. 44i> 

O my Custance, ful of benignytee, 

O emperourfe's yong€ doughter derS, ^> y__ 

He that is lord of fortune be thy sterg I ' ' ^^ /ecA- 

She blesseth hir, and with ful pitous voys 
L^^X^ ,, ^^^^^ , Vn-to the croys of crist thus seydfe* she, 450 

IrU *\uA * O cleere, o welfu l * auter , holy croys, 

I\jA LaM^ (Reed on the lambes blood ful of pitee, 

That wessh the world fro the olde iniquitee. 

Me fro the feend, and fro his claw€s kep€ 

That day that I shal drenchen in the depfe*. 455 

J..wV l^ 

Victorious tree, proteccioun of trewS, 
That oonly worthy werS for to berS '^ r • ' '^ 
; p f{^v^f"^ '^^^ l^yiig o^ heuen with his woundSs newfe', 
' ., I v^^ The whitfe* lamb, that hurt was with the sperfe', 

touvv^wA* Fleme r of feendfe's out of hym and herfe*, /^ *. v kjla. tc 460 

^ So in the rest ; E. omits * ther.' 

* Heng. and Camb. 'bidde*; Corp. and Petw. 'bidden*; Lansd. *bcdcn*; 
E. 'biddeth'; Harl. * bad.' 

* E. * with hire*; but the rest have • thider.' 

* E. « woful*; the rest, * welful,* * wilful,' • weleful.' 



On which thy lymfe's feithfully extenden, 

Me helpe, and yif me myght my lyf tamenden / ^ ^»v4i**4, . 

YerSs and dayfe's fleet ^ this crfe'aturS J^, /*v*/ f* Wi/<^ 

Thurghout the see of Grec e vn-to the straytS 
%(rr*^^^^ Of Marrok, as it was hir auenturfe' ; 465 

^" i^ji,»j^'^ On many a sory meel now may she baytg; rtkJi, 
Aftir hir deeth ful often may she wayte*, 
Er that the wildfe" wawfe's woll hir dryue 
Vn-to the plac€ ^, ther she shal arryu6'. 

Men myghten asken why she was not slayn? 470 

Eek at the feste who myghte hir body sau€ ? 
And I answere to that demaunde agayn, 
Who saued danyel in the horrible cau6, 
oh^'^ • Ther euery wyght sau£ he, maister^xi knaufe*, . n ^^ ^\^ ^^c 

'.^^^^^^ / WaTwith the leoun^ft^er he astem ? 'f, 'f^ij' ^ 476 ^^'"^"^ 
.,^. (/^^ No wygnt but god, that he bar in his hertfe*. CtH- 

• ctt-v*^*^ ' . 

UvJh^ ^? II Qq^ ^^st to shewe his wonderful myracle 

rSi>i»/**« J In hir, for we shulde seen his myghty werk6s ; ^ </(<! 

Crist, which that is to euery harm triacle , «^ ^^^^^^J^ "'^ j 
By certein menu's ofte, as knowen clerkes, 480 

i.t ca^ Dooth thing for certein ends that ful derk is 
|ih tc Cx-<^ To mannfe's wit, that for oure ignorance 
• ' • '' Ne conne not knowe his prudent purueiancS. 

Now, sith she was not at the feste yslawS, ^^ Mi^iA. 

Who feepte hir fro the drenchyng in the see ? 485 


Who kept€ lonas m the fisshes mawfe* 

Til he was spoked vp at Nynyuee ? 

Wei may men knowe it was no wight but he 

^ £. * fleteth'; but the contracted form 'fleet' occurs in Heng., Corp., and 

^ Probably read 'place'; Harl. alone inserts 'as' after 'ther.' 


That keptfe* peple Ebrayk fro hir drenchyng, 

With dryS feet thurgh-out the see passyng. 490 

Who bad the fourS spirites of tempest, . . 

That power han t anoven lond and see, - ^ •^*'«^;^^ * to^n^ 
* Bothe north and south, and also west and est, ^ ^ 
Anoyeth neither see, ne land, ne tree?' 
Sothly the comaundour of that was he 495 

That fro the tempest ay this womman kepte 
/a kvoiM**A. ***'*' As wel whan she wook as whan she sleptS. 

Where myghte this womman mete and drinke haue ? 
OJcUifi*.^ ^ ^ Thre yeer and more how lasteth hir vitaille*? 
r^}i cuw iU, —Who fedde the Egypcien Marie inlhe caue, 500 

^y/'^***^'^^ Or in desert? no wight but crist, sanz faille*. ?" J^«-v^ 
V^J**^^* A. Fyue thousand folk it was as gret meruaille 

jciJii j/^*^ ^ With lou€s fyue and fisshes two to fede. 

^ ^QoA sent his ffe^t'feir gretS nedS. t U<y<l^ ^f "^ ^^' 

47 y"*^' i ^'^ She dryueth forth in-to oure occean 505 

^""■^ **y ^i^dik, Thurgh-out oure wilde* see, til, attS lasts, , 1 - 1 , \ IL 
^^r Vnaer an nolo tnat ne mpne n 1 ne can, ^ i<^^/. . ^i^>^ ^ 
^' "^ ^.^w »»"^ Fer in Northumberlond thej^\jawe hir castg, «^. ty^*^^^ ^ ^ 

And in thTsond hir ship stJked so fastg, ^ --^ ^"^ ' "^^ h'u^ 
That thennfe's wolde it noght of al a tydS, *^^' ^' 510 

Aar»^ e^«^'^ 

The wil of crist was that she shulde abyd6'. 

^ The constable of the castel doun is farg Tt >v^ 
To seen this wrak, and al the ship he soughtS, 
And fond this wery womman ful of carS ; 
He fond also the tresor that she brought^*. 515 

In hir langagg mercy she bisoughtg . 

The lyf out of hir body for to twynng, ^^^ <m^A ^\ 
Hir to deliuere of wo that she was innS. ^' ^ .movw 


S/^i^ 'f^L4j /^<i> jL a^'it^^y^ 

.^^^..^^jiJU^ A maner latyn corrupt was hir spechS, Sft/a. i^ L^ ^^ ta^o^i.. 

^i-tynJ^ r But algates ther-by was she vnderstondfe' ; 520 

^*a*/J. Th^ constable, whan hym^sfno lenger sechS^ %-ix^A 

This woful womman brought he to the londS ; 

She kneleth doun, and thanketh godd^s sondg . /ri^fcn^ ^ 

But what she was she woldfe' no man sey6, ^ >^'^'»-^ 

For foul ne fair, thogh that she shuldS deyfe*. 525 

She seyde, she was so masfe'd in the see 

That she fprgat h ir mynde, by hir trouthS; ^»^ ^''f' ^^ '>^ "'<^^ 

The constable hath of hir so gret pitee, 

And eek his wyf, that they wepen for routh g, A^ A^ y*^ *y^ ' *' 

She was so diligent, with-outen slouth g, J-^ ^^ 530 / ^ 7 

To seme and plese euerich in that plac^ 

That alle hir louen that looken on * hir facS. 

This constable and dame Hermengyld his wyf 
fxjuo/h/^ Were payens, and that contree euery -where ; 

But Hermengyld louede hire right as hir lyf, 535 

And Custance hath so longe soioumed * there, 

In onsdn s, with many a bitter tere. 

Til Ihesu hath conuerted thurgh his grac6' 

Dame Hermengyld, constablesse of that placfe*. 

In al that lond no cristen durstS routg, a -^^viv K **- ^^^ 

Alle cristen folk ben fled fro that contree 
A ^fJUjiOL Thurgh payens, that conquereden al aboutS 
Am COV9 The plaggs_o f the North, by land and see ; 

To Walys fled the cristianytee 

Of old€ Britons, dwellynge in this life' ; 545 

Ther was hir refut for the mene while. 

* E. and Camb. * in'; the rest * on.' » Harl. only has * herberwed.' 


But yet nere cristene Britons so exilfe'd 
That ther nere somme that in hir priuitee 
Honoured crist, and hethen folk bigildfd ; 
j^xlu/v tA^t/0 ^nd neigh the castel swiche ther dwelten three. 550 

^j C-cufc I That oon of hem was blynd, and myghte not see 
jd Uj^o^] B^t it were with thilke^ of his mynde, 

With whichg men seen, whan that they ben blyndS. 

Bright was the sonne as in that someres day, 

For which the constable and his wyf also 555 

And Custance han ytake the rights way 

Toward the see, a furlong wey or two, 

To playen and to romen to and fro ; i[ r L jLu. 

And in hir walk this blyndg man they mettfe* / ;; skJu' 

Croked and old, with eyen faste y-sche tte. ^TWC ^5© 

* In name of Crist,' cryede this blynde^ Britoun, 

* Dame Hermengj^i y^f me my sighte agayn/ 
This laoy wex affrayg d of the soun, S-ti.X'>^jK 
Lest that hir housbonde, shortlyTor to sayn, 
Wolde hir for Ihesu cristas loue han slayn, 565 
Til Custance made hir bold, and bad hir werchfe' 
The wil of Crist, as doughter of his chirchS. 

The constable wex yassh fe'd of that sight, . 

And seyde, 'what amounteth al this farfe'P'J'rw <» h^\^<^ 
Custance answerde, * sire, it is Cristas might 570 

That helpeth folk out of the feendfe's snar€/- . « 

And so ferforth she gan oure lay declarfe*, ' *' 

That she the constable, or that it were eufi, 
Conuerted^, and on Crist made^ him bileue. 

» E. * olde *; Harl. * old '; but the rest * blynde * or • blynd/ 

* Harl. *Conuertcd*; Camb. *Conuertid*; the rest * Conuerteth/ 

* £. ' maketh '; Lansd. * maad '; the rest, * made.' 

f J t^-c^ 



This constable was no-thin g lord of this plac€ 575 

Of which I spekfe', ther he Custance fond, 

But kepte it strongly, many wintres spac€, 

Vnde r Alia , kyng of alj^orthumberlond, Ujl ft</i 3S'f f*^l. 

That was ful wys, and worthy of his hond 

Agayn the Scottfe's, as men may wel here, 580 

But turne I wol agayn to my materd*. 

Sathan, that euer vs waiteth to bigilS , /.. tc 

Sey of Custance al hir perfeccioun, /^l^ cc4- ^^ f^^ Ict^^Ji^ 
And caste anon how he mightfquite hir whilfe',^"' ocCri* • 

And made a yong knyght, that dwelte in that toun, 585 Xu /u ^ 
uiti \ Loue hir so hote of foul aflfeccioun, i STI , 

, o»j»^<^ That verrailyhTm thoughte he shulde spillfe ' i .4,. «\iL -4-1 C^»*Ca,. 

But he of hir mighte on€s haue his willfi. /^ d.^A^r^ 

He woweth hir, but it auailleth nought, 

She woldfe* do no synnfe*, by no weyS ; 590 

And, for despit, he compassed in his thought 

To maken hir on shameful deth to deyfe*. 

He wayteth whan the constable was aweyg. 

And pryuely, vp-on a nyght, he creptg 

In Hermengyldes chambre whil she sleptfe*. 595 

Wery, for-wakea in her orisoun s, Lo^v-k-^ 

Slepeth Custance, and Hermengyld also. 

This knyght, thurgh Sathanas^ temptaciouns, " " /^^^^ " ^ 

Al softely is to the bed^go,' j'cnl « yxt t.v. 

And kitte the throte of Hermengyld atwo, 600 

And leyde the blody knyf by dame Custancfe', 

And wente his wey, ther god yeue him meschancfe' ! Au^>j '•** "^'. • » 

^ £. and Heng. *Sathans*; Harl. *Satanas'; but *Sathanas' in Corp., 
Petw., and Lansd. | 


Soone after comth this constable hoom agayn, 
And eek Alia, that kyng was of that lond, 
t* ^ Za^ And sey his wyf despitously yslayn, «t**f*'^*|y^ 605 

^ U^y^ ^^ For which ful ofte he wepte ^ and wrong his hond, 
jri\'^S(^A.w, And in the bed the blody knyf he fond 

By dame Custance ; alias I what myghte she sey€ ? 
For verray wo hir wit was al aweyfe*. 

To k3mg Alia was told al this meschancS, 610 

And eek the tyme, and wher, and in what wisS- 
That in a ship was founden dame Custanc^', 
As her-biforn that ye han herd deuysfe*. A ^ o^^-^ 
The kyngfe's herte of pitee gan agrysS, sLuA^"^ 
Whan he sey so benigne a crfe'aturg 615 

(mv^Kil Falle in disese and in mysauenturg. 0}^i.^a c(i.', kIw^^ . 

For as the lomb toward his deth is brought, 

j/) s UAi^i;» So stant this Innocent bifore the kyng; 

^; r^Zii^ 'T^^s falsfe* knyght that hath this tresoun wrought 

l^oj^o Berth * hir on hond that she hath doon this thing. 620 

\ ^ K lat^ t AON gy|. natheles, ther was gret moornyng • 

Among the peple, and seyn, • they can not gessfi 
That she hath doon so gret a wikkednessfi, 

For they han seyn hir euer so vertuous, 
And louyng Hermengyld right as her lyf. 625 

Of this bar witnesse euerich in that hous 
Saue he that Hermengyld slow with his knyf. 
This gentil kyng hath caught a gret motjf /A/Vuf h icw^ccm 
i^ Of this witnesse, and thoughte he wolde enquerfi 

Depper in this, a trouthS for to lerg] 630 

* E. *weep«*; Camb. Corp. Petw. * wepte.' 
' So in E.; the rest 'Beieth.' ' Harl. * murmuryng'; see note. 




Alias ! Custance ! thou hast no champioun ^ ^^!.&i c^d, 
h /»tno Ne fightfe* canstow nought, so weylawey I U<(Ji o^i^ 

But he, that starfior oure redempcioun ^ ^ £/e<r^a- ^ ^'^ 
And bond Sathan (and yit lyth ther he lay) , n f ( ' 
So be thy strong^ champioun this day ! 635 

^ ^W^ ^^^' ^"^ ^^ ^"^^ ^P^^ myr^cle kithfe*, pr /<*^ ^^ ^^ f^ ^^'^, cy^ot^ 
:v>r>^^ Withouten gilt thou shalt be slayn as swith?. ^'-^-^ t ^tn^ 

She sette* her doun on knees, and thu3 she sayde*, 

• Immortal god, that sauedest Susanne 

Fro falsfi blame, and thow, merciful maydS, 640 

Mary I mene, doughter to Seint Annfe*, 

Bifore whos child aungelfe's synge Osannfe', 

If I be giltlees of this felonyfe". 

My socour be, for^ ell€s I shal dyS !* 

Haue ye not seyn som tyme a palS facfe', 645 

aa^^ p. /I.Lti^ Among a prees , of him that hath be lad ^^^ ^ ^^^-^ ■' 
Toward his deth, wher as him gat no grace. 
And swich a colour in his face hath had, p)^<^u^ v>-s.^<*'^ ' '" 

Men myghtS knowe his face, that was bistad, 1 c j^eJja^ 
Amongfe's alle the faces in that route : 650 

So stant Custance, and looketh hir aboutS, 

O queenSs, lyuynge in prosperitee, 

Duchesses, and ladyd's euerichone, 

Haueth som routhe on hir aduersitee ; 

An emperoures doughter stant allone ; 655 

She hath no wight to whom to make hir mone. hn^a-., cr co 

O blood roial I that stondest in this dredS, 

Fer ben thy frende's at thy gretS ned6* I 

* E. 'sit*; Heng. Camb. Petw. * sette.' 

* E. *or*; the rest* for.' 



This Alia kyng hath swich compassioun, 

As gentil herte is fulfild of pitee, 660 

W^^ That from his yfe'n ran the water doun. 

C ^iP^ \uL^' ^^^ hastily do fecche a book/ quod he, 
' V(X^^'^^^ * "^^^ ^^ ^^^^ knyght wol sweren how that she o^A^^ /^Ir 
This womman slow, yet wole we vs au ys€ 'J^^.^i, rt/<u^ 
Whom that we wole that shal ben oure lustise/ 665 

A Briton book, writen with Euangilgs, 
i'P f^^t-*^^ Was fet, and on this book he swor anoon 

-A ^ i^'*^'^ She gilty was, ami in the meng whiles 

A hand him smot vpon the nekke-boon, x*^ 1 f^ 
, 1^ That doun he fel atones as a stoon, ai chtt . 670 

bt I [^c6A/i^ '^"^ ^^^^ ^^^ y^^ braste out of his facS 

In sight of euery body in that plac6'. 

Uci^dU^i^iL hLail And seyde, ' thou hast disclaundered giltglees 
'Ax^tx ki uk.i. The doughter of holy chirche in heigh presence ; 675 
/ ; ^ ei«u.oUA. Thus hastou doon, and yet holde I my pees.' 
{^,j^^vc«i,^<^*^- ^^ %^^ meruaille agast was al the prees ; La^-* *^ "*^*^. 
kivuUxvJL As masfed folk they stoden euerichone, 

For drede of wrech e', saue Custance allone. 

n >> ods.tcp 


Gret was the drede and eek the repentance 680 

Of hem that hadden wrong suspeccioun 
, Vpon this seiy innocent CustancS ; 
*' • ^^ • -^c^sMjj ^^^ £qj. ^jjjg miracle, in conclusioun, 

; J f^., *f k..^ii^ And by Custances mediacioun, 
I (I c. - The kyng, and many another in that plac6, 685 

^v ..i»< Conuerted was, thanked be cristas grac^ 1 


This falsfe* knyght was slayn for his vntrouthS 

By lugfe'ment of Alia hastily ; 

And yet Custance hadde of his deth gret routhfe*. 

And after this Ihesus, of his mercy, 690 

Made Alia wedden ful solempnfely ^Uut^f cr ■f«.i^ 

This holy mayden, that is so bright and sheene, «,^,-v 

And thus hath Crist ymaad Custance a queene. ^ ^ 




A.D. 1393. 

John Gower (bom about a.d. 1325, died a.d. 1408), spoken of 
by his contemporary and friend Chaucer as the * Moral Gower,' 
was a person of condition, being connected with a knightly family 
of Kent, and possessed of considerable property. He studied at 
Merton College, Oxford, and adopted the profession of the law. 
Gower was the author of three well-known poetical works, the 
* Speculum Meditantis,' written in French ; the * Vox Clamantis,* 
written in Latin; and the 'Confessio Amantis,' in English (a.d. 
1 3 9 3 )• The * Confessio Amantis' has been several times printed, — 
by Caxton, in 1483; by Berthelette, in 1532 ; and by Pauli, in 1857. 
The following extracts, selected from the Fifth Book, are tran- 
scribed from Harl. MS. 3869, in the British Museum. 

The Tale of the Coffers, H c 

[Harlcian MS. 3869, leaf 182.] 

ckuruu. In a CTomque J)is I rede : — 

A-boute a king, as moste node, /< • w 
Ther was of knyhtes and squiers 

. . c< . ^ Gret route, and ek of officers. 

Some of long time him hadden serued, 
And J)Oghten J)at J)ei haue deserued 

f *i\. 

I ( ' * 


Auancement, and gon wi jjoute ; 

And some also ben of J>e route 

That comen bot a while agon, . r mh 

And }>ei auanced were anon, i^^)^ '^'* lo 

These olde men vpon j?is )>ing, 

So as pei dorst, a^ein J>e king, < >! Ci^ ^u 

Among hemself compleignen ofte ; 

Bot per is no)?ing seid so softe 

That it ne comb out at[t]e laste. 15 

The king it wiste^ and als-sofaste, o^ q.u^'Cil. c^, l?r*^di^ 
^ ^ As he ^hich was of hih prudence, 

£;e«f o»A* ^ He schop J>^rfore an euidence 

Of hem j>at gleignen in |)at cas, ^■i-.-^c^-^-^ 

To knowe in whos defalte it was. 20 

And al wi|)inne his ogRne\nfente^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ "" 

That noman wist[e] what it mente, 

Anon he let tuo cofres make, , ^ 

iwiL, Of,o_sembl^ance, and of o_make, C>^ ^ /tj'i^^tA/* 

,.,.w jwi<MA- So lich, |>at no lif t)il^e Jjrowe tCtvJL •. cif- ^-<^^ ^'* 25 > J^ 

That on mai fro \>3t o^er knowe. "'' ^ ' ' ^ 

y; (C uaH^U^^Thei were into his chambre broght, ^ Xc«l "^ 

h;ui ivac'.i (iuu^ Bot noman wot why pei be wroght, /' ^ \i)^ )kk 

W Vva( jaLuAnd natheles J>e king haj) beHe t-L - 

/ ,c /w That }>ei be set in priu^ stede , /tCr*c;^ 36 

^ivi/(/i^- t As he |>at was of wisdom slih ; c-c H- ^cv^.-u-. 
}■ t,vi^ Whan he Jjerto his time sih, IvPccw /'''' J 

Al priuely, }>at non it wiste, 

Hise oghne hondes ^at o kiste oiv^^^f A ^ cwf- 

Of fin gold and of fin pwreie, ki^^ • ^ 'i p ^^jj ^ ^ '''^ 

The which out of his tresorie 

Was take, anon he felde full ; 

That o)?er coffre, of straw and mulL '• ^ - -' . u . . \ .cc !■ r-,. 

Wij? stones meined, he felde also ; ^ 

ri.\,« ( 

^^'f" J ''K Ct-V^ Irt K «** 

K'. 'A 


Thus be J>ei fuUe bo))e tuo. 40 

So J>at erliche, vpon a day, 

He bad wij^inne, J>er he lay, 

t ir I i^(^ fc.f^aTher scholde be, tofore his bed, 

A bord vpse t and faire spred : 

And ))anne he let |>e cofres fette, 45 

Vpon J>e bord and dede hem sette. 

L> )Jl ^^ knew J>e names wel a( tho A S v^ l<^ 'If ^^ 
'/i r* r ^ r- rj.^^ ^j^j^j^ ^^^^ hi^^ucche so, ^ ^^^ j^dB^' (^^ ^^ 

BoJ>e of his chambre and of his halle ; 
Anon he sende for hem alle, 50 

And seide to hem in Jiis wise : — 
* Ther schal noman his ha£p despise : O^t*^ /t y^v^^M. 
I wot wel 5e haue longe serued. 
And God wot what je haue deserued ; , 

Bot if it is along on me (ti. .-.i A ^ ^^ ^"^"ffs 
Of ))at je vnauanced be. 
Or elles it be long on 30V, 
The so))e schal be proued nov. 
To stoppe wi|) 50ure euele word, 
>\ «S Cv i .ttv^ Lo ! hier to cofres on ))e bord. 60 

^i^f^ , Ches which 50U list of boj>e tuo, 

/ X 1 ( 1 \' '* . And witeb wel J)at on of tho 

Is wij> tresor so full begon, A.' ^ «. 
That if 56 happe ))ervpon, ^^^/ -- -. x,^v< r^k-A- 
5e schull be riche men for eu^e, 65 

Now ches and tak which 50U is leu/re. ^^ a.wv' A^ •^'^ 
ac*.a'jL Bot be wel war er ))at ^e take, 
For of J>at on I vndertake 
Ther is no man^r good ^erinne, 
Wherof ^e mihten pre^fit winne. 70 

Now go)) togedre on on assent, 
And take]) ^oure avisement ; c ( u ♦^ ^ *-^ . 



For, hot I 50U J>is dai auance, a dUou^u^ 
It stant vpon ^onre oghne chance, 
Al only in defalte of grace ; -€acit 75 

So schal be schewed in |)is place 
Vpon 30U alle wel a fyn , (-ttc<. a, dcv-e^^^**^*-^ 
That no defalte schal be myn.' 
Thei knelen alle, and wij> o vois 
The king ]>ei ]>onken of ]>is chois ; 80 

And after ]>at ]>ei vp arise. 
And gon aside and hem auise ; <u^.^uA►'. 
And at[t]e laste J>ei acorde, 
Wherof, her tale to recorde 
To what issue ))ei be falle, 85 

A knyht schal speke for hem alle. 
He knele)> doun vnto J>e king, 
And sei|> ]>at ]>ei vpon ]>is ]>ing. 
Or forto winne or forto lese, 
Ben alle auised forto chese. 90 

Tho tok ]>is knyht a ^erde on honde, 
And go]> |>ere as ]>e cofres stonde. 
And wi]> assent of eu^richon 
He leij) his jerde vpon J)at on, <^^ <x^cL 
And seiji J>e'kS^, hou filkp^same ^^^^^ ^^ 95 u, ,^.. f 

Thei chese in reguerdo«n be name, ^ " ^ 

And preij) him Jjat ))ei mote it haue. /^ ^ cc >/ u . 
The king, which woldeTiis hono«r saue, f^ " ^^ ^' ' ^ \ 
Whan he haj) herd the co/wmun vois, 
HaJ> graunted hem here oghne chois, 100 

And tok hem jjervpon ]>e keie ; 
Bot, for he wolde it were seie 
What good )>ei haue as ])ei suppose. 
He bad anon J)e cofre vnclose, 
Which was fulfild wi]> straw and stones t 105 

VOL. 11. T 

a74 ^^' JOHN GOWER. 

Thus be ])ei seraed al at ones. 

This king ]>anne, in [|)e] same stede. 

Anon J>at of^r cofre vndede, 

Where as |»ci smen gret richesse 

Wei more J>an J>ei covjjen gesse. no 

' Lo I' sei]> ]>e kyng, ' nov mai je se 

That ]>er is no defalte in me ; 

For)>i miself I wole aquite, 

And bere]> je ^oxire oghne wite 

Of J>at fortune haj^ 50U refused/ 115 

Thus was ))is wise king excused : 

And ))ei lefte of here euele speche. 

And mercy of here king beseche. 

Aeson regains his Youth at the Hands of Medea. 

• ' [Harleian MS. 3869, leaf 199, bach^ 

, c c<wt Iason, which sih his fader old, 
. r . < r Vpon Medea made him bold 120 

Of arte magiqu^, which sche coujie. 
And preijj hire, ))at his fader 30u]>e t^ ffu^ 
Sche wolde make ajeinward newe. , 

And sche, ))at was toward him trewe, ^u j\^ bifi-^u^C 
vc ,.vM .LBehihte him J>at sche wolde it do," ' ' "^135 f 

' ( sL J, Whan bat sche time sawh herto. 

Bot what sche dede in ]>at matiere 
It is a wonder |)ing to hiere ; 
Bo[t] jit, for J>e noueUerie, h^.-o./y 
I })enke tellen a partie. X30 

Thus it befell vpon a nyht, . ^ 

Whan \er was noght bot sterreliht, ^^-^-t^'-f ^t. 
tc» -«, -'v*^ Sche was vanyssht riht as hir liste. 
That no wyht bot hirself it wiste ; 



And J>at was at[t]e mydnyht^^de ; /i^rttrv^ "^ 135 
The world was stille on eu^ry side. 
u.^^c«a^v^<ii Wlj) opcn hcd and fot al bare,^^ ^,^^ ,.- 

1^ ^^..^ Hir h ^osVd , sche gan fo fare^; <^^^' ' 

6^a^rv<. Vponh ir clones gert sche was, ^ fi^ ?^^,. ^uX ' ^^ \ o^^'' 
Al spepheles, and on ]>e gras fi^AA^uru^djiX »4o * '^ 
/J" a-6-i^a'*^^ Sche gloy for)> as an addre dof. o^AJa^ oLeO^ 

Non o))^rwise sche ne goJ>, 
Til sche cam to ]>e fresshe flod, 
And )>ere a while sche wijjstgd. 
Thries sche tomed hire aboute, 145 

J-^ kiuio^ , And thries ek sche gan doun loute ; <^ (m*^ otcic^v 

t^^J^a) And in J>e flod sche wette hir her, 
/i S SfJ And )?ries on jje wat^r j^er ^ko-H- 4&<w^ 

I / Sche gaspeji wij> a (jr^chinge^onde, ^ •tc<(vif,%<*<^, '*• \^,^^^^ 

Ujui^y^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ speche on honde. 150 

ASdL/i^cA *^ Ferst sche began to clepe and calle 

Vpward vnto be sterres alle ; 

To wynd, to air, to see, to lond , ^ , , ( 

Sche preide, and ek hield vp hir bond If ^ 

To Echates and gan to crie, ce Jhc(J^ 155 

Which is goddesse of sorcerie : 

Sche seide, ' Helpeb at bis nede, ^ <- ./ y t . 

And as je maden me to sped e /^^^^y^'' 

Whan lason cam J>e Flees to seche, 

So helpe me nov, I ^bu beseche.' 160 

WiJ) jiat sche lokeJ>, and was war, 

Doun fro J^e sky J>er cam a char, ^c^xa-i cai ^^ oA >■> ^* ' 

The which dragoims aboute drowe. 

And )k) sche gan hir bed doun bowe, 

As Th}c^ ^ ^^^ ^^$fe^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ and wel ... 165^ 
. *^ Sche drofforj^ bojje char and whel /^ - cOu/<x^ — 

Aboue in |>air among ]>e skyes. 

1 1 t 


inxeu^AJi^ WA/*Ui -urj 

U yK€>At^ ?ca^»«c ^^ >J 


CU\. **■ fi*<Xl/Q-4ii^** . 




The lond of Crete and \o partie s /^ l^tk^z^^^^ 

Sche soughte, and faste gan hire hye ,)C ^ 

And J)ere, vpon ])e hulles hyhe AS lufC^ 1**^ 170 

Of Othrin an d Olimpe also, 

And ek of o))re hulles mo, ^t-^i^l^ 

Sche fond and gadrej) herbes suote; A^^ckJaa/^ J^/*v^v 

Sche pnlleji vp som be J)e roitTTLans.^ ^ a**fe. 
And manye wib a knyf sche scherb, AS s^csao'^ 175 ^(vr 
And alle into hir char sche berj>. in oa^s 
Thus whan sche ha)i |)e hulles sought. 
The flodes ]j^r for3at sche nought, 
fl»'/ '•.w>r.u ^ ^<^>\uvo^ Eridia n and Amphrisos, ^ t^^ 

V ivic/ivkuo o^,\Ji Peneie and ek Spercheidos ; ^4-^^^*'**^^ 180 

1^ "if U>><^ To hem sche wente, and ^er sche nom 6??'^^ 
' ^(^Jl Bo))e of J>e water and j)e fom, ^tci »^ a L f^s 


u' t^-'^^S "^ 

M. e 


c «:<.<:«. 

^^ , The sond and ek ))e smale stones, A S Oi^^^^ 
Whiche as sche ches out (for be nones,J < 
<^ ■ .^^^ ,< And of ))e Rede See a part, 185 

.CC J 

^;»* » 





^ / 


J f 

That was behouelich to hire art, Li^rv^ /tJ Ua^^^ 

Sche tok; and after l)at, aboute ' ' " 

Sche soughte sondri sedes oute, 

In feldes and in many greues, c / 1 rt o 

And ek a part sche tok of leues ; • >. «9o 

Bot J)ing, which mihte hire most auaile, t\i n^ 

Sche fond in Crete and in Thessaile. 

In daies and in nyhtes nyne, 
Wi)) gret trauaile and wij^ gret pyne ^, 
Sche was pourveid^,eu^ry piece, 195 

And tome)) homward into Grece. 
Before I>e gates of Eson 
Hir char sche let awey to gon, 
And tok out ferst ]>at was |>^rinne ; 

^ ' 


' i f i\ 

* MS. •peyne/ 



." ^ 




For ))0 sche Jjoghte to beginne 200 

Suche ]>ing as seme]> impossible, 
And made hirseluen invisible, 
As sche fat was wij> air enclosed 
And mihte of noman be desclosed. 
Sche tok vptunies of J>e lond a</^^J 205 

/ J Wijjoute helpe of mannes bond, 

<?t:-<^^ ^^"^lo/o^ -^^i^!?^ ^I' J^ ^^^^ S^s, 
i ^ VJiOM ^ ^^^ Of which an alter mad \er was 

Vnto Echates, J>e goddesse 

Of art magiqt^ and ]>e maistresse, 210 

And eft an oJ>er to luuente^ ^ 1 1 «A ^^^ ^'"''" '* ' 

YuJ^^u.**^ -' , As sche whiche dede^hir hole entente, v^ '"^ '^P "* f 

ftjiXii u, c> * •pjjQ ^^ g^jjg fieldwode and v^rueyne, 7 h -^ c/« ^ » ^ 

' ^■/' 


ui,^v>txo. vv Q^ herbes be noght betre tueyne, C c a ^ <i' ^' ^ 

These alters ben aboute set. 
Tuo sondry guttes faste by /i-<.fe 
Sche made, and wij) }>at hastely , 

I 'tssJ^ n A wether , which was blak, sche slovh, (:y^-^ A\^'^'^^'^ 

Jr ^ ^^^ And out Jj^rof J)e blod sche drovh, dj\,^^^ ' ^ 220^? *^^^ 

And dede into })e pettes tuo ; 
Warm melk sche putte also j>^o 

Wij) hony mejoio!^ and in such wise -^ ^ ^^vcMj»(.a^ I /'"^ 
Sche gan to make hir sacrilise, 
And cried and preide forj^ wij>al 225 

To Pluto J>e god infernal, 
And to J>e queene Pr(?serpine. 
,/, jX And so sche soghte out al J>e line 
[lc( ci^q Of hem, J)at longen to jiat craft, 

Behinde was no name laft, 230 

And preide hem alle, as sche wel couJ>e, 
To grante Eson his ferste 30u]?e. 


This olde Eson broght for]i was to, VvIaa. 
Awei sche bad alle o]>re go 
Vpon peril jiat mihte falle, 235 

And wijj ))at word }>ei wenten aJle, ^^wVcv.^ 

And leften j)ere hem tuo al one. oJUru^ i j iuuuiuLj. 
And ))0 sche gan to gaspe and gone , yox^w^^ 
And made signes maayon, 

And seide hir wordes }>^rupon ; 240 

i S c{\.L*.(^*^u ^ So }?at wi jy spelUngejof^WrchaflBfis hy.vXoJi «7 Z^*^ x^L:» 
/^ c-cU Sche tok Eson in boj^e hire armes, 

And made him forto slepe faste, 
And him vpon hire herbes caste. 
()4e^t/k 'jLtx^-a The blake wethe r tho sche tok, 245 

iatf<ci e> c^ W^ An<i hiewh J)e fleissh, as do)> a cok; 
/{ ^ (tjcaK- <^*^ * On eij>^ alter part sche leide, 
U .Tt. ni- ^'^^ And wij> J>e charmes jiat sche seide 

' A fyr doun fro be sky alyhte, ftix. '^ ^<^ 

1 tt^^'-^^^^ '^^ And made it forto breime lyhte. ctA^<^ 250 

Bot whan Medea sawh it brenne, ^41 -^t-v^vvcv*- . 

Anon sche gan to sterte and reniie ^oyJ^ 

The fyri anlters al aboute. 

Ther was no beste which goJ> oute 

More wylde, J)an sche seme]> ))er. ^ 255 

Aboute hir schuldres hyng hir her, ^^<. a.^ 1w\ 1^ cu!v 

As J>ogh sche were out of hir mynde 

And tomed in an ojier kinde. 


Tho lay ))^r certein wode cleft, oj au 'J 
Of which J>e pieced nov and eft \ -^f' *-i^ ^ *^ jg© 
Sche made hem in ]»e pettes wete. 
And putte hem in pe fyri hete, 
r> a*^ And tok ^ b rond wi)? al J>e blase, 

And Juries sche began to rase /J ^ <x ^ /^K»>KtO\ u*lcL 
Aboute Eson, \er as he slepte. ' 265 


And eft wi{> vrzier, which sche kepte, 

Sche made a cercle aboute him )>rieSy 

And eft wi|> fyr <rf sal|^ire twyes ; 

Ful many an ojhjt Jnng sche dede, I Sh dfUkVA^f^X 

Which is noght writen in ]»is stede , jyta^JL 270 

Hot )k) sche ran $0 vp and doun, 

Sche made many a wonder soun ; . ir ' 

SomtimeUch vnto fe cock. ^^ ^ J^>v^4a. -t <-^g. 

Somtime vmto ))e laueroc k, ^«^ ^ ^ €a^^c 

Somtime kacle]> as an hen, 375 

J r ' Somtime spekeb as don he men. 

ft/TjLA^ - And riht so as hir largocm strangeb, /r^^^^^ f r ' 

In sondri wise hir forme change]>, ^^ t ^ ^^^ (>feU 
-?^ )j-<^ S[ch]e semej) Yaie and no womman. 1^ (k c< » rvt a c^i* 
. J^ (^c* «► -*^- For wij) ]>e craftes ]>at sche can fe^^^nir^i 280 

-^- ^ ^ Sche was, as who seij^, a goddesse; 

And what hir liste, more or lesse, 

Sclie dede, in be bokes as we finde, 

^ ^ --_-- --^^ , ^Uiti^ '^'^'•'* 

Bot who paX wole of wondres hiere, 385 

What ]>ing sche wroghte in ]ns matiere, 
To make an ende of paX sche gan. 
Such m^rueiie herde neu^re man. 
Apointed in |)e newe mone, 
^ Whan it was time forto done, 290 

cticA . ctUv i^ -• g^j^^ g^^^^ ^ caldron on ))e fyr, ^ . . 

/-^r*^*"^ In which was al |>e hole atir, a-^'^ ^^ '"^ 

* ' *, ^. 

'^ ; • t^ Wheron J>e medicine stod, 
i t,u cA Of ius, of wat^r, and of blod, , , . 

And let it buile in such a jjUt, /iXt , ^i ' ' ''^^^^ 295 

1 ^ 7tc^A-A<^^ '^'^ ''^^ ^^^^ ^^"^^ ^ sgume whyt; 



And ^ sche caste in rynde and rote, .'• t-r u 

And sed and flour, J>at was for bote, / - >^ i c=<^ 


^ X" ^r^.»«^ /.t... A< 


Wi]> many an herbe and many a ston, 

Wherof sche ha)) J>er many on. / ' ' ^^ 

Lc W <3..i^,/»'uU.. And ek Cimpheiwj, Jie serpent, OjLcUa^^ ^^O^ 

iXo! u» o^ ai^<*^-<' To hire haj> alleTiis scales lent; 

. . K V t 1 CL(ru.K- CheUdre hire jaf his addres skin , ^ tfi.f^ 

f\i« f ^ '* j p •^^ ^ And sche to builen caste hem in ; /t^Ac^ h 

A part ek of j>e homed oule , crix-(!. 305 

The which men hiere on nyhtes houle ; 
And of a raven, which was told 
Of nyne hundred wynter old, 
Sche tok J>e hed wij> al J^e bile ; ^ ^ f 

And as J>e medicine it wile , C^tc cTi ^ ou^i^ 310 
Sche tok j)erafter ]>e bouele (r^^*^ "i 
Of I>e seewolf, and forfeTiele [uLjJi^f'k 
' S u ^^ Eson, wij> a ]>ousand mo 

^, I ' ^^ '^ ^^ In ]>at caldron togedre, as bliue, <^' <.*c * J- 315 

'•"'■'' \ * Sche putte, and tok J)anne of olyue ^ AS 'TfiAwi/i^ 

A drie branche hem^wij) to stere,ur^'^'t t^ itov 
The which anon gan floure and here. 
And waze al freissh and grene a^ein. 
Whan sche pis vertu hadde sein, 320 

Sche let ]>e leste drope of alle 
Vpon ]>e bar[e] flor doun falle ; 
Anon ]>er sprong vp flour and gras 
Where as be drope falle was, ", ct vv cvo o. 
And wox anon al medwe-grene, ♦- ' ^ ^•'•* "^ • 325 
So bat it mihte wel be sene. , ' -^ . , /v, 

Medea )ianne knewe and wiste / I- ic l h 

Hir medicine is forto triste, 1'lc<. ?V" ' ^ ic u,^' 
And goJ> to Eson j)er he lay, pt^ . , ^ ; 

And tok a swerd, was of assay, f-'ut/- 330 

Wiy which a wounde vpon his side 

/•^Y„ -> /■rv-W</ ; itU-U- UCcl l'<Jt^ f^*f* 



Sche made, jiat Jj^r-out mai slide j^ , h- ^^ i^j^ 

The blod wijjinne, which was olde, a^ ^ 

And sek, and trouble, and fieble, and cold. 

And J>o sche tok vnto his vs iu^ ^ ^"^ ^ 335 

Of herbes al J>e bestejus, ihta^^, 

And poured it into his wounde. 

That made his veynes fulle and sounde. 

And )k> sche made his wounde clos, 

And tok his hand, and vp he ros. 340 

And )K> sche ^af him drink a dravhte, 

Of which his 30vJ>e ajein he cavhte. 

His hed, his herte, and his visage 

Lich vnto twenty W3mt^ age ; 

Hise hore heres were away 345 

And lich vnto I>e freisshe Maij, 

Whan passed ben ]>exolde schoures ; 

Riht so recou^rej) he his floures. ^k^^^- c e 

\ 1 


(A) Reign of William the Conqueror, 

At present, the only complete edition of Robert of Gloucester's 
Chronicle is that by Heame, Oxford, 1 724, chiefly based on MS. Harl. 301. 
There is some account of Robert of Gloucester in Warton, who, however, 
quite fails to appreciate him. Warton gives a few extracts, and others 
(modernised) may be found in Chambers' Cyclopaedia of £ng. lit. vol. i. 
For the account of the battle of Hastings, &c. see Freeman's Norman 
Conquest, and Old English History for Children. Robert of Gloucester 
chiefly follows Geoffrey of Monmouth. He alludes to the canonization 
of St. Louis in 1297; hence his work was subsequent to that date. 
The metre of the poem, though a little irregular, is practically the same 
as that of Chevy Chase, or that known as CM. (Common Metre) in our 
hymn-books, which is derived from the old long-line metre by writing 
two long lines as four short ones. This is why (in CM.) the first and 
third lines do not rime together. - In this poem, written in the Southern 
dialect, uor=for (u=f), and ss^sh. The verbal inflexion for the plural 
pres. indie, is -eth for all persons, as; «« iiue^, we give ; ^e 3<»4>« ye give ; 
Jut or heo yiuep, they give. There are many plurals of nouns in -en (such 
zscandlen, 1. 472) unknown to the Northern dialects. Several infinitives 
end in 1 or ie. 

For another account of the Norman Invasion, see Sect. XVIII. (b) helow 

Line i. 'Great hath the sorrow been.' Al>'»hap; ibe^i-ben, been. • 

2. Her Ct* er, now and in former passages. Er^ere; cf. 1. 246. But 
probably a better reading would ht hertf per^ here and there, i. e. in 
various ways ; cf. 1. 436. 

5. Saxons and Englisse ; here Englisse is evidently used as equivalent to 

8. IchoUe « ieh wolU, I wUL 

a 84 NOTES. 

13. * To keep (defend) it well for him, and he well to him trasted.' 

13. Hende, courteous. As \>e hende; like a courteous man, politely. 

16. On Harold's oath to guard William's interests, and his engage- 
ment to marry one of William's daughters, see Freeman's Norman 
Conquest, iii. 241. 

33. Fole dede, a foolish deed. 

3;. Watloker, much rather, the more. Cf. O. E. o^6er-luker, otherwise. 

38. Nede is here an adverb = of necessity, and is equivalent to O. £. 
nedes, needs. It is an instrumental case ; see Grein's Anglo-Saxon Diet, 
ii. $03. 

33. Of-sendet send for ; so of-ahsen^ to ask for. * He caused men to 
send for his knights from all (parts of) Normandy.' 

34. Porchas, property that they might win. Horn bede, offer them. 
40. Alfred, the son of ^thelred II, was put to death aj>. 1036, by 

some followers of Harold. The crime was laid to the charge of Harold's 
father, Earl Godwine. 

42. Bio/\>et behoof. A. S. hehd/arit to behove, to be fit, need. 
Witie^O. E. «/t/m, to protect, defend, keep ; as in 1. 13. 

48. Alexander II (elected pope a.d. 1061) acted in this matter by the 
advice of Hildebrand, afterwards Gregory VII. 

51. AsoiUde, absolved, assoiled. O. Fr. assoiler, to acquit; Lat. ab- 
sdueri, loose from. 

53. Beret subj. should bear; the pret. indie, would be ber or bar, 

57. Sein Walri, St Valery, on the French coast, at the mouth of the 

58. Abide mo, to await more (men). 

59. Preste, ready. Cf. to press for a soldier, ^«5-gang, ^r^ss-money^ 
&c. See Wedgwood's Etym. Diet. 

65. The point of the story is missed. The tale went that William 
stumbledt and so embraced the land with his arms. See Sect. 
XVIII. (b) 48. 

73. Euerwik, York. A. S. Eoferwic^ Lat. Eboracum. 

74. Iiete^i-yete, eaten. In the South of England the people say, *I 
have a-yeai an apple.' 

78. ' As if he made no account of any one.' 

80. In the battle of Stamfordbridge, Harold had defeated and killed 
King Harold of Norway, Sept 35, 1066. 

83. Sley, sly, crafty. With Jw sley cf. J>* hende, 1. 13. 

84. Dereyni^Fr. desraigner, try, prove; Lat. derationare. 

86. Lokinge, award, judgment, decision. ' That he should place it at 
the decision of the pope of Rome.' 

88. Wer, whether. Seint Edward, Edward the Confessor. 

89. Him take, deliver up to him. 


X03. Mi fader, i. e. his ancestor Rollo, not his father Robert. 

107. Isolde, yielded. It means 'until he had yielded Normandy to 
Richard, then a child.' 

Richard is here a dative. •Nonne patres vestri regem Fran- 
corum in Rotomago cepenmt, et tenuerunt donee Ricardo puero, Dud 
vestro, Normanniam reddidit eo pacto, qu5d in onmi colloquutione 
Regis Frandae et Duds Normanniae gladio Dux accmgeretur, Regem 
verd nee gladium nee etiam cultellum ferre liceret' Henry of Hun- 
tingdon, 763 D. 

1 16. Wrasilede, wrestled. A. S. wrcBsdian, wraxlian, to wrestle. The 
reference is to Duke Richard the Fearless, of whom several singular 
stories are told. Two of these may be found in Uhland's poems ; see 
the translation of Uhland by the Rev. W. W. Skeat, p. 439. 

118. Luj>ers A. S. IJfSer, bad, wicked ; Ger. liederlich, loose, disorderly. 
Wrenches A. S. wrence^ deceit, stratagem. 

135. Baneur, bannerer, banner-bearer. The story is that TailUfer 
(i. e. cutter of iron), a Norman minstrel, asked to be allowed to strike 
the first stroke. He rode before the Norman army, singing ^ song of 
Roland, and tossing his sword in the air and catching it. He then rushed 
on the English, killed three men, and was slain. Uhland has a ballad 
on the subject, called Taillefer ; see Transl. by Skeat, p. 353. 

137. Ginne, contrivance, skill. 

139. Ne dude horn noyt, did nothing to them, could not harm them. 

14a. Agaste, aghast, frightened. Gothic us-gaisjan, to frighten. 

147. ' And (the Normans) turned themselves round quite easily, being 
above the others.' 

154. iVo tuille . . . (fdunt, no power of striking. Dunt, dint, stroke. 

157. Al/or 1103/, without harm to themselves. See 11. 159, i6a, 171. 

158. >« dounean hei, the hill on high, the hill above. 

165. Aday, in (that) day. 

166. As me sayt as one saw. 

167. Uor-amd is here a weak past participle ; so also vorpriked and 
uorwovnded are past participles, referring to the siedes. A.S. yman, to 
run, is a strong verb, but the verb here used is a weak one. from A. S. 
€eman, to cause to nm, to ride. The sentence means, 'he slew three 
steeds under him, as folks saw (or, as men say) ; which were spurred to 
death, ridden about till tired out, and severely wounded and bruised 
against the corpses, ere the battle could be ended.' See Layamon, ed. 
Madden, 1. 9296, and note at p. 470, vol. iii. 

168. Debrused, bruised. O. Fr. bruiser ^ Fr. briser, to bruise, crush. 

1 74. Hor no\>er, neither of them. This nother, contracted and used as 
a conjunction, gives us nor, just as other, either, gives or. 

176. An-ttuHter, (it is) in doubt. An, on, in ; aunter, adventure, chance. 

2S6 note;^. 

1 76. Keuering£t recovering, recovery. The O. K vb. cover is frequently 
used for to recover. 

187. The story of Edward the Confessor's vision in his last illness 
may be read in Freeman's Norman Conquest, iii. 11. 

191. St. Calixtus, pope, martyred aj). 322. His day is Oct. 14, 

198. An «rj>«, into earth, to burial. Cf. 1. 305. An becomes a before 
a consonant, as, a sumere, in summer. 

199. Fon, foes. A. S,/d, enemy, from fian, to hate. 

301. Ct* largeliche, &c., and liberally proffered him of her wealth, 
a 10. ]»» wey, the way; he took the way; i. e. went his way. See \>en 
in the Glossary. With IL 214-334 compare Sect. XVIII. (a) 150-174. 
330. EsstCf asked. A. S. acsian, to ask (see esse, 1. 367). Strong, severe. 
233. Huld Jum, he held or kept himself qui^. 

347. Goderhek, (as) a benefit (to); from gode, good, hele, health. 
Cf. O. £. wrotherhele, misfortune. The -er was originally a dat. fem. 
inflexion ; cf. A. S. to godre hdle, for a benefit. 

348. Into kunde more, into its natural root or stock; viz. by her 
marriage with Henry I. 

354. St. Nicholas' day; Dec. 6, T067. '^^ ^^ given in 1. 349 is 
obviously wrong. It should be 1067, not 1060. 

362. Feffede, endowed. 'Fr.fieffer, to convey the ^^ or fee (Mid. Lat. 
feudum, property in land distributed by the conqueror to his companions 
in arms, as a reward for their services) to a new owner. 

365. Uorlore, miaed, forlorn, CLJrore (Milton), ,/Vor»« (Spensei), for 
frozen ; also O. E. ycore, chosen. 

379. Debonere^Fr, debonnaire, courteous, affable; cf. 1. 365. De ban 
flir*= good-humoured. Cf. Fr. de mal aire, bad-humoured. 

385. Wetted, altar. A. S. weofod, altar. 

387. Hulde, flay. Cf. A. S. behyldan, to flay; hyldere, a butcher. 

395. As God yf ^at eas, as God gave that hap, i. e. as God had 

303. Fries wif Alein, wife of earl Alan ; referring to Constance. See 
Freeman, iii. 659. Cam, Caen. 

338. Other MSS. shew now to be an error for nowhar, nowhere. 
At-route, to assemble in troops. (See next line following.) 

334. Route, army. O. Fr. route, crowd, troop. 

344. Vntuled, uncultivated, untilled. The land laid waste extended 
from the Humber to the Tees. 

345. Adauntede, subdued. Fr. dompter, to tame, daunt', Lat domitare. 
347. An alle soule day, on All Souls' Day, Nov. 3, 1083; not 1073. 
353. hiden chides of land. A hide of land was as much as could be 

tilled by a single plough. A hide is still used as a measure of land in 


358. Wite, perhaps for wisie, knew. Al clene, thoroi^bly. 
359' "^^^'A shortened from O. F. escrii, F. dcrii, from Lat. scriptutn, a 
piece of writing. 

367. * Whosoever should come to ask him for justice on account of 
any injury.* 

368. Ende, end» i. e. subsequent fate. 

370. * And tbe more injustice would people do to hinu' 
378. Aatorede^ stored, filled. O. F. esiorer^ to build, garnish. 

386. p«r-to, moreover. Heame's copy reads atuo, in two. 

387. An kunteif, on hunting, a>hunting. 

Spumde, stumbled. A. S. spuman, to kick, stumble. 
3fO. Pur &/iW, entirely blind. Pwr«^i/r«, entire. In Wyclif, Exod. xxi. 
26, it means * blind of one eye/ It has now the meaning of almost blind. 

408. Ballede, bald. The original meaning seems to have been (i) 
shining, (2) white (as in bald-faced stag). 

409. Lende, loins ; pi. lenden, A. S. lendenu, the loins. 

411. * Which he could do himself with his foot, easily, whilst riding 
very fiist.* Ssete'^shete, shoot 

412. Arblaste, arbalast; Mid. Lat. areubalista (see arblasters, L 430)^ 

414. Non welssnon uvel, no evil, sickness ; in is dep-vuel^ in his death- 
evil, last illness. 

416. a^t rich. A.S. <kht, property; <khiiff, rich. Al }p(U a^t was, all 
the rich men. " 

441. Manne orf, men's cattle. 

Qualm ^K, S. cwecUm, pestilence, death, destruction. 

450. Setie . . . to ferme^ Mid, Lat. dare or ponere adfirmam, to let on 
lease ; firmoy rent. Perhaps connected with A. S. feorm, supper-board, 
hospitality. Lands were once let on the condition of supplying the 
lord with so many night's entertainment for his household. 

453. ' If another came and offered more, he would immediately be in 
possession, so that they who offered most ejected many a one. Were 
the agreement never so strongly expressed, people bought it out wrong- 
fully.' /s, it ; a form used by Southern writers in the ace. fem. sing, and 
the ace. plural ; see Introd. § 12. Not this passage only, but many more 
in this extract agree almost word for word with the account given in the 
(so-called) Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which the reader may consult wi^ 
much advantage. 

457. Tricherye, treachery, is another form of trickery, 

463. ^e lasse, &c., the less of him then accounted, i. e. esteemed him 
the less. Reins, Rheims. 

464. ' And drove him to mockery (mocked him), as people often do 
the old (man).* 

288 NOTES. 

468. Edtvie, twitting, reproach. A. S. ed-witan, to reproach, twit, 

470. CJurchegong, churching, literally church-going. 
Bende, sickness, is another form of bond, 

471. Attentat ^en, at the; before a consonant it is a/fe, as atte iaste, 
atte besie, &c. Cf. )>an olde^\>m olde (ace. sing.), the old, I. 464. 

482. Medes is intended for Mantes. 

483. * Because one cannot have a churching without lights.' 

490. Grony, to groan, complain of (being ill). A. S. grdnan, to lament. 
Groan is connected with grunt. 

494. Leches, surgeons, physicians. A. S. Idee, a physician, leech; whence 
leechcraft. * His physicians examined his condition.* 

497. Deol, dole, sorrow. Sc. dide^ grief; Fr. deuil, mourning; Lat.- 
dolere, to grieve. 

505. Porchast probably, personal property ; cf. 1. 508. 

509. Dele, distribute. A. S. dS, a part, dole, deal. 

517. Four C?* tuenti. Rather * one and tuenti * ; viz. 1 066-1 087. 

520. William died Sept. 9, 1087. 

pe later must mean the last, viz. of the days dedicated to St. Mary. 
These are (i) the Purification, Feb. 2 ; (2) Annunciation, Mar. 25 ; (3) 
Visitation, July 2 ; (4) Assumption, Aug. 15 ; (5) Nativity, Sept. 8. We 
might, however, add (6) the Presentation, Nov. 21 ; (7) the Conception 
of the Blessed Mary, Dec 8. 

525. 'Immediately after his ^aither bequeathed England to him.' 

528. Seisine, possession. Fr. saisine, seisin, from saisir, to seize. 

(B) The Life of St. Dumtan. 

St, Dunstan * was bom in the first year of i^thelstan, 925 ^, near 
Glastonbury, where his father Heorstan was a great Thane. His 
mother's name was Cynethrith. As a boy, he was taught in the school 
which belonged to the Abbey at Glastonbury. Afterwards he was intro- 
duced to the court of king ^thelstan, where he did not stay long, as it 
seems he found enemies there. As he grew up, he greatly desired to 
marry a lady about the court, whose name is not mentioned, but his 
kinsman .Slfheah, Bishop of Winchester, with a good deal of difficulty 
persuaded him to become a monk. . . In 943, King Edmund made him 
Abbot of Glastonbury.* Freeman's Old Eng. Hist, for Children, p. 164. 
See also the Life of St. Dunstan in Chambers* Book of Days, i. 653. 

Line i. More, root, stock. Prov. Eng. moor, root. 

a. Candlemass day is February 2, or the festival of the Purification 

* * The date is given in the Chronicle, yet it can hardly be right : as, if 
so, Dunstan must have become Abbot of Glastonbury when he was only 
eighteen.' — Freeman . 



of the Virgin. Candles were then blessed by the priest, lighted, and 
carried by the people in procession. See Chambers* Book of Days, i. 213. 

5. As me do}>, as people do even at this day. 

6. Aqueynte, pret. was quenched. Cf. O. E. adreynie, was drowned. 
Here non nvste hou^ none of them knew how. 

7. Her ri^t, just at one moment ; her ri^, just at another moment; 
i. e. immediately afterwards. 

15- P^rf* for Jw^A. through. Cf. O. E. ]>of^thog, though. 

1 7. What was, why was it ? 

22. In his moderwas ali^, was descended into His mother; became 

28. 7J>e3, throve. O. E. the, to thrive, flourish = A. S. Jv^, to thrive 
(prct. J>aA, p.p. ge\fOgen, ge\mngen). 

32. Aldelm; the Chronicles call him Wulfhelm. 

35. Deynte, pleasure, dainty. It literally signifies (i) toothsome, nice, 
(2) rare. Cf. O. E. daintith, a dainty ; Welsh dant, a tooth, dantaidd, 
toothsome, delicate. 

37. Bone, petition, prayer, boon, A. S. h4n, prayer. 

47. This date (453 years before 925) is a.d. 472, viz. about the time 
of St. Patrick's supposed visit to Glastonbury. Glastonbury Abbey was 
said to have been founded by Joseph of Arimathea, but there is no 
certain trace of Christianity in Britain before the year 208. 

51. This date (a.d. 252) is quite wrong. The date commonly assigned 
for St. Patrick's death is 493. 

53. Hudinge, secresy, hiding; from O. E. hude, to hide; whence O. E. 
hidels, hudels, a hiding place. 

55. Athelwold became bishop of Winchester aj>. 963 ; he died 
Aug. I, 984. 

61. Oreisouns, orisons, prayers. Reste of, rest from. 

64. He ne hipte, 8cc., he took not of them no (any) reward. 

66. Bedes hede, would offer prayers. Cf. our phrase to * bid beads.' 

6*j. At Yreo stedes, in three places at once. 

73. Treoflinge, playfully, triflingly. -inge is an adverb-ending = -/y. 
Trifle signifies literally * small piece,* if derived from A. S. trifelan, to 
pound. But we also find in O. £. the spelling trofle, trufle, as if from 
O. F. truffle, a gibe, mock. 

79. * Until the tongs were quite red-hot.* 

81. Out-blaste, puffed out, flew out. 

82. Wriekede, wriggled ; probably connected with writhe, 

85. Snytfe, wiped. A. S. snylan, snite^ clean. The literal meaning of 
snite is to blow the nose or snout, 

86. * Because it was at night, he could see no more (of the fiend than 
just the nose.)* 

VOL. n. U 

290 NOTES. 

88. Lifiet air, as- in a-loft, A. S. /y//. Bi ]>e lijie, in the air. 

89. Calewe, bald-pate. A. S. calu, bald. Eng. callow, 
^i. As god^ &c., he might as well have been. 

Atom, ysnyt his nose, at home, with his nose snited (his nose being 
snited or wiped). 

92. Hi^edgy hastened. - A. S. higan, higian, endeavour, hasten, hie. 
Pose, cold in the head. It occurs in Chaucer. 


These Psalms are written, as has been observed, in the Northumbrian 
dialect, in which the present indicative of the verb is thus declined : — 
Sing. I. singe; 2. singes; 3.- singes: Plur. i. singe; 2. singes; 3. singes. 
The imper. pi. also ends in -es. In a relative clause, the verb often ends 
in -es when the relative pronoun with which it agrees refers to the first 
person, singular or plural. 

Psalm viii. 

Line i. selleouth, strange, marvellous; cf. uncouth, unknown, strange. 
The real clue to the sense is best obtained by consulting the Latin 
Vulgate Version ; thus selkouth translates the Latin admirabile. 

6. Lo/=A.S. Iqf, praise; Uf-sang, a h)mfln. The Vulgate has laudem. 

17. Mensk, honour. It is a sb. from the A. S. mennisc, (i) human, 
(2) mankind; whence O. E. menske, gracious. The Vulgate has honore. 

19. 'Thou* hast put under his feet all young ones that any animal 

22. In-over is a translation of Lat. insuper; cf. O.E. at-over, at-above, 

24. Forth-gone, proceed in, travel along ; Lat. perambulant. 

Stihes, paths, ways. A.S. siig, a way, path; sdgan (pret. stdh, 
pp. gestigen), to go, climb, ascend; whence stile (A.S. stigel), stirrup 
(A.S. sHg-rdp, i. e. mounting-rope), stair (A.S. stager). Cf. O. E. stegh'^ 
Prov. E. stie, steye, s/ee, a ladder. 

Psalm xiv. 

It should be observed that this numbering follows that of the Vulgate 
Version, according to which Psalm x. is equivalent to Psalms x. and xi. 
Hence the Psalm xiv. here mentioned is the same as Psalm xv. in the 
Authorised Version. 

Line i. Telde, tabernacle. A.S. teld, tent, tabernacle; teldian, to pitch 
a tent. Cf. • tilt ' of a cart. 


3. Mone, shall. Icel. wiwn, shall, may, must ; cf. A. S. gemunan, to 
remember, mind; and cf. Gk. fxiKKeiv. 

3. Incomes; Lat. ingreditur. 

Wem-leSf pure, spotless. A. S. wem, womm, spot, blemish. 
9. Es lede^ Lat. deductus est. *An evil person is brought (led) to 
nothing in his sight.* 

13. Okir, usury. Icel. dkr, from auka, to increase, eke, 

14. Ouer vnderand; Lat. super innocentem. 

Psalm xvii. 

Psalm xvii. is Psalm xviii. in the Authorised Version. 
Line 3. To-flighty refuge; Lat. refugium. 

4. Leser^ deliverer; lit. looser or loosener; Lat. liberator. 

ir. Um-gaft Lat. circum-dedermit ; um-griped, Lat. conturbauerunt. 
The prefix um = A. S. ymby around, about ; as in O. E. um-gang, circuit, 
um-thinhe^ consider, umwkile, sometime, umlap^ to surround. 

I a. Weeles = welesy wells, torrents; Lat. torrentes. A whirlpool, in 
Lancashire, is still called a weele. Bums uses the form wiel, 
Quede, evil. Du. hwaad^ bad; O.E. quede^ the devil. 

14. Bisiedf were busied about, i.e. troubled (me); Lat. praeoccupaue- 

15. JDrouing, persecution; Lat. tribulatione. O.E. drove, to trouble, 
persecute; A. S. drifan, to make muddy, disturb, vex. Chaucer uses 
drovy^ troubled. Cf. 1. 20 below, where we find to-dreued, troubled. 

21. The MS. reads o/, but the correct reading is evidently );>of=\>ogk, 
though ; so that \>qf \>aim be lath = though it be displeasing to them. 
23. Rehe, smoke, reek ; Lat. fumus. A. S. r^c, Du. rook, smoke. 

26. Kindled, often written kinled. Cf. Norse kynnel, a torch, whence 
cannel coal (coal that burns like a torch) ; Wedgwood's Etym. Diet. 

27. Helded, bowed; from helde, to incline to, bend. A. S. hyldan, 
healdan, to incline, bend ; whence to heel. Prov. Eng. hele, to pour out. 

31. Lurking, hiding-place, lair. Cf. lurch and lurcher, 

33. * Waters that were dark of hue (colour, appearance).* 

34. Skewe, sky. A. S. &cua, a shade, cloud. Cf. Germ, wolke, cloud, 
with Eng. welkin, the sky. The Vulgate has in nubibus aeris, 

35. Leuening, lightning. O. E. levin^ lewenynge, lightning. 

42. Groundes, foundations. 

43. Snibbing= snubbing, rebuke, reproach. 

44. One-sprute, a sprouting or spurting forth. Cotgrave has Wegailler, 
to spurt or sprout (as water) back again.* Swed. spruta, to sprout. 

50. Lat. quoniam confortati sunt super me. 

64. Loke me, guard myself. Lat. obseruabo me. 

69. Halgh for halgh[e']'^A,S. hdJga, a saint. Chaucer has halewes, 

V 2 

ago, NOTES. 

saints. * With the holy, a saint shall become of thee/ i e. thou shalt be 
a saint. Observe the future sense of bes. 

79. Unfiled, undefiled. Cf. O. E.//*. to defile ; lit. to foul. 

81. Fraistedt tried, purified. Icel. /r«s/a, to try. Lat. examinata. 

89. At fight, to fight. The use of the preposition at=to, before verbs 
in the infinitive mood, is good evidence of Danish influence upon the 
Northumbrian dialect. 

91. For-hiling of hele of f>e = LAt. protectionem salutis tuae. A. S. ver- 
sion, gescildnesse JubIu fSinre ; Eng. version, * shield of thy salvation.' 

97. Filghe = A.S.fylgean, to follow. Lat. persequar. 

Umlap, lap about, surround, seize; Lat. comprehendam. O. E. 
wlap, to fold. A cognate root is seen in Ital. inviluppare ; Fr. envelopper, 

98. Ogaintorne, turn back, return. 

To = unto, until. Lat. non conuertar donee deficiant. 

98. Wane, may be consumed. A. S. wana, lack (as in wan-hope, wan- 
ton, &c.); woman, diminish., wane. 

loa. In me riseand, them that rise up against me ; cf. 1. 123. 

103. 0'bak=^on-bak, on the back. The A.S. version has bee; Lat. 
version, dorsum : Eng. version, necks. 

107. Gnide = A. S. gnidan, break (in pieces), rub, comminute. 

Liham, face, countenance ; literally the body. A. S. lie, form, 
body ; lichama, the living body. Winde liham =■ the face of the wind ; 
Lat. faciem uenti. 

no. Genge, people, gentiles ; Lat. gentium. Cf. O.E. genge, troop, in 
Havelok ; probably connected with A. S. gangan, to go. Cf E. gang. 

113. Outen, foreign, strange ; Lat. Filii alieni mentiti sunt mihi ; filii 
alieni inueterati sunt, et claudicauerunt a semitis suis. 

125. Bir\>es, nations; Lat. nationibus. A.S. ge-byrd, a family, lineage. 

127. Lat. Magnificans salutes regis eius. 

Psalm xxiii. (A.V. xxiv.) 

Line 5. Winli, joyous, winsome. A. S. win, pleasure; wine, a friend ; 
wynlie, joyous ;» wynsum, pleasant, winsome (Ps. cii. 1. 5). 

9. In un-nait^Lat. in uano ^ O. E. in ydel, vajn, useless. A. S. unntt, 
useless, from neotan, to use, enjoy. See Nayte in the Glossary. 

12. Of God; Lat. a Deo salutari suo. 

14. Lai/and, seeking. O. E. laite, loel. leita, seek, discover. 

26. Of mightes ; Lat. uirtutum. 

Psalm cii. (A.V. ciii.) 
Line 7. Bies, for ogain-bies, redeems ; Lat. redimit. Cf O. E. tBii7>- 


^^gg^i to redeem. The use of the verb hegge or hye^ buy, for redeem^ is 
not uncommon in 0.£. writers, though again-bye (or of-bye) is more usual. 

9. Filles, satiates ; Lat. replet. 

23. Est del, eastern part, east. Wesi del, west. The del (A. S. dS) 
is in these words merely an a&x=parL 

25. Rewed es translates the Lat. miser etur, which the translator seems 
to treat as a passive rather than a deponent verb. 

28. Schaftf frame, form. A. S. seeafe, gesceqft, creature. Lat. figmen- 

32. Welyen=welwen, wither. A. S wealwian, wealowigan^ to wallow; 
also to roll up, dry up, wither. Cf Germ, welken, to wither. 

34. This line = Lat. et non subsistet. The translation is incorrect. 

Psalm ciii. (A.V. civ.) 

Lines. Strekand^ spreading; from streke=K,S, Ureccan, to stretch. 
Lat. extendens caelum sicut pellem. 

Fel'^A.S./el, skin. It still exists in fell-monger, 

6. Overestes, highest parts. The -est or -ost as the superlative suffix 
of adverbs is seen in overmost, O.E. over-m-est; utter-est=^utter-m-ost and 
upperest=upper'm-ost. Lat. qui tegis aquis superiora eius. 

11. Groundes {^L&i.fundasti)f from O. £. grounde, to lay the founda- 
tion of, establish. The A. S. version has steaHelade, made steadfast. 

12. Helde, incline, begin to fall; Lat. non inclinabitur in saeculum 

19. Mere = A. S. gemdre, boundary, limit ; Du. meere, boundary, mere; 
connected with march, a boundary, as in the phrase Marches of Wales. 

30. Gresse, grass. The Southern dialect generally prefers the softer 
form gers, A. S. gcers, Cf. thrist for thirst, 1. 23. 

32. Lat. £t uinum laetificet cor hominis; 

33. Lat. Ut exhilaret faciem in oleo. 

36. Vban in the MS. is clearly an error for Lyban, Lebanon. 

42. Irchones — urchins, hedgehogs (we still have sea-urchin), from F. 
hdrisson, O. F. erigon, from Lat. ericius, a hedgehog. We find also in 
Latin the forms eres and erinaceus. The A. S. term for hedgehog is igil 
(connected by Curtius with the Gk. ix^yoi). 

44. Setel-gang^A.S. setl-gong, setl-gang, svaiset, setting (literally, 
seat-going). The first element is retained in the word settle. 

47. Romiand=ramand, roaring. A.S. hream, cry, scream; hreman, 
to cry, weep. Lat. rugientes ut rapiant. 

57. Roume= A.S. rum, space, spacious; whence roomy, roam. 

Til hende, to the hands ; roume til hende, spacious to the hands, is 
a literal translation of the Lat. spatiosum manibus. 

69. Lat. Auertente autem te faciem, turbabuntur. 

294 NOTES. 


There is a MS. copy of these Proverbs in the Cambridge University 
Library (marked Gg. i. i), partly printed in Reliquiae Antiquae, i. 193 ; 
and another in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (MS. Digby 86). The 
dialect is mixed, the verbal plurals (indicative) ending in -en and -«)>. As 
to the subject matter, the reader should consult chapter iv. in vol. i. of 
Wright's Essays on the Literature, &c. of the Middle Ages, and Trench 
on Proverbs. There is also a great deal of information in Kemble's 
edition of the Dialogue of Solomon and Saturn (^Elfric Society). 
Hending is here said to be the son of Marcolf. Marcolf replaced 
Saturn, so that whilst we find the Dialogue between Solomon and 
Saturn in Anglo-Saxon, in German it is one between Solomon and 
Marcolf. These were traditional philosophers, who held imaginary 
discourses for the purpose of introducing wise sayings. Such legends 
were once popular ; their origin is obscure. Many of the proverbs 
recur in several languages, and some are still current. The Proverbs of 
Hending are imitated from the French proverbs of the Count of 
Bretaigne, printed in *Proverbes et dictons populaires,' par M. Crapelet; 
Paris, 1 83 1. 

Line 4. Thonhesy thinkings, thoughts. 
6. 7s wone^ his wont. 

13. The Camb. MS., which varies considerably from the text, has — 
* Wei is him \>?X wel ende mai.' 
16. * And take care that no man forbid another to be wise and good.' 

18. Bue=beo = be, Throughout this poem, we = «o = «. 

19. Foh = A.S. fah, variegated; hence, a parti-coloured dress. 
Grys = F, gris, a kind of fur. The Camb. MS. has — 

• pan to weri fow an grise 
Wan man ssal hen wende.' 
21. * Wit and wisdom are a good support.* 

Warysoun = O. F. warison^ Fr. guerison, a cure ; originally, a pro- 
tection, also, provisions, supply, support. Cf. E. garrison. 

24. Con fonde, can attempt, can do. 

25. Spede^ succeed in learning so many customs as he that hath sought 
diligently in very many nations. 

29. * As many lands, so many customs.* In German, Ldndlich sittlich. 
So in Chaucer, * Eche countre hath its lawes ; * Troilus and Creseide, ii. 
1. 42. 

32. Leme, The rime requires lere, to learn ; indeed the Camb. MS. 
has — * And he wil mis-J>ewis lere* So also in 11. 2, 39. 

33. Otherwkyle, sometimes; whyle, like the Sc. whyles, has occasionally 
this signification. 


35. Woltout nultou, wilt thou (or) wilt thou not ; i. e. willing or un- 
willing. Cf. the phrase willy nilly; see Hamlet, v. 1. 19. 

37. Luef'=leof=:lef, or leue^ dear, beloved. 

* A pet child needs teaching.* This is quoted in Piers the Plowman, 
B-text, V. 38. It means 'spare the rod and spoil the child.' Cf. 
Proverbs xiii. 24. 

44. Bue thefol couthe, be well known to thee. 

45. * Whoso learns when young he loses (it) not when old.' Cf. 
Horace, Epist. i. 2. 69. Trench quotes a Latin proverb, *Cui puer 
assuescit, maior dimittere nescit.' 

63. Selyfode, good child. Fode is literally one fostered or fed. 

69. * A good child is easily taught.* This proverb is quoted by Chaucer 
(Prioresse Tale, st. 4) in the form *For sely child wol alway soone lere.* 

75. * Though it may appear game (pleasure) to the body.* 

77. *Well fights he who well flies.* This occurs also in the Owl 
and Nightingale, by Nicholas de Guildford. Cf. the lines in Butler's 
Hudibras, Pt. iii. can. 3, 1. 243 (often wrongly quoted) — 

• For those that fly may fight again. 
Which he can never do that's shin.' 

80. Gle, music 

81. Tempred, tuned. 

84. Camb. MS. has — * Ar )>ai ben half ripe.* 

85. • A fool's bolt is soon shot.' In Latin — 

* Vt dicunt multi, cito transit lancea stulti.' 

(MS. Harl. 3362, fol. 4.) 

See also As You Like It, v. 4. 67. 

87. This occurs in a collection called the Proverbs of Alfred — * Pus 
quad Alfred : gif J>u hauist sorwe, ne say ])u hit J>in arege ; * if thou hast 
sorrow, tell it not to thy foe. See Kemble, Salomon and Saturn, p. 233 ; 
or see p. 1 1 7 of An Old English Miscellany, edited by Dr. Morris for 
the Early English Text Society. The same collection has * Sottis bold 
is sone iscoten* (Kemble, p. 241 ; Morris, p. 129). 

100. Ge&t thou^ thou shalt go ; answering to he thou^ if thou art. 

1 01. * Better an apple given away than eaten.* The Camb. MS. gives 
the proverb in two widely differing forms, as follows: *Bettir is one 
appil iyeuin |>an twein iyetin, quod bending. Soche man \>ovl misth 
yeuin J?at betir wer* yetin, qwod Marcol.* The latter proverb, attributed 
to Marcolf, intimates that you may give a thing to a man so xmworthy 
that you might as well have eaten it yourself; which is contrary to the 
experience of Hending. 

103. The Camb. MS. has a very different stanza upon the same 
proverb, as follows : — 

2,^6 NOTES. 

- Mfuiiman )>at is unwise 
Sechet frendis ware non ise [m]. 

To spele [spare] his owen wone; 
Ac, ar he mai home wende. 
He seel mete with unhende [rude men] 

To done him scam and sconde {disgraee"]. 
" Este beth owen gledes ; " Quod Hending.* 
104. Wertke probably means a host, landlord. Cf Sw. vdrd, Du. 
vaardt Germ, wirth, Dan. vert^ a landlord, host, innkeeper. 

109. * Pleasant are one's own brands * (fireside). * Scintillae propriae 
sunt mihi deliciae.* MS. Trin. Coll. O. 2. 45, fol. 365. 

113. * Though thou wait for a surety,* i.e. canst not get a surety. 
The Camb. MS. has — * pouth J>ou bid and borou,* i. e. though thou 
beg and borrow. 

117. * Greedy is the needy man.* Godlesssgoodless^ without goods. 
125. * When the cup is fullest, carry it most carefully.* See Kemble, 
Sal. and Sat. p. 281. 

144. * The tongue breaks bones, though itself boneless.* So in the 
Proverbs of Alfred — * For ofte tunke brekit bon. And nauid hire selwe 
non.* In Latin, * Ossa terat lingua, careat licet ossibus ilia.* 

148. Unsakt, dissatisfied, discontented, unfriendly. A.S. sahi, peace. 
152. * He who gives me little is in my favour; * or, * wishes me to live.* 
* Me uult uitalem qui dat mihi rem modicalem ;* MS. Harl. 3362, fol. 39. 
154. That is luef=that him is luef, that prefers. 

159. Schenchen, pour out, give to drink. Germ, schenken, 

160. * The better it is for thee, tiie better look about thee.* 
Byse = by-se, look about. 

165. The Camb. MS. ends the stanza thus : — 
* And in \)i litil wonis wende 
Fort J>at [until] crist J>e betir sende 
Alle with-oute pride.' 
168. 'Under bush shall men abide the storm;' i.e. even a humble 
dwelling will keep you dry. 

173. Treye = A. S. trega, vexation. The expression treye and tene occurs 
in Csedmon (ed. Thorpe, p. 137), and in William of Paleme, 1. 2073. 

176. Hest=heghest, highest; nest =neghest, nighesL * When the tribu- 
lation is greatest, the remedy is nearest.' This proverb is twice quoted 
in the Owl and Nightingale. It occurs also in Heywood's Proverbs, E 
iii. back. Trench quotes a Jewish proverb — * When the tale of bricks is 
doubled, Moses comes.' 

179. The Camb. MS. has — 

' Yef man doth J>e ouht unbein [uncivil] 
par )>ine herte is ilende.* 


The sense seems to be that one should cease to benefit those who repulse 
benefits with rudeness. 

]86. Land, lent; spelt ilend m the Camb. MS. 

189. Ene, once. Cf. twi-e, thri-e^ twice, thrice. 

190. Ant, if. Eft bidde mo, again ask for more. 

191. Unfgyn, unfain, unwilling (to lend). Camb. MS. *imbein.* 

192. 'Seldom cometh a loan laughing home.' 

196. * When to thee were loath ; ' i. e. when thou art most loath to be 
in need. 

200. Perhaps, * One's own is one's own, and another man's property 
returns (to him)!* Cf. A. S. ed-y back ; but there is no other example of 
edne\>. The Camb. MS. has man his kedwite, i. e. * another man's (is a) 
reproach.' The sense is expressed by the well-known proverb — • He 
that goes a-borrowing goes a-sorrowing.' Mr. Hazlitt says — • Heywood 
(Workes, 1562, part ii. c. 4) and Clarke (Parsem., 1639, p. 182) have it: 
Owne is owne at reckonings end.' See Hazlitt 's £ng. Prov. p. 312. 
208. We now say, * Out of sight, out of mind.* 
224. * He is free of horse (ready to lend it) who ne'er had one.' 
242. Munte^, wishes to cross. A. S. myntan, to purpose, intend. 

247. After wille, at will, after one's desire. 

248. ' He well abides who can well endure.' In Italian, ' II mondo e 
di chi ha pazienza,' the world is his who has patience. In Latin, * Vincit 
qui patitur;' or *Patientes vincxmt.' In the latter form it is quoted 
several times in Piers the Plowman. 

250. 'I coxmt that an evil (bad) leap.' In the Camb. MS. the line is — 
* pat ich telle a li>ir lippe.' 

256. 'Oft haste repenteth;* i.e. the more haste, the worse speed 
(success). Cf. Bacon's Essays, No. xxv. 

299. Wyt at wolde^ wit (wisdom) at command. 

300. Ore^eowre, your; spelt youre in Camb. MS. Soule bote, soul's 
boot, salvation of the soul. It means, * repent while you may.' Cf. 
Matt. iii. 10. 

302. iJo — A.S. r6wt rest. Cf. O.E. rooles, restless, E. un-ru-ly. 


Song 1. line 4. On hyre lud, in her language. A. S. leden^ language. 
Chaucer uses the same expression ; Squyeres Tale, pt. ii. 11. 89, 90. 

7. He^hue=k€o, she. This use of he is not uncommon. 

8. Baundoun, power. Fr. bandon, poweit authority. The literal 
meaning is proclamation. Cf. Ital. bando, Eng. banns, 

9. An hendy hap, a (piece of) good fortune. 

298 NOTES. 

10. Ichots=ich woif I know. 

17. This really implies, * I have no rest at all;' see Song 3, 1. 50. 

19. Forsake, refuse; Germ, versagen. 

20. Feye, near to die, dead. A. S. f<kge, dying. 

25. ' At night when I turn (in bed) and watch.* 

26. Wonges, cheeks. A. S. wang, jaw, cheek. Wang-tooth, a grinder, 
is still used in the North of England. 

32. Afqy=sA. S. nuEg, maid; mcegfi (Germ, ma^^, maid; cf. Moeso- 
Goth. matvi, magaths, a maid, maguSf a boy. 

38. So water in wore, as water in a weir or mill-dam. Alluding to the 
ceaseless motion of it. 

40. * I have yearned of yore,* i. e. I have long been in great anxiety 

43. Geynest under gore, O most lovely one under dress, i. e. O thou 
^e loveliest that wearest female apparel. Geyn=gain, elegant, as in 
un-gain-ly. Icel. gegn, convenient, suitable; gegna, (i) to meet, (2) 
answer, fit. Sc. gone, to suffice. 

Gore, a narrow slip let into a woman's dress; hence the dress 
itself. Chaucer uses the word in his Sir Thopas, which is a parody on 
the language of songs of this description. 

44. Roune^nme, song. A.S. run, a conversation. 0.£. rowne or 
rounde, to whisper in the ear. 

Song 2. 5. Sad = A.S. seed, satisfied, sated; viz. with gazing. 
19. Nuly = ne-wul'i, I will not. Wonde, cease. 
32. * Her complexion like a rose on its branch.* 
36. Burde, lady. This is merely another form (by metathesis) of bride. 
So also brid for bird. 

38. Bys = Fr. bis, purple. Lat byssus. 

Song 3. 5. Under, undem, i. e. the forenoon. See the parable. 
Matt. XX. Layamon has under }pan = in the meanwhile. 

9. Hoc == hook, scythe. 

10. To Jon, receive. A. S./rfn, Germ, fangen, to receive. 

15. Lomen, tools. A. S. I6ma, tool, utensil. The weaving-machine 
being one of the most important pieces of furniture in Old English 
houses, the word loom received the special meaning which it now has ; 
and from the weaving-machine being handed down from father to son, 
we have evidently the compound term heir-loom, now applied to any 
valuable hereditary property. 

17. Undreh, out of patience, from drehen (dregen), to suffer, endure; 
Scottish dree. The expression a dry^e countenaunce, i.e. a stem un- 
moving face, occurs in Sir Gawayn and the Grene Knight, 1. 335. 

18. 'So idle for to (see them) stand.* 


19-21. 'It had so bestead (happened) 

That no man them had offered 
Their tools to engage.* 
i. e. no one had asked their services. 

28. Alle ant sorrier one and all. See this expression illustrated in 
Morris's English Accidence, p. 142. It occurs in Dryden. 

29. *That earlier had come with tools.* 

34. Me raht, one should offer ; pret. subj. of reche, to reach^ offer, give. 

44. Leode, men, people. A. S. leod, leoda, a countryman, a man; 
Uode, people. 

45. This does not mean, * I am not the less to be believed,' but • I am 
not to be accounted false.* 

45. Lees =s A. S. leas^ false. 

51. Un-setCj (probably) unsettledness, restlessness; cf. Icel. seVa, a seat, 
place to sit down upon. 

57. Un-fete^ not feat, not good. Feat =Fr, fait, made, done; from 
L&t.facere, Ft. /aire. In 1. 55, for mon read men; the sense may then 
be — • These men, to whom Matthew assigned a penny, which was but a 
small sum, this blameworthy, faulty people, still they desired more.' 

Song 4. I. Come to toune, come in its turn. *Cyman to vel on tune, 
venire ad vicem, vel in vice sua ; * Lye's A. S. Dictionary. 

7. Him threteth 00, chides them (the other birds) continually. The 
other birds sing loudly, but the thrush is louder still. Oo, aye ; him, 
them. So in tJie next line, huere — their ; and in 1. 10 this = these. 

13. Rayleth, puts on (as a garment). A. S. hrcegel, a garment; whence 
night-rai7, a night-dress. 

20. Miles, animals (?). Cf. W. mil, an animal, beast. Or read males. 
Murgeth, rejoice, are merry with. A. S. myrg, pleasure ; murge, 


Makes, mates, companions (a softened form of which we have in 
match). A. S. maca, a husband, mate. 

21. Striheth, runs, flows, trickles. *Like a stream, that flows 
quietly, the moody man moans (laments), as do many others (I am 
one of them) on account of a love that displeases.* 

28. * Dews moisten the downs.* 

Donketh, from O. E. donke, to damp, moisten. Milton uses dank 
(O. E. donk), moist. 

29. * Lovers with their secret whispers (come ?) to give their decisions.* 
ITie author has omitted the verb. 

35. Wunne weole, this wealth of joy. Wunne is gen. fern, of wyn or 
wun ; A. S. wyn, joy, delight. Weole = A S. tucela, wealth, bliss, weal. 

36. Fleme, banished, exiled. A.S.fledm, a flight; flyman, to banish. 

300 NOTES. 

The first verse of this song has been thus paraphrased :— 

* Returning spring wakes earth to life, 
With twittering birds and blossoms rife, 

That mirth and gladness bring; 
Bright daisies deck the verdant dale. 
Her descant pours the nightingale. 

Each biid doth blithely sing. 
The throstle pipes his challenge loud. 
Naught recks he now of winter's shroud. 

Since earth is green with spring: 
Aloft he sits on budding spray; 
In joyous tone he trills his lay. 

Till loud the woodlands ring/ 

A Tale of Ludlow Castle, by the Rev. W. W. Skeat, p. 34. 


It may be remarked that the French original is printed at length in 
Mr. Furnivall's edition. 

Line 5575. St. John the Almoner was patriarch of Alexandria in the 
seventh century. His day is Jan. 23. 

5578. Nygun, a niggard. Norse nyggja^ to gnaw, rub, scrape; 
nuggjm^ stingy. Sw. njugg, sparing. The same root is contained in 
^^gS^^ i see Wedgwood's Etym. Dictionary. 

5583. Hatreny clothes. O. E. hater^ clothing; A. S. hcBter, clothing; 
Germ, hader, a rag. Barme, bosom, lap. A. S. bearm. 

5589. Many what, many things of whatever kind, many various things. 
See Morris's Accidence, sect. 213, p. 137. 

5590. Go/, way. The word wey is written above it in the MS. Cf. 

1. 5^3- 

5593- Jangland, chsLitermg, jangling. O. Fr.jangler, to prattle, tattle, 
jest, lie; Thi.jankent to yelp. Cf. Piers Plowm. prol. 35. 

5600. Gryl, sharp, stem. O. E. grtl, cold, shivering ; Du. grillen, to 
shiver, tremble. 

5605. Bode the quede^ waited for the evil man. 

5629. Halydom = kaltdom; from Icel. haligr domr, reliques of the 
saints, on which sacred (holy) oaths (dooms) were formerly taken. 

5643. The to party f the one side. The to=thet o — that on, that one, 
the one. Cf. the tou\>er == thet ou)>er, that other, the other, 1. 5651. 

5668. * They had nothing else, they must needs (take that).* 

5670. Peysy weight. Fr. poiser, peser, to weigh; from poids (Lat. 
pondus), weight ; whence to poise. 


5679. Acouped^aculped, accused, from Lat. culpa; whence culprit (as 
if for culpit), a corruption of culpatus^ the old Law Latin for an accused 

5706. Kyrtyl = A,S. cyrtel, Dan. Icjortel^ a garment, either for man or 
woman. It generally means a petticoat with a body. 

Assmert^ at once, smartly, quickly. Cf. as-sv^^^ immediately, 

1. 5710- 

5721. Grc/tf, wept; see 1. 5716. Cf. Sc. greet. In the MS. wepte is 
written above, as a gloss. 

5722. * And began in some measure to leave off.' 

5723. 'Because that often, after weeping.* 

5743- Weyl ys hem, well is it for them; cf. *well is thee,' Ps. cxxviii. 2 
in the Prayer Book. 

5772. Manas, menace. Fr. minace; Lat. minae, minaciae, threats. 
5781. Thys eche sele, this very (same) time. Cf. 1. 5879. 
581 1, 5812. Robert of Brunne must have read the Lay of Havelok 
the Dane, which was written in the same county (Lincolnshire) about 
fifty years previously. For in that lay is a couplet nearly identical 
with these lines, viz. — 

* Al J>at he J>er-fore tok 
With-held he nouth a ferMnges nok.' 

Havelok, 819, 820. 
Similarly 11. 5837, 5838 are again imitated from Havelok, 991, 992. 
5821. Bryche, humble, low, poor. A. S. bryce, fragile (Grein). 

5827. Ouer skyle, exceedingly; literally, beyond reason. 

5828. Swele, to swill, wasl^. A. S. swilian, to wash. 

5839. Folted, foolish. Fr. fol, foolish. It may be connected with 
Spanish /a//a, a fault ; f altar, to fail, be deficient. 

5887. Stonte^stont, standeth. 

5913. Squyler, a swiller or scullion, O. £. squillary, scullery; from 
0.£. su/ille, or squtUe, to wash. See 1. 5828. 

5923. This is also probably taken from the Lay of Havelok (1. 21 1 2), 
who was recognised as a true prince by a flame that proceeded from his 


De Baptismo, 

N.B. The language of this poem is archaic, and appears to be 
occasionally corrupt. 

Line i. 'Baptism is the sacrament.' 
9. * What substance may be used.' 

30a NOTES. 

1 6. SitherCt cider. Fr. eidre; Lat. sicera. 

1 8. * Through christening one may renounce (the devil).' 

ao, 21. * For though it were water first, 

Of water hath it (now) no account.' 
2 2. Forthe, froth, scum (of anything). 
25. Tha^t = tha^, though. Hit wende, may have esteemed it. 

31. Ther-inne, i.e. in warm water. 

32. 'In what time (there) falleth in the year some ice.' 
Faltkey happeneth,/a//«/A. 

34. Eufe ardaunt^ burning water, brandy, spirit. 
37. Mitte beste, with the best, very properly. 

39. Kesckte is evidently an error for kesie, i. e. may have cast ; past 
sing, subjunctive. 

41. His kende fits true nsiiure. Lesi ssloseth. 

42. Te-lealtet overturned, worthless. A. S. tealtian, to tilt, shake, be 
in jeopardy. The A. S. prefix to- is written te in Old Saxon. 

45. Thrinne=ther-inne, therein. 

50. Ich wel \>e cristny, I desire thee to baptize. Wel^wil, i. e. 
will, with the sense of the Lat. uolo, 

52, 53. • For [there]-with to wash is nothing 

That man cometh to so easily.* 

65. * Without diminution and (or?) increase.' 

66. More (and in 1. 69) = mo3tf, may; see 1. 133. 

73. *The pope (even^ would be in that case not in the least too 
worthy to christen him.' Christening by midwives was allowed only in 
case of necessity. 

78. ^if^gef, gave ; see 1. 81. 

81. I-leave = A.S. ge-ledf, permission, leave. 

82. Atfelle^thatfelle, that fell, sinned. 

83. Olepi = onlepif only ; * only one must dip him in the water.' 

88. * But they take special heed of the necessity, that water (be) cast 
once upon the clothing, but (especially) to offer (i. e. throw) it upon the 
head.' Such perhaps is the sense of this obscure passage. 

92. Loue is perhaps an error for alve^halfe, side, place. 

98. ^6, he. His, is. 

100. • That christen one (child) twice.* 

103. For-hedeth'=for-hudeth^for-hideth, conceals. 

105. * And (the priest) does not forbid the second (christening).* 

108. Scheawitk quike, appear alive. 

112. Weyeth, depart, turn aside, move. Cf. M. H. Germ, wegen. 
Germ, hewegen, to move. See also To-wawe in the Glossary. 

114. 'But men fetch (bring) it (to church) as men suppose (It to be 
not christened).* The words are obscure ; but it clearly refers to the 


case of a child really baptized, but supposed to be unbaptized. See 
next stanza. 

116. Ham geine\> te depe, it behoves them to dip it. 

A Latin^ in Latin ; so also an Englisch^ in English (1. 118). 

122. pei=\>e, thee. *I baptize thee not again, if thou art baptized 
(already).' E/i-sone means again; see Sect. XVII (a) cap. ii. v. 13. 

128. D/j/ft", perform or celebrate them. 

129. *For they are the very grace of God.* 
133. * And may by no means (be so).' 

140. I'gistned, received or entertained as guests. O. E. gest, a stranger, 
guest; Goth, gasts, a stranger; Welsh gwest, lodging, entertainment; 
Fr. giste, lodging. See gesting, lodging, Sect. VII. 1. 71. 

143. *And, except they be also anointed at the font with oil and 
chrism, all fails ; (but, when this is done) it becomes a (true) baptism.* 


(In the same dialect as Sect. II, which see.) 

A few readings are added from MS. R. 3. 8 in Trinity College, 

Line 2. Kinges. The Magi were called kings. Their names were 
said to be Jaspar, king of Tars (Tharsis) ; Melchior, king of Arabia ; 
and Balthazar, king of Saba; these countries being suggested by Ps. 
Ixxii. 10. The names are given in Peter Comestor's Historia Scholas- 
tica. In the present account, Balthazar is replaced by Attropa. 

4. The Trin. MS. has — * Bot in \>t furste 3eer was hit nou3t.' 

7. The Cotton MS. omits tua ; but the Trin MS. has two. 

8. Gilden-mothy golden-mouth, i. e. Chrysostom. The reference is to 
St. Chrysostom's second homily on St. Matthew (vol. vi. col. 637, ed. 
Migne). But St. Chrysostom says the Magi took two years for their 
journey — * Proficiscentibus eis per hiennium praecedebat Stella, et neque 
esca, neque potus defecit in peris eorum.* Indeed our author actually 
quotes this very passage below, 11. 50-54. The whole of 11. 21-49 ^^ 
also taken nearly verbatim from the same passage, which begins — * Au- 
diui aliquos referentes de quadam scriptura . . quoniam erat quaedam 
gens sita in ipso principio orientis juxta oceanum, apud quos ferebatur 
quaedam scriptura, inscripta nomine Seth, de apparitura hac Stella, et 
muneribus ei huiusmodi offerendis, quae per generationes studiosorum 
hominum, patribus referentibus filiis suis, habebatur deducta. Itaque 
elegerunt seipsos duodecim quidam ex ipsis studiosiores, et amatores 

304 NOTES, 

mysteriomm caelestium, et posuerunt seipsos ad expectationem stellae 
illius. £t si quis moriebatur ex eis, filius eius, ant aliquis propinquo- 
rum . . in loco constituebatur defuncti . . ^ Hi ergo per singulos annos, 
post messem trituratoriam, ascendebant in montem aliquem . . exspec- 
tantes semper . . donee apparuit eis [stella] descendens super montem 
ilium . . habens in se formam quasi pueri paruuli, et super se similitu- 
dinem crucis. £t loquuta est eis,' &c. See the whole passage. 

18. Stem, star. This is a Northern form of the word, corresponding 
to the Southern English sterre'; cf. Goth, sittimo, star. The allusion is 
to Numbers xxiv. 17. 

22. First uncutht (for a) long period uncouth, unknown. First == A. S. 
fyrstf space of time, period ; O. 'E../rest,furst, delay. Trin. MS. — * Of a 
ferren folk vncou|>.* 

2$. A mang squilk «= amangs quilkf among which. Trin. MS. — ' Among 
whiche.* . - _ 

34. Biseli. The Cotton MS. has Desselic, but this seems to be an 
error, as we find Bisily in the Trin. MS., and Bysely in MS. Laud 416. 

39. • When their harvests were gathered in.* 

. 43. Oxspringj offspring, i e. generation. * The custom was kept up 
for many generations.* 

44. It kyd, shewed itself; pret. of kythe, to shew; cf. 1. 151. A.S. 
c^^an, to make known. Trin.- MS. — *Til ]>e sterre was to hem kid.* 

51. Forth-wit =/or-wit, before; cf. 1. 127. O. E. in-wit, within; ut- 
wii, without, &c. 

53. Scrippes^ wallets, scrips* Quer, whether. 

60. Truthes tru, true pledges. A. S. tredu^, a pledge. 

61. The word werld is frequently written werd in the Northumbrian 
dialect ; see Werd in the Glossary. Hence it affords a true rime ioftrd. 

6.^. Leme^ light. A. S. U6ma^ ny of light, flame, g-leam, 

66. Can unkythy did hide, disappear (see 1. 44). 

67. Sant drigktin, the holy Lord. 

68. Wi\>erwin, an enemy, opponent. A.S. wi^er-winna, a striver 
against ; from toiler, against, and winnay a fighter. Cf. A. S. u^'n, war ; 
winnan, to contend, struggle. 

69. pof-quether, though-whether, nevertheless. A.S. ^ah-hwafSere, 
yet, moreover, nevertheless. It means * The kings, however, knew not 
that, but weened they had found what they sought.* 

72. Spirdy enquired. O. E. spere^ Sc. speer, to ask. 
74. Tkoghtferliy thought it a wonder, wondered. 
87. pat/ul suik, that (man) full of treachery. 
103. Croii, go ye. Spirs, enquire ye. The pi. imp. ends in ^ in 

107. Ipai sal htyar$t that shall be quickly (ddne). 


110. Bon-houn, bound,ready (to start), from hwnti, p.p. of Icel. vb. 
hua, to prepare, set out ; whence houndy in the expression * the ship is 
hound for New York:' Quite unconnected with the vb. to bind. . 

126. ' He (Christ) was exalted ;* lit. made high. But the Trin. MS. has 
And kud, i. e. and shewed, instead of Heid; which makes better sense. 
13 1 » 13a. • An ointment (balm) of wonderful bitterness. 
That (a) dead man's body is anointed with.' 
Smerl=A.S. smirels, ointment ; from smeru, fat, Eng. smear, 

133. ^or rating, for (preventing) decay. 

134. * In token that he was a man, and would die.' 
136. At ansssat ones, at once. 

141. Conrai, entertainment. The same root is contained in Fr. eonrqyer, 
to curry, dress leather ; Fr. ar-rayer, to array. 
Dight, set in order, prepare. 

144. Was, that was ; the relative being omitted. Cf. 1. 329. 

150. * The fourth a child, much greater than they.' 

168. He\>ing, scorn. Icel. Ao'Swn^, contempt, scorn. 

172. 0\>er is probably an error for ower, anywhere. The old symbol 
for w, which closely resembled |), went out of use about a.d. 1300. 

174. Kyth, coimtry. A. S. c^lS, a region. 

180. * That many innocent (ones) should suffer for it.* 

181. Sak, fault, guilt ; saccles or sakles, innocent, guiltless. 

182. Ta wrake, take vengeance. 

183. Ani slik, any svich.. Slik=silk==swiJk, such.; whence {hydro'ppingl) 
Sc. sic, such. 

186. For-fam, p.p. oiforfare, to perish, be destroyed. 

198. Bring Hue ^ bring of live, bring out of life, i. e. kill; a common 
phrase. Here = (/« off, out of. 

203, 204. * It was a great amount of the number 
Of those children that were slain.' 
Here stmM= sum, amount; gttai« = O.E. wane, vfone, a quantity, number. 
Cf. O. Sc. quheyne, orig. a few, a small number ; Sc, wkeen, an indefinite 
number, a * lot ' ; perhaps connected with O. E. wone, a quantity. But 
sume Q quain may also mean ' distress of mourning,' where sume^swem, 
grief, and gMa/«= whining, mourning. The phrase * sweem of momyhge, 
tristitia,* occurs in the Prompt. Parv. The Trin. MS. has — 

' pis was ])e somme in certayne. 
Of |>e childre \»at were slayne.' 

205. The number 144,000 is taken from Rev. vii. 

211. Busk and ga, get ready and go. From Icel. btUi, to prepare, 
comes at buast {^at buasc), contracted from at bua sig, signifying * to 
bend one's steps' and, secondarily, to prepare oneself; whence E. busk, 
to get ready. 




ai6, Wildrin, wilderness; probably A. S. wOd-dedrtn, pertaining to 
wild beasts. 

217. child fa, child's foe. The Northumbrian dialect can dispense with 
an inflection in the gen. singular. 

229. Coue, cave, den. Holland translates in tteretis reeessihus by 'in 
secret ewes or nooks.* A. S. edfa, a den, occurs in the Northumbrian 
version of St. Mark's Gospel ; xi. 17. The Trin. MS. has * caue.' 

237. Glopnid, terrified. Prov. Eng. glop, gloppen, to stare, feel aston- 
ished ; O. N. gldpa, to stare, gape. (Wedgwood.) 

242. To dede^ to the deed, i.e. to actual fulfilment 

243. Probably alluding to Ps. cxlviii. 7. 
247. Nefor']fi, nevertheless. 

251. Barn-site^ child-sorrow, sorrow that a mother feels for her child. 
Site = lce\. sut, sorrow, sin. Cf. 1. 299. 

25Q. Dute^ in the MS., is clearly an error for Itite, to bow down (1. 240). 
The Trin. MS. reads rou/10, to advance, march on ; or, to assemble. 

274. Jeremi; not in Jeremiah, but Isaiah. See Isaiah xi. 6, 7. 

287. pa/ vnl resun, that reason demands, i. e. that is reasonable. 

289. A wei, a wee, i. e. a little time ; see Sect. XVI. 1. 182. 

295. * Mary, I am surprised at you I * 

319. Fra nu forward, from hence forward. 

320. Orchard == orchards ort-ifird. A. S. wyrt-geard, from wyrt, herb, 
and geard, yard, enclosure. Cf. Moeso-Goth. aurtigards, an orchard. 

322. Of a prise t of one value. 

329. Strand, stream. This is not an tmcommon meaning of the word 
in O. E. writers. The Trin. MS. has * stremes.' 

373. O JhuV knaingy of their knowing, i. e. of their acquaintances. 

375. Siquar-=si\fe-quar=^time'where, time when, period at which. 

378. Maumety idol. The O. Fr. mahommet, an idol, makumerie, idolatry, 
shew that the word is borrowed from the name of Mahomet, Cf. O. £. 
maumetry, idolatry; mawment, an idol. It is often confounded with mam- 
metf a doll, puppet. The story of the idols falling down at the pre- 
sence of Christ is in the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew ; see ApooTphal 
Gospels, ed. Cowper, p. 63. It occurs also in the Arabic Gospel of the 
Infancy; id. p. 179. It may be observed that the untrue and unjust 
notions that the Mahometans were worshippers of idols, and that idols 
were made representing Mahomet, were very common in the middle 
ages. Colonel Yule, in his edition of Marco Polo, vol. L p. 174, quotes 
from Weber's Metrical Romances the following lines : — 
* Kyrkes they made of crystene lawe, 
And her Maumettes lete downe drawe.* — Weber, ii. 128. 
He adds — ' So Correa calls a golden idol, which was taken by Da Gama 
in a ship of Calicut *' an image of Mahomed.** Don Quixote too, who 


ought to have known better, cites with admiration the feat of Rinaldo in 
carrying off, in spite of forty Moors, a golden image of Mahomed/ 

379. ' But Mary had taken up her lodging near there.* 

587. Alluding to Isaiah xix. i. 

400. Bar in hir arme, .The Trin. MS. reads bare in harme (bosom, 

407, 408. For or, the Gottingen MS. has vr; in both places. The 
difficulty is in the second or=vr, the gen. pi. It means — * What he does 
with our Gods, he may do with us, if we work (act) not more wisely.* 

408. Wrick should certainly be work ; and wark in 1. 409 should be 
vnrick^wreke, vengeance ; as the Trin. MS. reads wreche, 

415. Drund, were drowned. The Trin. MS. has drowned, which is 
used intransitively. See Dronkenes in the Glossary. 

417. Or-quar, otherwhere, elsewhere. Cf. O. £. owhar, anywhere. 


(A) Homily for the Second Sunday in Ad'vent, 

(In the same dialect as the preceding extract.) 

There are at least seven copies of these Homilies, but they do not all 
entirely agree. The best is that printed by Mr. Small, viz. the MS. in 
the Library of the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh. Two 
are in the Cambridge University Library, maiked Dd. 1. 1 and Gg. 5.31, 
the latter being the better. The others are, the Ashmole MS. 42 in 
the Bodleian Library, Oxford ; MSS. Cotton Tiberius E. vii. and Harl. 
4196 (British Museum\ and MS. Lambeth 260. A few readings from 
the better Cambridge MS. are given, but in many places it differs con- 
siderably, and, in general, for the worse. The text of the Homily here 
partly printed is Luke xxi. 25, 26. 

Line 103. * Several versions of these fifteen signs will be found, along 
with an interesting note, in the "Chester Mysteries," edited for the Shake- 
speare Society by T. Wright, vol. ii. pp. 147 and 219. No copy of the 
original is to be found, however, in the Benedictine edition of Jerome's 
works, although nearly all the versions refer to Jerome as having foimd 
them in some Hebrew MS.* — Small. Sir David L)mdesay also enumerates 
these fifteen signs from Jerome; see the passage printed in Skeat's 
Specimens of English, a. d. I394-I579> from 'The Monarche,' bk. iv, 
1. 5462. There is a chapter, 'De signis judicium praecedentibus * in a 
treatise De Contemptu Mundi, lib. iii. c. 14, by Pope Innocent IIL 

113. Tother, i. e. second, next See note to Sect, V. 1. 5643. 

117. Mersuine, sea-swine, porpoise. 

Z 2 



117, Qualle, whale. The qu represents hw in the A. S. hw€Bl, a whale. 
Cf. Du. walrus, a walrus, from wal, a whale, and ros, a horse. 
119. Ber, noise. Cf. Sect. XII. 1. 43. 

126. Werdes, the world's. In Old Northumbrian we find werd and 
ward for warld, world. See 1. 152. 

130. -F/qy, frighten. The printed copy incorrectly has slay. The 
Harl. MS. has^qy, which is supported by the Camb. MS. 
138, Quek = qviket living. 

141. Ai a schift (like O. £. a/ a brayd) in a turn, in a twinkling, in a 

146. After this line occur thirty-three Leonine Latin verses, enumerating 
the signs once more. There is a direction that these are to be omitted by 
the reader when he reads the English before the laity — * quando legit 
Anglicum coram laycis.* 

153. Sa hes he hrem, so wrathful shall he be. Observe hes, shall be. 
165, 167. The Camb. MS. varies here, and reads — 
•l>ar sail l>ai sorow euermar dry \endure\t 
For J>air sawles sail neu«rmar dye ; 
When bestes dy, \z\x sawles says \cease\ |>en; 
Why ne war yt swa of synfull men ? * 
Cf. note to 1. 220. 

171. Birdf it would behove. A. S. hyrian, to become, behove. 

Pliktful=pligh(ful, dangerous. 
178. Igain-sawe = ogain'sawe, contradiction, denial. 

183. Falles, suits ; points a good moral to. 

184. * Roger of Wendover inserts in his Chronicle (a.d. 1072) a tale 
of a similar character, and states that the circumstances occurred at 
Nantes about that time. It will be found in Dr. Giles* Translation 
(Bohn's ed. vol. i. p. 339) under the heading " Digression concerning 
the two Confederate Priests." * — Small. 

185. Enfermer, the Infirmarius of the abbey, who had charge of the 
infirmary belonging to it. Probably we should read. Was enfermer, als 
I herd say. The Black Monks were the Benedictines. This explains 
the allusion to the Rule of St. Benet (Benedict) in 1. 238. 

190. *For frequently faith and good- will draw good companions 
together.' After faithe the word and seems to be required, though absent 
in Small's edition. 

191. Lufreden, good-will, love; see 1. 195, The suffix -reden—-red,9S 
in iin-d-redt hatred^ Sec, 

192. Fel auntour, fell adventure, it happened by chance. 

197. Telldf shewed, told, 

198. Ful hard, &c., very affiicted I feel myself (to be). Cf. the phrase 
* to go hard with one.' 


199. To dede, to death ; i. e. I am near death. 

320. War scho ne hafd hen^war-ne scko ha/d ben, unless she had been 
(at hand to help me). War-ne^were (it) not, if not, unless; it is some- 
times written warn; cf. ne war^ unless. Cf. A. S. ndrey for ne wch-e, were 
it not. See note to 1. 165, and compare its use in Sect. X. I. 2342, and 
in the following passages : — 

*For here has na man payn swa Strang, 
pat he ne has som tyme hope omang, . . . 
Elles suld "pe hert, thurgh sorow and care, 
Over-tyte fayle, warn som hope ware ; . . . 
And men says, "warn hope ware, it suld brest.*** 

Hampole's Pricke of Consc. 11. 7259-7266. 
227. Lyfes, live. The MS. has lyes, but the rime helps us to the true 

232. Gafike gaste, gave up the ghost. 239. Get. keep. 
242. Overlap, omission, from O. £. ouerlepe, to leap (skip) over, 

245. Meld, accuse. A. S. meld, evidence, proof; meldian, to betray. 
349. * Was cast up (brought up, alleged) against me.' 

(B) Homily for the Jbird Sunday after the Octave of Epiphany. 

In the Camb. MS. this is called a Sermon for the Fourth Simday after 
Epiphany, the text being from Matt. viii. 23, as in our present Book of 
Common Prayer. 

Line 13. Ah quha said, as who said; i. e. as if he had said. 

21. Strenthe, force, general meaning (of the Gospel for the day). 

38. Se-hare, sea-wave. Bares in 1. 41 » flows. The bore in a river = 
the tidal wave, Cf. Dutch baar, a wave. 

43. * For rich men of this world eat up that which the poor procure 
by labour.* 

51. 'And (the) harm (scathe) that the less (poor men) suffer at the 
hands of the more (greater).* 

5Q. Wandreth, peril. Icel. vandrai^i, danger, difficulty. 

86. Nite, refuse ; from Icel. neita, to refuse. 

88. * Thou wouldst not be dear to Him, but hateful/ 

94. ^isfnJ, betokened. A,S,bysen, example, resemblance; bysenian, 
to give an example. See 1. 96, where biseninges «= tokens, resemblances. 

114. Thar, where. Wattri, a variation of attri, poisonous. 

124. Corsing, dealing (as a broker); from O. Fr. coitracier, a broker, 
dealer ; whence * horse-coi/rs«r,' a horse-dealer. 

155. Jamieson explains will of wan to mean destitute of habitation, 
giving a reference to The Bruce. He is wrong, for (see Sect. XVI. 2, and 
225) the meaning there is the same as here, viz. destitute of an opinion, 


at a loss what to do. O.E. wille is to go astray; wans A. S. w4n, weening, 
opinion. See the line following, which explains the nature of the 
beggar's difficulty, viz. that he had no sack to put the wheat in. 

156. Poc no sek^ poke (bag) nor sack. 

179. Arskes, water-newts. Prov. Eng. ask, a lizard; A.S. a\>exe, a 
lizard. Garnet says that ask is probably connected with Gaelic easg, 
eel, the first element in ajfexg (Ger. eidechse), a lizard, newt, signifying 
prickly, sharp. 

182. Rage, madness. Lat. rabies, rage, madness. 

184. Speride, closed, fastened. Instead of that are he speride, the 
Camb. MS. has he askede a swerde (asked for a sword). This perfectly 
ridiculous error is important as proving that scribes frequently wrote 
from dictation. The two readings, in the old pronunciation, must have 
sounded somewhat alike. 

185. In a ras, in a great hurry. Ras = A. S. r<ds, a race, rush, force. 
195. *Nor give thou of thyself any account,* i.e. take no thought of 


201. Selli radde, dreadfully (wonderfully) afraid. Cf. 1. 211. 

223. Riped, searched. O. E. ripe, to try, search ; A. S. ripan, to reap. 

229. * And bare those bones reverently.* 

230. Fertered, enshrined. O.Fr.fertere, a shrine. 

235. Ferlikes, wonders; more commonly spelt ferlies, as in L 18. 


Sermon on Mattbetiv xxiv. 43. 

The language of this Sermon, like that of Sect. VI, is of an archaic 
character, and represents the Kentish dialect. 

To this Sermon in the Arundel MS. 57, there is the following marginal 
note: — Vor to ssake awey heuinesse / and drede: and hys wende / into 
hue of god. * For to shake away heaviness and dread, and turn it (lit. 
her, i. e. dread) into the love of God.* 

Note. — ea, ie = e; v = f; z = s; ss = sh. Observe also that the punc- 
tuation of the MS. is followed, and differs widely from the modem 
system. What seem to be full stops are often semicolons or commas, 
whilst the colons and bars are sometimes hardly equivalent even to a 

line I. pellyche aiw= this. 'jpellyche = A.S. \>yUic, \>yle (|>j?, that; lie, 
like), that like, such. O. E. thilke, thulke, that. 

a. Ucrbysne=^A,S./orebysen, example (see Bisend in the Glossary). 


5. po(y£, suffer, endure ; A. S. l>6lian, to suffer. 

Dolue, should undermine, dig through, from delve (pret. dalf)^ to 
dig. The meaning is — * And would not siiffer that one should break into 
his house.' 

6. Wyl of sielet the will of reason. 

7. Besteriinge, bestirrings, emotions. 

8. ' Which household shall be too (much) slack (slothful) and wilful, 
unless the same father's stiffness (strength) restrain and order them 

13. Inwyty inner wit, inner sense, conscience. Cf. Piers the Plowman, 
B. ix. 18. 

14. ' For which treasure, that this same house be not broken through, 
chiefly he watcheth.* 

17. paj/es, nevertheless. 

18. KackereUs, catchpolls, servants. The O. £. cachet catch, signifies 
to chaset or drive away, being derived from Fr. ehasser. The sufHx -rel 
is perhaps French. It occurs as a diminutive in pickerel^ a small pike, 
cockerel, a small cock. 

19. Onlostiy un-lusty, careless, idle; literally, unwilling; from A.S. 
lusif lyst, pleasure, desire. 

21. Sle^\>e, Sleight, i. e. Prudence. The allusion is to the four cardinal 
virtues, Prudence (jSlei\>e), Fortitude {Streng\>e\ Justice {Ri^tnesse), and 

22. To uorleie, to be forsaken. A. S.for-ldtan, to forgo, to relinquish. 
To wylny, to be desired. A. S. wilnian, to desire ; wiln, a wish. 

23. Bessette « to be-shut, to shut out. 

24. • Next that, he setteth Strength ; that Strength should withdraw 
the fiends whom Sleight (Prudence) commands (sends to say) to be cast 
out, that he (Strength) should withdraw and reprove his (the man's) 
foul lusts.' 

34. Vso^e^ysagen, seen. 

35. Heiliche clom, a profound silence. Chaucer uses clotn as an 
interjection = • hush I* It is evidently connected with Prov. Eng. clam, 
clem, to pinch, starve. A.S. clam, bond; Du. klemmen, to pinch, 

37. Ich do you to wytene, I assure you; literally, I do (cause) you to 
wit (know). Wytene is the gerundial infinitive (see to comene, to come, 
L 40). 

40. Abye nayt, abideth not, delayeth not. 

45. Chaynen auere, chains on fire, fiery chains. 

47. And hise hrenge\f, and (they) will bring them. Hise, (ace.) them. 
Observe iht future force of the present form brenge\> ; this idiom is com- 
mon in A. S. We can still say — • he comes to-morrow.' 

$12 NOTES. 

49. pai bye\>t that shall be to their right, i. e. that are rightly theirs. 

53. Comste=^comestu, comest thou. 

54. Fze^e \fe, sawest thou, pe, thou thyself. 

56. Vol o/brene on-\>olyinde, full of intolerable burning. Cf. l>olyej in 1. 5. 

59. Wantrokiynget default, want. Wan = un (as in wan-hope, despair), 
here used intensitively ; trokiynge, want; A.S. trucan, to fsdl, abate. 

64. Buo\>e = bo\>ey both (are). 
On^olyinde, intolerable. 

74. Y-hyre\> = kyere\>f hear. 

Yue\> yottre=yeue\> yeare, give ear, listen. 

77. Do we, &c. This hardly makes sense, but it is intended as a 
translation of ' Praeoccupemus ^ciem eius in confessione ; et in psalmis 
iubilemus ei;* Ps. xciv. 2 (Vulgate). 

82. Hctuberi. Alluding to Ephes. vi. 14. 

85. Bonayrelycke, well ; the translator was thinking of goodly instead 
of godly. See Titus, ii. 12. 

91. Hit l>ing\p \>et, &c., it seems that, &c. 

92. Be COS, perchance. 

100. Longe godes drede, on account of the fear of God. Longe^^Uong, 
along of. Chaucer uses long on, on account of. Shakespeare has long 
of, Cymbeline, v. 5. 271. See Longe iu the Glossary. 

107. S&eawere, shewer, mirror ; ssede, shade, shadow. The phrase ac 
he, &c.»but by (as in) a glass darkly; i Cor. xiii. 12. 

108. Onspekynde, un-speaking, ineffable. 
On'todelinde^un-io-de^-ing, indivisible. 

III. y-\>orsse, threshed, struck (dazzled, blinded). A. S. \>erscan (pret. 
)>arse, p.p. ge\>orscen), to thresh, beat. Cf Dante, II Paradiso, canto xxxii. 

114. Half, side, part. 

116. Ssep^s, forms. A. S. seeppan, to form, shape. 

120. Zodes may be for zones, of the Son, or for godes, of God. 

124. An-heied=an-high-ed, exalted. The an- is the same prefix as in 
an-har^ed, viz. A. S. on. 

131. Blef\>, endures. The context seems to require bleue=ibletten=hi' 
leuen, to endure, continue, last. 

132. Heryinges, praises, honours. 0.£. hery, A.S. hirian, to praise, 
honour (see 1. 171.) 

135. 'For that which they saw (only) in the spirit they (now) see 

139. Mle preste, all the proudest, highest; preste=prettesle, proudest. 
A.S. pryt, prut, pride. The usual meaning of preste is ' ready,* 

154. Huyter qualifies clo\>inge in 1. 155. 

155. Nesshede, tenderness, delicateness. A.S. hMese, tender, soft, nesh; 
whence nasty (O. £. nashy). 


156. See Rev. vii. 17 ; Isaiah xxxiii. 17. 

160. See Rev. xiv. 3. 

164. Lhest=hlesi, listeneth. * At their prayers our Lord arises; to all 
others He listens sitting.' 

Hyi lykt^ l>et \>ou zayst. What thou sayest pleaseth (us). 

167. Mennesse, communion, fellowship. A. S. ge-mdnef communion ; 
ge^mdrmes, fellowship. The ge { = Lat. eon) s Gothic ga, as a prefix. 

174. Be lyut ^hy the life, in the life. Unless it be an error for )v lyf, 
the life. 

185. Onzygtnde, un-see-ing, invisible. 

193. Gessynge, may be for lessynge, diminution. Wi^oute gessynge, if 
correct, signifies ' without doubt.' 

196. See Matt. xxv. 21. 

199. See Ps. Ixxxiv. 4. 

211. See Romans viii. 35. 

213. And oWe, et cetera. 

219. See Romans 2di. 3. Smacky, to taste, is a literal rendering of 
sapere in the Vulgate. 

224. Makyere, maker, author. 


Line 471. AU-Hte, as-soon, immediately. TUe, soon, is connected 
with tide^ time. 

483. Forme-fader^ first father, forefather. Forme =^K, S.Jorma, whence 
"E. former; cf. A,S.frum, first ;^m, original; Mceso-Goih. fruma, first. 

498. This, as well as the quotation in 1. 490, will be found in a trea- 
tise De Contemptu Mundi, lib. i. cap. 7, by Pope Innocent III. 

503. Sembland, sometimes written semblant, appearance. 

509. Pure=pouer,^OT, 

530. Fon, few (see 11. 761, 764). The « represents e in A.S.feau^e, 
few. For the Latin texts see Job xiv. 1 , and v. 7 in the Vulgate version. 

666. From the same treatise by Innocent, lib. i. c. 9. 

682. By skille, with reason, rightly. 

691. Angers, troubles, grievances. Lat. angere, to strain; angor 
anguish, vexation. 

FuelSf evils, disease, ills. 

Appayre, impair. Fr. pire, Lat. peior, worse. 

697. Tynes, loses. Icel. t^na, to lose ; A. S. tedn, loss. 

700. }^at/ny5, jaundice. Fr. jaunisse; from ^'ai/n^, yellow. 

734. See Gen. vi. 3 (Vulgate). This is here interpreted to mean that 
man's life should be limited to 120 years. 

314 NOTES. 

752. Ps. Ixxxix. 10 (Vulgate) ; Ps. xc. 10 (A. V). 
756. Held = eld, age ; spelt elde in 1. 743. 
760. See Job x. 20 (Vulgate). 

766-801. Also translated closely from the above-named treatise, 
lib. i. c. 9. 

771. Dysy, dizzy, A. S. d^sig, foolish, erring; O. E. dizze, to stun. 

773. Rouneles, wrinkles. Sc. runkle, Germ, runzely a wrinkle. Cf. Sw. 
fynka, A.S. torinclian, to wrinkle. The root rine or rune, crooked, bent, 
appears in ring; Icel. hringr, a circle; Dan. hrinkel, crooked; Eng. 
crinkle, crumple (Sc. crunJtle), crimp, crank, shrink (A. S. scrincan, Sw. 

774. His mynde gs short, his memory is short. 

775. Hand := and, breath. Icel. andi, breath; Sc. aynd, 

780. For-worthes, come to nothing. A.S. for-^weor^an, to become 
nothing, be imdone, perish. 

781. Moutes, falls off, moults, Du. muiten, to moult. 

784. Slavers, slobbers, drivels. Icel. slafra, to lick; s/^a, slaver, 
drivel ; whence slow-worm (Norse sieva, Icel. defa), 

788. Souches, suspects. O. Fr. souchier, to suspect, be suspicious. 

790. Hard haldand, hard-holding, i. e. close-fisted, stingy. 

793. Latsom : not late-some, but wlatsom, loath, irksome. A. S. wlcetian^ 
wlatian, to loathe, irk. 

797. Lakes, blames. Du. lak, a blemish ; Sw. lak, vice, fault. 

807. To ded ward = toward ded, toward death ; where ded—desiili. 

811. Couer agayn — agayn cover, recover. 

121 1. Compare Sect. VIII (b), U. 93 to 112. 

1229. Worow, to strangle. Sc. worry, to strangle, choke; Germ. 
wurgen, Eng. worry. Dogs that worry sheep seize them by the throat. 

1230. Rogg. Sc. rug, to tear in pieces. Norse rugga, to shake, 
rock ; whence rug, rugged, 

1277. Lates ohout-ga, causes to revolve. 

1418. A =ane, one. State is elsewhere used by Hampole (1. 716) to 
translate the Lat. status in Job xiv. 2, where the Vulgate has nunquam 
in eodem statu permanet. 

1443. Domland, dark, cloudy, is formed from a verb domle or 
dronde, to be disturbed, with which we may compare Prov. Eng. 
droumy, dirty; drumly, muddy; drumhle^ to be disturbed, confused 
(Shakespeare, *Look how you drumhle;* Merry Wives, iii. 3. 156). 
Sc. drum, dull. 

1459. Or-litel=:ouer little, very little. 
Pas mesur, have a superfluity. 

1460. Bigg seems here to mean ' well furnished.* A. S. hyggan, to 
build, inhabit. O. Sw. hygga, to prepare, build. In the North of England, 


hug or higt signifies swollen, elated, as if connected with htdgt, Dan. 
bugne, to bend, bulge. 

1469. Now eese us a thyng, now to ns a thing is pleasant 

1818. * In a certain passage I find four reasons written.* 

1820. Dede stoure, death-struggle, the agony of death. Icel. sturt 
sorrow, styrr, tumult, disturbance; O.Sc. stour, battle, conflict. The 
line means * One is because of the death-struggle so severe/ 

1825. In old woodcuts, devils are often represented as gathering 
round the bed of a dying man. See 1. 2216, &c. 

1890. Dede hand, death's hand. See Ecclesiasticus ix. 20. 

1914. TiUt quickly. Hence iitier^ more quickly; 1. 2354. Icel. 
HU, frequently, tiiSr, accustomed ; from HIS, time ; cf. Germ, zeit, time, 
£. tide, betide, 

191 7. Ilk a synoghe and liik, each sinew and joint. A. S. liiS, Germ. 
g'lied, a limb, joint. Norse lide, to bend the limbs ; whence lithy, lithe 
(pliable), lithesome, lissome (active, pliant). 

2225. Raumpe, ramp, paw with the feet. Ital. rampart, to ramp, 
clamber ; whence romp, rampage, &c. Cf. Ital. rampa, Sw. ram, a paw. 

Skoul, scowl. Dan. skule, to cast down the eyes. Prov. Eng. 
skelly, Dan. skele, to squint. 

2226. Blere, to put out the tongue, to make grimaces, wry mouths. 
It is probably connected with Du. blaeren, to roar, blare. 

231 1, A poynt, i.e. a whit, a jot. 
Aftir, according to. 

2341. Pild, defiled ; yy/yn^, defiling, occurs in 1. 2345, as a substantive. 
The participle//a«rf is in 1. 2365. A. S.fulian, Du. vuilen, to make/ou/ 
or filthy ; whence O. 'E.fie, a vile wretch. 

2342. * For had it not been for sin;* cf. note to Sect. VIII (a), 220. 
3353. *In the natural likeness that it behoves to be in;* i.e. in the 

shape which the sin ought to assume. 

2367. Slotered, bespattered. Prov. Germ, schlott, mud; schlutten, to 
dabble in the wet and dirt. Prov. Eng. slotch, a sloven ; slutch, mud. 
With these words are connected Dan. slatte, a slattern, a slut; Germ. 
schlottem, to dangle, wabble. 


(A) Edward* J Expedition to Brabant, A.D. 1339. 

Line 10. To Goddes pay, to God's pleasure, pleasing to God. 

13. Lowis of Bauere; Louis III, Duke of Bavaria in 1294, became 

3l6 NOTES, 

sole emperor of Germany in 1330, with the title of Louis IV; died in 


20. Ducket i. e. German. Cf. Germ. Deuisch, But it here seems to 
include Dutch as well. 

39. Frith and/en^ forest and marsh ; Welsh ffridd, 

35. Made his mone, coined his money. Edward obtained enormous 
sums from his parliament for the expedition, a large portion of which 
went to his German allies. 

41. Philip; Philip VI, de Valois, sumamed the Fortunate, king of 
France. 1328 to 1350. 

55. Edward III had, in a similar manner, taken the 'vow of the 
heron,* swearing by God and the bird to shew no mercy to the French. 

59. Hamtofit Southampton. 

64. Laykes leU, spoilt their sport ; layhe is a game, larh, 

68. * And some lay, with their brains knocked out.* 

75. Cristofer; the great English ship called The Christopher, was 
taken by the French, but recaptured by the English in the great sea- 
fight off Sluys, June 22, 1340. See Specimens of English from AJ>y 1394 
to AJ>. 1579, ed. Skeat, p. 156. 
Armouth, Yarmouth. 

93. Great wane, a great quantity, in great numbers. Cf. Extract B, 

I- 37. 

(B) 7Jbe jame, continued. 

15. Japes, boasts. Jape is a softened form of O.E. gabhe, to talk, 

28. Aire, heir. At the suggestion of James van Artevddt, Edward 
assumed the title of King of France, which he claimed to inherit from 
his mother Isabella, who was daughter to Philip le Bel. 

40. A scry =:Sw. anskri, an outcry, alarm. 

57. Gayned Mm no gle, no glee (i.e. song, sport) availed him. But 
gle may perhaps have the meaning oi fortune of war, of which there are 
some examples in Barbour*s Bruce. 

67. Berne, Bohemia; Germ. Bohmen. 

70. Nauerne, Navarre. 

71. Feld. Mr. Wright alters this to ferd, i.e. frightened; hvX fdd 
may mean felled, knocked down. Or it may be an error for fled; • were 
(i. e. had) fairly fled away.' 

80. Naker, a kind of kettle-drum. It means, 'caused drums to be 
beaten and trumpets to be blown.' 

82. Alblast= O.K. arblast, a cross-bow; Lat. arcubalista, 
96. * And caught him by the beard ; ' cf. 1. 30. 


(C) The Landing of Edward at La Hogue^ A.D. 1346. 

2. Merlin. The Romance of Merlin is one of the Arthur legends. 
A long English prose version of the French romance has been edited by 
Mr. Wheatley for the Early English Text Society. See also Bishop 
Percy's Folio MS., ed. Hales and Fumivall, vol. i. p. 41 7. 

9. Barey boar. This passage bears a remarkable resemblance to a 
* Poem on Thomas a-Beket's Prophecies/ edited by Mr. Lumby for the 
Early English Text Society in 1870, in which we read (1. 50) — 

• A Bayre sail come out of Berttane wytht so brode tuskis/ &c. 

21. Bore, The boar is Edward III, to whom the word his refers in 
1. 27. 

23. John II did not succeed his father Philip de Valois as king of 
France till August, 1350. 

29. Observe how each stanza begins by repeating the words with 
which the preceding one ended. A stanza seems wanting after 1. 9a. 

39. Hogges, The landing of Edward at La Hogue is described by 
Froissart ; see Johnes's translation, bk. i. cap. cxxi. 

46. PenceUy a pennon, small banner. Fr. pencel. 

48. Cane, Caen. See Johnes's Froissart, bk. i. cap. cxxiii. 

Graythest gate, the nearest way. Cf. Piers the Plowman, ed. 
Skeat (Clarendon Press) ; note to Pass. ii. 1. 103 ; or see Sect. XV. i. 181. 

58. Dubbed; cf. O. Fr. addouber, to dress, arm at all points; Fr. 
douber, to rig or trim a ship. 

Dance, i. e. game, action ; see 1. 74. 

70. 0-ferrum, afar. Cf. whil-om, O. £. quil^um or um-qtdle, awhile, 
formerly. Um, when a prefix, is the A. S. ymbe, about. Cf. O.E. 
umgang, circuit ; um-set, 1. 96 below. Trench quotes um-stroke, circum- 
ference, from Fuller. 

78. Brak the brig, broke the bridge. The French broke the bridge at 
Poissy oVer the Seine, and also many of the bridges over the Somme, 
except a few which they strongly guarded. Edward and his army at 
last crossed by the ford of Blanchetaque, near Abbeville. The battle of 
Cre9y was fought almost immediately afterwards, Aug. 26, 1346. 

79. Ine, eyes ; spelt eghen in 1. 92. 

98. 'And dealt them blows as their reward.' 

107. Cant, proud. Cf. O. Sw. kant, a comer, which Ihre sa3rs was 
also used in the sense of proud, from an old expression wara ph sin kant, 
to be in his comer, to be proud. 




The story is that prince William of Palermo, son of Embrons king of 
Sicily, was stolen when a child by a werwolf, who hid him in a forest in 
Apulia, and tended him with great care. He was there found by a 
shepherd, who adopted him ; but he was afterwards adopted by no less 
a person than the emperor of Rome, whom he succeeded on the throne. 
The werwolf was prince Alphonse, who was afterwards disenchanted, 
and became king of Spain. 

Lines 3-35. These thiriy-ihree lines are represented in the French text 
by only seven short lines, which run thus : — 

* Uns vachiers qui vaches gardoit, 
qui en cele forest manoit, 
el bois estoit avoec sa proie, 
.1. chien tenoit en sa coroie, 
de pasture la nuit repaire; 
li chiens senti lenfant et flaire, 
forment abaie, et cil le hue,* &c. 
Hence it is clear that the excellent lines, 20-31, are original: and they 
shew that our own author was a man of very considerable poeticsd 
power. So again, in 1. 59 — 

' appeles and alle binges * hat childem after wilnen,* — 
is entirely his own, and proves that he knew how to add a graceful 
touch to the poem he copied from. 
6. Ken » kin, cows, kine, 
1 1. Bayte on, to set on ; as in bait a bull. 

14. ' Mending (patching) his shoes according to custom, as belongs 
to their craft.* 

1 7. Darked, was hiding (for fear). O. E. dare, to lie motionless ; for 
the suffix 'k, cf. stal'k, tal-k. 
Him one, by himself. 
19. To wawe was explained by Sir F. Madden as meaning to the wall; 
but it may be but one word. See To-wawe in the Glossary. 

33. Feldjbute, felt the smell, got scent. Foute—fewt, the trace of a 
fox or beast of chase by the odour. 

t8o. The letter /, like r, is one that sometimes shifts its place in a 
rord. As we find brid for bird, so we find wordle for worlde; and wohik 
lay be intentionally put for wlonh. So also earfti for crvfti, L 3221. 

83. No neii^non ei}, i. e. no egg. So thi narmes for thin armet, thy 
arms, in 1. 666. 

84. Grinned. The MS. has ginne^. Sir F. Madden's note is — * A verb 
is wanting after ginneth. We may, probably, supply it by " so balfully 
he ginneth greue," or by some similar word.' But Uiis rather spoils the 


rhythm of the line. It is possible that ginne\> «howl, utter, send out, 
from A. S. ginan, to open, yawn. Or it may be miswritten for grinne\>^ 
which is not an inappropriate word, and is familiar to us from the ex- 
pression in the Psalms — to grin like a dog, i. e. to grin with rage and 
spite. But it is still more to the point to observe that there is, as it 
were, some authority for the grinning of werwolves, if we compare with 
the text the following quotation — * pai grennede for gladschipe euchan 
toward otJer, as wode vmlues J)et fainen of hare praie.* Morris, Early 
English Homilies, p. 277 (E. E. T. S.) Cf. also * The Lyon did both 
gape and gren ; * Bp. Percy's Folio MS., Carle of Carlisle, 313. 

116. * The daughter of the prince of Portugal.' 

131. Between this line and the next, the translator has missed a por- 
tion of the original, viz. the lines following : — 

* de mult de gens estoit loee ; 
de son signor avoit .i. fil, 
biau damoisel, franc et gentil; 
Brandins ot non, ce dist lescris.* 
'She was praised by many people. She had by her lord one son, a 
fine lad, frank and gentle ; he bore the name of Brandins [or Braundins], 
as says the writing.* The name of Brandins being so very like Brande, 
the translator may easily have lost his place, and omitted the passage 
unintentionally. Braundins is mentioned in the latter part of the 

133. * Verily amongst fourscore thou scarcely findest one good one/ 

136. A noynemeni=an oynemeni, i. e. an ointment, unguent. Cf. note 
to 1. 83. See 1. 139. 

141. ' All the form of man so amiss had she shaped (transformed).' 

143-144. • But truly he never after possessed any other resemblance 
that belongs to human nature, but (was) a wild werwolf.' The con- 
struction is involved. 

156-160. Here the translator, finding a tendency to repetition in his 
original, cuts matters short, omitting how the werwolf lived two years 
in Apulia, and grew fierce and big and strong ; and how, hearing of the 
treacjiery of King Embrouns' brother, who had plotted William's death, 
he resolved to steal away William from his father's court It is need- 
less to say that 11. 161-169 are wholly interpolated. 

306. There is something amiss with this line ; it hardly makes sense 
as it stands. In 1. 35 the phrase is ' to hold to baie; ' in 1. 46 it is ' to 
hold at a baye.' So here, if one may be permitted to change * & ' into 
• at/ we have, 

* to haue bruttenet |>at bor ' at |>e abaie se}>>en,' 
i. e. * to have afterwards destroyed the boar, (when held) at bay/ 

3 1 6. imrih = );>urghf through, by. 

320 NOTES. 

333. Comes him agayn, comes to meet him, comes towards him. 
251. In the original, William very properly grounds his refusal on the 
fact that he does not know who the emperor is, or what he wants to do. 

-non ferai, sire, et por coi, 
car je ne sai que vos voles, 
qui vos estes, ne que queres; 
ne se voles riens, se bien non, 
ja ne me face Dix pardon ! ' 
261. *Read wend^ and again elsewhere, in 1. 5185. This elision of 
a final d in such words as hond^ lond^ sheld^ held, &c. is by no means un- 
common in ancient poetry, and arises simply from pronunciation.* — 
Madden. Cf. han* for hand in Bums. We find wend in 1. 229. 

267-273. Hereabouts the translator condenses his original with great 
judgment. The * churl's * grumbling, as there given, is not very inter- 

378. To neih him so hende, to approach him so nearly. 
293-395. The French merely says, 

•en ceste forest le trouvai, 
asses pres dont nous somes ore. 
The man who could turn this prosaic statement into 

* how he him fond in ^at forest * J>ere fast bi-side, 
clothed in comly clo\>ing ' for (i. e. fit for) any hinges sone, 
vnder an holw ok • J)«r/A help of his dogge * 
had certainly both poetic power and a lively imagination. Indeed, the 
translation is very superior to the original. It should be observed that, 
immediately afler writing the two lines printed above in italics, the 
translator boldly omits about sixteen lines of the cowherd's rather prosy 

335. Fordedest fore-deeds, previous actions. The word occurs again 
in the Romance, 1. 5182. 

327. * And God grant him grace to become a good man.' 
329-343. The translator here follows the original pretty closely, 
giving, however, rather the sense than the exact words. 

347. *This is not an error of the scribe, but formed- b^ the same 
analogy as a/ij/ for alighted, comfort for comforted, gerde for girded, &c. 
It occurs often in the Wydifiite versions of the Bible.* — Madden. The 
very word comaund (= commanded) occurs in 11. 3557 and 2564 of the 
alliterative Romance on the Destruction of Troy. / 
360-365. Compare the original text — 

* Salues moi Heut le nain^ 
et Hugenet et Aubelot, 
et Martinet le fil Heugot, 
et Akarin et Crestien, 


et Thumassin le fil Paien, 
et tos mes autres compaignons/ &c. 
36}. Dwtrth, dwarf, is simply the translation of le nain^ Lat. nanus ; 

and jukt as dwer);> is written for A. S. dwerg, so our author continually 

writes |>»r)> for |>vy3* through. 

364 . Kyn B liyndy kind. 

365. For JtmnMsman, we may perhaps read Thonui&in or Thomasyn, It 
would improve the alliteration, of which there is none in the line as it 

371. HcU olives ^al halwes; *he conmiended the cowherd to Christ 
and all saints.' 


U)e Deluge. 

N.B. In the West-Midland dialect, the and and 3rd person sing.\ 
indie, end in -«s, and the plural conmionly ends in -en. The imperative j 
plural ends in -es. y 

Line 335. The context shews that )>a/ o\fer wrake means the second ven- 
geance of God. Lucifer committed three faults : theirs/ was when he at- 
tempted to make himself equal with Cod — for this, he fell from heaven ; 
the second was when he tempted man — ^in this case, the second vengeance 
lighted upon men, as here said; the third (for which see 1. 349) was 
when the sons of God beheld the daughters of men, Gen. vi. 2 ; where- 
upon the third vengeance, the Deluge, came upon all men then alive, 
except Noah and his family. 

Wyie^t men. A. S. wig-a, a warrior ; from wig, war. 

336. Faut, fault. Fr, faute, 

Tfato^e, truth, true obedience. 

338. Wat^. Here the symbol written (3, b probably equivalent to 
ez, where c Has the soft French sound of s. This answers to the German 
sz, which is merely a double s. In Scottish MSS. we often find wass 
written for was, where the ss is made like a German sz. Hence fitz = 
fiss or fis, the O. Fr. for Lat. JUius ; in which the / is now sounded, but 
only from ignorance. 'lD.i2iCi,wcUi=iwacz'^wass'=was, We may sound 
it like z. In many MSS. the letters / and c are confused. 

340. FoT'gart, lost It literally signifies forniid, ruined ; from O. £, 
gar, ger, to do, cause, make. 

341. Eggyng, instigation. IceL egg, an edge; eggja^ to sharpen, in* 
stigate ; hence, to egg on. 


$22 NOTES. 

243. Defence, prohibition. Fr. defendre, prohibit ; whence fend, fender, 

344. Payne, penalty. Fr. peine. 

Pertly = aperily, openly, plainly. 
346. Drepe^, destroys. A. S. drepan, to strike, heW, wound. 

249. For'\>rasi, overwhelmed ; from threste, thruste. A. S. \>r<sstiant to 
rack, twist, torture. 

250. Mawgre, displeasure. Fr. «a/, ill, gre, will, pleasure. 

257. Was should be taern, as in 1. 253. Translate * For they were 
the sons of the noble ancestor, the forefather whom the earth produced, 
that was called Adam, to whom,* &c Strictly, forme-foster should be 
forme-fosterz, being in apposition with aunceterez, but the position of the 
word affects its ending. 

259. Gayn, suitable, good. Sc. gane, to suffice. Icel. gegn, convenient. 

260. Boute, without. Cf. O E. binne, within ; buve, above. 

261. For lede (in the MS.) read ledez, i. e. men. 

363. Lohe to kynde, to keep to nature, i. e. observe the laws of nature. 

271. Onfolken tuise, after the manner of men. 

278. In-monge^, among Cp. O. £. in-middes, amidst 

282. Forloyned, gone astray, departed; from Fr. loin, fax, which we 
have in pur-loin, O. Fr. purloignier, which, literally, means to delay. 

284. Werp, uttered ; from werpen, to throw out, to utter, speak. 

a88. Bume, man. A. S. beom, wanior, chief. 

297. Innoghe knawen, enough (wel^Jmown. 

301. Nivy, anger; nuyed, grieved (306). 

303. * Finis uniuersae carnis uenit coram me ; * Gen. vi. 13. 

306. Crore, sin, but literally vileness, filUiiness. A. S. g6r, dirt, mud. 
Cf. Eng. gorbelly, gorcrow (carrion crow). 

Glette, wickedness, but literally filth, dirt. Prov. Eng. glut, 

31a. Cleme, to daub or plaster with mud or clay. A.S. clem, clam, 
(i) mud, clay ; (2) a bandage, fold ; (3) prison. Du. klemmen, to pinch ; 
klampen, to hook together. The root still exists in clammy, to clamp, 
clumsy. Cf. A. S. Idm, loam, clay ; prov. E. cloam, earthenware. 

318. Vpon, i.e. open. See 11. 453, 501. 

319. Sware^sqware, square. 

320. Dutande, shutting ; from dute=:A. S. dytian, to shut up, close, dtt. 
Shakespeare uses dick, another form of dit — * Much good dich (fill) thy 
good heart, Apemantus.* (Timon of Athens, i. 2. 73.) 

331. Meyny ofa^ie, household (family) of eight. 
335. Horwed, unclean. A. S. hdru, hdrwa, filth, dirt 
337. Ho-besie^, she-beasts; ho=^keo, she. An early example of this 
mode of expressing gender. 


339. Frette^ furnish. A. S. frcshvu^ fratu, finery, treasure ; frcsteunant 
to trim, adorn. Drayton uses fretf in the sense of an ornamental border, 

343. Fetded, set in order, fully prepared. Still in use. 

348. As )>ot/ me 'uyt lanie^, as thou lentedst me wit, i. e. gayest me 
instruction, directedst me. 

350. \>rep, gainsaying, contradiction. Withouten );>rep, answers to our 
expression • without more words * or * without more ado.' 

352. Steke, to shut up, fasten. Sc. steek^ to shut. The pret. stac, closed 
up, occurs in 1. 439 ; and the p.p. stoken in 1. 360. 

353. S^ed, passed ; from O. £. sioeye, to go, turn, sway (see 1. 420 
and 956). 

354. Rowiande ryge, a rushing shower. Otherwise, rowtande may 
signify roaring, from O. £. route, to roar, howl ; Icel. hrJotOf to grunt, 
snore. The rendering rushing, connects rowtande with rout, a gang. 
Germ, rotte, which seems different from rout, a discomfiture, which is the 
Fr. route, from Lat. rupta, a division. 

Ryge, shower. A. S. reh, deluge, which seems to be connected 
with A.S. regen, Goth, rign; whence (by loss oi g) E. rcdn, 
357-360. 'Except you eight in this ark stowed (placed). 

And seed that I will savejof these various beasts. 
Now Noah never ceases (that night he begins) 
Ere all were stowed and enclosed, as the conmiand re- 
362. Whichche, an old and genuine f orm of hu tch— K^S, huHBcce, 
a chest. 

364. Waltes, wells, flows. A.S. weallan,*wyUan, to spring up, boil, 
flow; wealtian, to roll. Cf. 1. 370. 

365, 366. * There was soon no bank that remained unbroken; 

The great flowing deep to the sky arose.* 
Lauande, flowing (rapidly). The A. S. lafian, signifies to sprinkle 
water; whence to lave. 

Loghe — K,S. lagu, water, sea, lake; Sc. loch, 

369. Fon is the preterite of the old verb fyne, to come to an end, to 
cease, finish ; also s^^lt Jyned, 1. 450. It is unusual for French verbs to 
follow the strong conjugation. 

370. Ouer^waltez, overturns, overwhelms. 
Vche a, each, every. 

373. Deth mo^t dryye, might suffer death, could die. Cf. 1. 400. 

374. No^ dowed, nothing was of avail, there was no help. 

375. Wylger, more wildly, more fiercely. 

379. Brentestf highest, steepest Sw. brant, steep. Cf. Welsh btyn, 
a hill. 

Y 2 

334 NOTES. 

380. Heterly (quickly, hastily) is connected with A. S. hSte, hate ; 
hdtol, fierce ; hettan, to pursue, drive. Cf. N. Prov. Eng. hetter, eager, 

[H]aUd, rushed. Fr. haUr, to hale, haul, tow. 

382. Rqykande, advancing, from O. £. rayke, Icel. reika, to wander. 

383, 384. * Ere each valley was brim-full to the edges (tops) of its 

And every dale so deep, that it became choked at the 
Bntrd-ful, full to the brim. A. S. brerd, breord, margin, rim, bank. 
388. ' Some swam thereon that expected (trowed) to save themselves.' 

390. Rurdf cry. A. S. reord, speech, language. 

391. Hy^, high grounds, heights. 

39a. Eyyed, hastened, hied. A. S. Jugan, to hasten ; Dan. hige, to 

394. Re^ouerer of \>e creator, recoverer (saviour) of the creature. 

395. Here the reading >« masse \>e tnase is probably an error for \>e 
mase, which is needlessly repeated. The sense is, that the state of con- 
fusion increased. }pe mase, a state of confusion ; cf. Piers the Plowman 
(Clarendon Press Series), i. 6, iii. 159; or Sect. XV. i. 6, iii. 155. 

401. * Friend looks to friend and his leave takes.* Lu/»lef, dear, 
beloved (one). 

406. Hurkled, rested, settled. Prov. Eng. hurkle, to squat. 

407. Mourkne, to rot. Sw. murhen, rotten ; tnurkna, to rot. 

408. Perhaps — * all into whom the breath of life entered.' It is a 
mere paraphrase of Gen. vii. a a — *£t cuncta, in quibus spiraculmn 
uitae est in terra, mortua sunt.' 

417. Myke'^Thi. mile, the crutches of a boat, which sustain the main 
boom or the mast and sail when they are lowered for the convenience of 

419. Hurrok, oar. Cf. Prov. Eng. orruck-holes, oar-drawing holes, 
Eng. rullocka, from Dan. rykke, to draw. 

421. Flyt, force, lit. contention; ci.flytande in 1. 950. 

434. Nyf^ne-¥ if, M not. 

Lumpen, befallen. A. S. limpan, to happen. 

435. A lei date, a true date (period) ; lei, leal, loyal. 

433. Roily, peaceful, comforted, merry, glad. Sw. rolig, pleasant, 
calm; A.S. r6w, sweet The sense is 'the remnant whom the rack 
drives were glad that all kinds of animals, so well lodged, were safely 
kept inside.' With ioyst cf. Prov. Eng. joist, to agist or find a lodging 
for cattle, from O. F. giste, a lodging, which from gisir, to lie 

438. Lasned, became less; from O. E. lasse, less. 


439. Stange^f pools, wells. O. Fr. estang^ a pond, stagnant water. 

440. * Bade leave off the rain, it abated at once.' 

446. Rasse, eminence, is still used in the North of England for a 
mound, hill-top, and is an affix in local names, as in Dunmail Raise. 

449. Kyste, chest, ark. 

466. Ellez has here the force of if onlyj so long as, 

469. Dou ne ^ dovne == doven Cf a female dove (see 1. 481). Cf. tg'jggrt, a 
femal e /ox; T). E. wolvene, a female wo lf. 

483. agyrme^, skims or glides along ; cf. Prov. E. skir^ to glide along. 
Germ, sehurren^ to scrape, to slide. 

491. lumpredj mourning, misery. Cf. Germ, jammer , mourning, 
misery ; A. S. geomor, sad. See note to L 971. 

497. Louedt praised, from A. S. IdfiaUy to praise. 

498. Tolhe, person (lit. a talker)^ here refers to God. 

499. Glam, word. Sw. glamma^ to chatter, talk ; glam, talk. 
501. Walt, turned open soon, i. e. opened at once ; cf. 11. 318, 453. 
504. prublande, urging onwards. O. E. \)roble, to press on. 

527. Rengne^ ye may be for rengne^, courses. A.S. hring, a ring; 
circuit. As it stands, it means * reign ye, continue ye.' 

529. 'Then was a separative (i. e. general) dispersion, when escaped 
all the wild (animals).' 

<S^//y as separative, distinct; Icel. skilja, to separate; whence E. 
5^7/, Dan. skiel, discernment. Shyualde may be connected with Icel. 
sh^a, to cut in twain, to cleave, Germ, schiefer, a splinter. 

535. Gorste^, places overgrown with furze, or gorse. 

540. * The four men (Noah and his sons) receive the empire of the 

Destruction of Sodom. 

950. Flytande, chiding, roaring. A.S,flitan, to scold, quan-el. 

953. Ridlande, pouring, dripping. Ger. rutteln, to shake, sift, riddle, 

9^9. Rydelles ^redeles, without advice, uncertain what to do. 

971. ^omerly^ A.S, geomorlie, doleful, sorrowful; geomor, sad, grim; 
geomrian^ to grieve, groan. Germ, jammern, to moan. 

^rm as Welsh garm, shout, outcry ; garmio, to set up a cry. 

1009. Ro\>un of a reche, a rush of smoke ; reehe, rehe, vapour, smoke. 

loio. Vsellei, ashes. A. S. ysela, ysla, sparks, hot ashes. 

Id I. Flot, boiling fat. Icel. flot, grease swimming on the surface 
of broth ; Low. Germ, fiot, cream. See Fleet, in Wedgwood. 

1012. Bet, kindled ; from O. E. bete, to make up the fire. 

101 7. Blubrande, bubbling, boiling up. Cf. Prov. Eng. W06, blab, a 
bubble, drop ; blubber, to bubble, foam. Chaucer uses 6/»66fr, a bubble. 

326 NOTES. 

1034. Oositi ofJkynde, the properties of nature, natural properties. 

1029. Schalkit man. A. S. scealc, a servant, soldier, man; marshal (Mid. 
Lat. maretcalus) is from the O. H. Germ, mdhre (£ng. mare), horse, and 
schalk, a servant. Seneschal is from Goth, sineigs, old (superl. sirUsta), 
and skalks, a servant. 

1030. Bro)^ly, hastily, quickly, soon ; here a mere expletive. Cf. led. 
brdfS, haste, hrdXSliga, hastily, soon. 

1034. Corsyes, corrosives. Spenser has eorsive for corrosive. For a 
discussion on this word, see Notes and Queries, Third Series, xii. 390, 
516; Fourth Series, i. 62, 160; and Corsey in Nares's Glossary. 

1035. Alhatran is the Arabic word for pitch; see Matzner's note on 
Mandeville, cap. ix. in Sprachproben, vol. ii. p. 207. The whole 
account of the Dead Sea in Mandeville should be compared with that 
here given. 

1038. * The bituminous (sticky) asphalt that spice-mongers selL' 
1041. Tenu, lake, tarn, Icel. ^om. 


The MSS. of this are very numerous ; there are at least nineteen in 
the British Museum, and there are three in the Cambridge University 
Library. For a list of the former set and an account of several early 
editions, see Mr. Halliwell's preface. MSS. of Mandeville are some- 
times found in company with MSS. of Piers the Plowman. There is a 
modernised version of Mandeville, edited by Mr. Wright, in * Early 
Travels in Palestine,* Bohn's Antiquarian Library, London, 1848. The 
knight is said to have spent thirty-four years in travel, in Tartary, 
Persia, Armenia, Lybia, Ethiopia, India, Palestine, &c. His book may 
be compared with Colonel Yule's new edition of Marco Polo. The date 
of the work is not quite certain ; for, whilst in the Cotton MS. it is said 
to be 1356, in MS. Bibl. Reg. 17 C. xxxviii. it is 1366. 

(A) The Prologue, 

Line 8. Envyrone, to go about. But the Royal MS. has honoure, 
9. Enoumbre him, hide himself; from the O. F. * enombrer, obscurdr, 
cacher;' Burguy. 

20. Myddes of alle, &c. Jerusalem was supposed to be the exact 
centre of the earth, which was imagined to be a flat plane, or else a 
sort of hemisphere, of which Jerusalem was the highest point. But it 
is most remarkable that Mandeville himself argues that the earth is 


globular (cap. xvii) and that it is possible to travel completely round it 
The proof of Jerusalem being the centre of the earth was derived from 
Psalm Ixxiv. 12 ; 'For God is my king of old, working salvation in the 
nUdst ^ the earth* Cf. Josephus, Wars of the Jews, iii. 3. 5. 

21. The philosophre ; Aristotle, Nicom. £th. ii. 6. 

91. Surry e^ Syria; Ermonye, Armenia. Amazoyne^ the country of the 
(supposed) Amazons, on the south coast of the Black Sea, about the 
modem Trebizonde. Chaucer calls it the regne (kingdom) ofFenunie; 
Knightes Tale, 1. 8; and says it was formerly called Scythia. Else- 
where Mandeville says it is beside Chaldsea. Inde the lasse is Northern 
India ; Inde the more, or greater, is Southern India. The names of these 
countries vary in the MSS. 

107. And ^e, &c. The whole of this last paragraph is wanting in 
nearly every other MS. 

117. Here tnynde is used with the sense of memory. 

(B) Of the begynning of Macbomete, 

Mahomet, bom a.d. 570 ; died June 8, 632. The name is better spelt 
Mohammed or Muhammed, 

Line 15. Corrodane, possibly Koraidha, the name of a Jewish tribe 
whom Mahomet subdued. 

17. Gadri^e, Khadija, a rich widow, whom he married. 

24. Sarazines, from the Arabic sharheyn, meaning the Eastern people; 
quite unconnected with Sarah, notwithstanding the assertion in 1. 30. 

32. Loth^ Lot. See Gen. xix. 37. 

57. Galamelle, apparently from Greek TtiXa, milk, and iiiXi, honey, a 
kind of mead. This is possibly * the sweet liquor or symp called DushdJb, 
which Delia Valle says is just the Italian Mostocotto, but better, clearer, 
and not so mawkish ; ' see Marco Polo, ed. Yule, i. 84. 

(C) The Contrees beyond Catbay* 

line 3. Cathaye, China. Bacharye, perhaps Bokhara. 

15. Bemakes, bamades. See the whole story explained in Max 
MilUer's Lectures on the Science of Language, Second Series. 

27. Canelle, cinnamon; see Romaunt of the Rose, 1. 1370. 

32. CT&er, the mountains of Caucasus. The reference is to the pass of 
Derbend, on the Western side of the Caspian Sea. The mediaeval 
romances of Alexander say that he shut up Gog and Magog, and twenty 
other nations, behind a mountain barrier. See Yule's edition of Marco 
Polo, vol. i. p. 52. 

328 NOTES. 

53. Lynagis, tribes ; the lost ten tribes of the Jews. 

36. Alisandre, Alexander. The story of the twenty-two kings occurs 
in the alliterative Romance of Alexander, ed. Stevenson (Roxburghe 
Club), Passus xxvi ; which was founded upon Pseudo-Callisthenes. 

65. Marcheth to, borders upon. Cf. the phrase the Marches of Wales. 

57. Avaled, descended. To vail is to lower; cf. * vailed lids,* Hamlet. 

77. Be be ^ be bi; 'except it be by * (i. e. during). 

114. Ipotaynes; hippopotami are intended. 

120. Grijffbunes, griffins. A griffin is a vulture, but it was represented 
as being a compound of eagle and lion. Cf. Spenser, F. Q. i. 5. 8; 
Milton, Par. Lost, ii. 943. There is a long extract from Mandeville, 
with notes, in Matzner's Altenglische Sprachproben, part ii. 


The portion of • Piers the Plowman * here printed may be advantage- 
ously compared with that printed in the edition published in the 
Clarendon Press Series. There are many resemblances, and many 
differences. The differences of spelling in lines otherwise alike are due 
to the pieces being printed from different MSS. It has been explained 
that there are three quite diflferent versions of the poem. The portions 
of the A-text, here printed, are from the Vernon MS. in the Bodleian 
Library, with a few improvements from other MSS. This MS. makes 
the dialect more remarkable for Southern forms than it should be ; this 
is due to the 'scribe of that MS. being a southern man, as evidenced in 
all the numerous pieces he has written out The true dialect of the 
author appears more plainly in the B-text MS. (Laud 581), and is more 
uniformly Midland. The differences of the texts are these : — (i) The 
A-text contains two distinct poems, viz. a Prologue and eight Passus of 
' Piers the Plowman,' and a Prologue and three Passus of ' Vita de 
Dowel, Dobet, et Dobest.* (2) The B-text contains a Prologue and 
seven Passus of * Piers the Plowman,' a Prologue and six Passus of 
' Dowel,* a Prologue and three Passus of * Dobet,' and a Prologue and 
one Passus of * Dobest;* of these, the Clarendon Press edition contains 
only the first portion, or * Piers the Plowman,* ^<}/«-/y so called, (3) The 
C-text contains a Prologue and nine Passus of Piers, a Prologue and six 
Passus of Dowel, a Prologue and three Passus of Dobet, and a Prologue 
and one Passus of Dobest The Early English Text Society will publish 
all three texts in full, and has already published the two first. But we 
shall here consider only the portion of the A-text here printed, and the 
portion of the B-texl printed by the Clarendon Press, some of the notes 


to which we here quote, and refer the reader to the same volume for 
further information. 


Line i. Softe, mild, warm ; in the month of May. 

2. * I put myself into (rough) clothing, as if I were a shepherd.' 
Schop, shaped; cf. 1. 52. 

Scheep, a shepherd; a rare word, but there are a few examples. 
In MSS. of the C-text, the word is actually written shepherd^ at length. 

3. The shepherd's dress resembled a hermit's; the epithet unholy 
seems to express the author's opinion of hermits, especially of those 
who roamed about, instead of staying in their cells. Cf. 1. 28. 

5. Malueme hulles, Malvern hills, in Worcestershire. 

6. • There befel to me a wonder, of fairy (origin), it seemed to me.' 
Observe the phrase of/eyrye in Sect. XII. 1. 230. 

7. Wente me. The exact use of me here is uncertain ; it can either 
mean turned my self t the original meaning of wcnde being to turn; or 
else, Vfent to rest myself; or perhaps me is on ethic dative, meaning as far 
as relates to myself. Of the first usage there is an example in Caedmon, 
ed. Thorpe, p. 56, * Wend ^e from wynne^ turn thyself from joy ; also in 
the Ancren Riwle, ed. Morton, p. 53, * wend te awei* turn thyself away. 

11. * Then did I dream a marvellous dream.* 

12. 'And as I looked eastward, on high, towards the sun.' 

13. Tour, tower. This Tower is the abode of Truth, i. e. of God the 
Father ; the dungeon in the valley is the abode of Satan. This is ex- 
plained in Pass. i. 12, 61. 

17. The fair field is the world; Matt. xiii. 38. The occupations of 
the various occupants of it are next minutely described. 

19. Asketh, i.e. as the way of the world requires. 

31. Swonken, obtained by labour; Jnx/ in the next line = that which. 

29. Carien—cairen, wander (about). In many MSS. it is written 
cairen. Cf. Germ, kehren. 

34. Giltles, honestly. The true minstrels gained their living honestly, 
but most of the tribe were a bad set and children of Judas ; see next 

36. • Found out fancies for themselves, and made fools of themselves, 
and (yet) have they wit at their command, to work if it pleased them.' 

38. The text of Paul alluded to is, * Qui non laborat non mandu cet ' _ 
(2 Thess. iii. 10) ; but the poet dares not quote it, because every speaker 
of evil against another is a servant of Lucifer. 

41. Heor^heore, their. [J r a u Ji-u t . 1 r 

Balies, bellies. 




41. Bratftd Terommetj crammed brimfuL 

42. Attg alle^atten ale ^^^ at )f>en ale^ at the ale; over their caps. Ale, 
an ale-house, as in Launce's speech in Two Gentlemen of Verona, ii. 5, 
' go to the ale with a Christian.' 

44. pM, these. The Roberts men, or Roberdesmen, were lawless vaga- 
bonds. In the Statutes of 5 Edward III, c. xiv, a class of malefactors, 
guilty of robbery and murder, are called Roberdesmen, 

47. Seint leme, St. James of Compostella in Gallida. Pilgrimages to 
Rome and Compostella were then much in vogue. In England, the 
most famous places of pilgrimage were Walsingham in Norfolk (see 
1. 51), Glastonbury, and Canterbury. 

55. The four orders of friars were the Franciscans, Augustines, 
Dominicans, and Carmelites. See Specimens of English, aj>. 1394 to 
1579, ^ Skeat, p. 357. 

57. Glosynge, commenting upon. See Chaucer, Sompnoures Tale, 

As hem good iike)>, as it well pleases them. 

61. Chapmon, pedlar. The friars, instead of exercising charity, went 
about selling indulgences ; see Chaucer's description of the Frere in his 

' 65. Pardoner, See Chaucer's Prologue; and Massingberd's English 
Reformation, p. 127. 

71. * He banged them with his brevet (i.e. thrust it in their fiioes), 
and cajoled them.' 

Blered heore ei^en, bleared (blinded) their eyes, cajoled them. 

72. ^^flff?i"i ^^talogue, li st. Th e £|^ ''"f^^'iinn _[«g^^«**^- RoU, 
now corrupted into rigmarole. Tlie Rahman Roll was adbflUB tait with 
many seals ; here usedlDf the* papal bull. 

78, SomeHmfelT the hoy -(T. E young pardoner) and the parish priest, 
instead of quarrelling, agreed to fleece the people, and divide the 

81. The pestilence here referred to is probably the first of three, viz. 
that which occurred in 1348 and 1349. See note to Pass. v. 1. 13. The 
evil occasioned by parish-priests, who n^lected their parishes to go to 
London, is alluded to by Chaucer; see the description of the Persone in 
his Prologue. After 1. 83 the B-text inserts no less than 123 extra lines, 
which were added in the year 1377. 

89. Mom '^ mum, the least sound made by closed lips. 

103. Dieu vous sauve, dame Emme (God save you, lady Enmial) is 
evidently the refrain of some popular ballad. 

105% ' Good geese and pigs ! let's go and dine 1' This description is 
copied by Lydgate, in his London Lyckpeny ; see Specimens of English, 

A.D. 1394-15 79; p. 26. 


107, 108. Ostye, Alsace. Ruyn, the Rhine, pe rost to defyt, to digest 
the roast meat. 

Passtu I. 

A Passus is a canto, or portion of a poem. 

2, 5. Ow, you; see 1. 14. 

A loueli, &c. ; a lady, lovely of face. This is the Lady Holy- 
Church, the poet's instructor ; see 1. 73. 

9. Holde \>et no tale, they make no account. 

20. * Three things in common ; ' i. e. clothing, meat, and drink ; see 
Ecclesiasticus xxix. 28. 

36. * Believe not thy body, for a liar — this wicked world^teadies it 
to betray thee.* 

55. Kvynde wit, natural wit, common sense. 

54. Tour, tower, safe place of custody. Many'MSS. have tutour, 

Take it yyw, bestow it on you. 

61. * There dwells a wight (Satan) who is named Wrong.* 

66. Elleme, elder-tree. Cf. Shakespeare's Love*s Labour 's Lost, v. a. 

75. BorweSf sureties, sponsors ; viz. at baptism. 

83. The subject of IL 83-134 is Truth; that of 11. 135-181 is Love or 

84. • I appeal to the text — God is Love* (i John iv. 8), 
Bose=hoso, who so . 

Not elles, not otherwise (than the truth). . 
89. Lucus, See Luke viii. 21. 

103. Kyngene, of kings ; gen, pi., which in A. S. ended in -a or -ena. 

104. The reading * and all the four orders' is corrupt. The Trin. MS. 
has such seuene &* a-anoper, which is right. There were ten orders of 
angels: (i) Cherubim; (2) Seraphim; (3-9) seven more such; and (10) one 
other beside, viz. the one over whidi Lucifer presided, and which fell 
from heaven with him ; see 1. 1 1 2. 

114. According to the popular creed of the middle ages, the less 
guilty of the rebellious angels were permitted to occupy the different 
elements on earth instead of being condemned to the pit. 

125. * Teach it to these unlettered men ; for lettered men know it.' 
130. 'It is thy natural conscience, that teaches thee in thy heart.' 

137. Prechet=preche it, preach it. 

138. Me, men ; used with a singular verb, like the French on, 
^edde, to sing. A. S. geddian, giddian, to sing. 

154. * As pure as a child, that cries when baptized.' 

33^ NOTES. 

167. * They devour what they should give in charity, and then cry out 
for more.* 

168. Wori>t shall be. The present is often used for the future. 

173. 'And a lesson to ignorant men to put off almsgiving ;' lit. to be 
the later in distributing. 

181. Orai^ gate, direct waf. It occurs in Blind Harry's Wallace, 
V. 135- 

Passtu II. 

158. Fauuel^Favdf the impersonation of Flattery; from O. Fr. 
favele, idle talk, IS,, fable, Occleve also uses the same word, and says of 
Favel — 

' His crafte is ay to sustene the wrong side. 
And fro vertu his lord to divide;' 
and again — 

* But favelle taketh alle another parte. 
In wrong preisyng is all his craft and arte.' 

Occleve, De Reg. Priiic. ed. Wright, pp. 106 and iii. 
175. Eny hmrus yftia, gifts of any kind. 
187. Do\> him to go, prepares himself to depart. 
19a. To-logged = to-lugged, pulled about by the ear or hair. Cf. O. E. 
lug, the ear; Sw. lugga, to pull by the hair. 
194. Hote to trusse, bidden to pack (and be off). 
206. For hnowynge of eomer$, to prevent recognition by travellers. 

Passus III. 

18. Conscience, Conscience*s ; a gen. fern, in -«. 

26. Lauj/ten leue at, took leave of. 

46. Tok him, gave him. Take in O. £. oftea^ give. 

49. Wol stonden vsful hei^, will cost us a good deal. 

69. 'The use of fraudulent measures and weights were severely 
punished in the middle ages ; ' see note to Myrc's Instructions for Parish 
Priests, ed. Peacock, p. 80. 

74. Reehep, grow rich ; riehen in some MSS. 

Regratorie, regrating. ' Regrating,' or the buying up of provisions 
and other things cheaply, and selling them dearly, was one of the great 
sources of oppression of the poor by the rich in the middle ages ; we 
may translate it by retail dealing. 

Eugge\f hem, buy for themselves. 

76. Toke \>ei on trewely, if they made profit honestly. 
Timbrede not, would not build. 


86. The quotation is not from Solomon, but from Job xv. 34. 
142. ProuisourSf persons who purchased privileges from Rome, such 
as provisions for holding benefices before they fell vacant, &c. 

154. Love-day es^ dtzys for the (supposed) amicable settlement of dif- 
ferences; see Chaucer, Frol. 1. 258. 

155. * It is bewilderment for a poor man, though he plead for ever/ 

Passus V. 

4. ' That I had not slept more soundly, and seen more.' 
13. There were three great pestilences (some count four) in Edward 
Iirs reign. The first two are here referred to. The first lasted from 
May 31, 1348, to Septembe r 29, 1349; the second from August 15, 
1361, to May 3, 136a. The third was in 1369; the fourth in 1375-6. 

14: Wynt] wma. There was a great storm of wind, from the South, 
on the evening of 'Saturday, January 15, 1362. This fixes the date of 
this early version of the poem. 

44. Wmiam, i. e. the author himself, as appears from other passages. 

45. We have here the confessions of some of the seven deadly sins. 
The first is PridCy r epresented by one Pe mel Proud-heart . Pride comes 
first, owing to the text * For pride is the beginning of sin ; ' Eccles. x. 13. 
The rest are Luxury, Envy, Wrath, Avarice, Glu ttony. ajid_Sloth^ Pemel 
is sho rt for Petronilla. In the A-text thejharacter of Wrath is omitted. 

60. Gultus, guilts, sins. "' -^ - ^ 

92. Al Ite weh aftur, all the piece of doth from which the coats had 
been cut as well. 

108. Sire herui. Sir Harvey. It seems to have been a nickname for a 
skinflint. Skelton uses it (ed. Dyce, i. 35). 

115. Atte noke^atten oke, at the oak. ^Cf. John Nokes, John at the 
Oaks ; John Styles, John at the Stile. 

119. Wych; other MSS. wy. It means Weyhill, near Andover, in 
Hampshire, a famous place for fairs to this day. * The tolls derived 
from the sheep-fair form part of the stipend of the rector of Weyhill ;* 
Standard newspaper, October 11, 1870. The fair lasts eight days, be- 
ginning on October 10. 

123. Doneif grammar, elements (of a subject) ; from ^lius Donatus, a 
grammarian, who flourished at Rome about a.d. 356. 

125. Rayes, striped cloths; they were measurol by the list or edge. 
See Liber Albus, ed. Riley, p. 631. 
• 127. Pressour, press. 

Pinnede, pressed (them) severely ; E, to pen, Cf. pindar, pir^old, 

xa8. Toiden, counted. 



132. Auneel (or aunetr). This old weighing-machine answers exactly 
to tiiat known as the ' Danish* steelyard. His wife, when paying her 
women, paid them by weight ; and used a weight which weighed too 

134. Peru-ale. The commonest ale, sold in London at a penny a 
gallon. See Stow's Chronicle, p. 218; or Strutt's Manners and Customs, 
ii. 81. 

137. Bummede, tasted. 

Thereafter, according to the sample. 

145. Rode of Bromholm, rood (cross) of Bromholm in Norfolk. It 

was said to be made of wood from the real cross, brought to England 

! by a priest named Sir Hugh in 1223. It is mentioned by Chaucer; 

' Revels Tale, 1. 366. The line means, ' and pray the cross of Bromholm 

I ' to bring me out of debt (to the church).' He could make restitution by 

jl 1 offering at the shrine. 

^ 263. Leue, permit, allow; cf. Germ, erlavben. Misprinted lene (in 
this place) in Mr. Skeat's edition. 


Pojsus VI. 

• \ 


This Passus, in the B-text, forms the latter part of Pass. v. 

8. * He bare a travelling-staff bound about with a broad list (of 
cloth), which was wreathed round it after the fashion of a withy-band;* 
or, * of a woodbine.* In Harman's Caveat (Early English Text Society's 
ed. p. 26) the three essential parts of a broom are described as * A staff, 
a beesom, and wyth, that wyll wynde.' The «n'My, wound round and 
round the besom, binds it on to the staff or broomstick ; which will 
explain the reading withy-band. But the Harl. MS. has wodbyndis, i. e. 
of a woodbine^ which was also called a ivithwind or wiihiewind, and ac- 
cordingly some MSS. have the reading withewyndes. See the Glossary. 

II. Ampollest little leaden phials for holy water, bought at different 
shrines, and worn in the hat to shew how many shrines had been visited, 
much as a traveller brands names on his alpenstock. People who went 
to Galys (Gallicia) brought home scallop-shells. The vemiele (from 
St. Veronica) was a copy of the true picture {vera icon = Gr. cl/cc^v) of 
Christ miraculously imprinted on a handkerchief preserved in the church 
of St. Peter at Rome. For the legend of St Veronica, see Chambers' 
Book of Days, i. 100. 

28. Peter, by St. Peter I a common exclamation ; see Chaucer, Schip- 
mannes Tale, 1. 214. 

Ploui-mon; here Piers the Plowman first appears; he signifies 
Honesty, or an honest teacher of men. The poet afterwards identified 



him, in a later version, with Jesus Christ ; he is here introduced as a 
servant of Truth, i. e. of God the Father. 

39. To paye, to His satisfaction. 

45. Wissen, teach, shew. Piers offers to shew all men the way to the 
abode of Truth ; i. e. to heaven. 

Passuf VII. 

234. Kuynde wit, natural wit, common sense. 

237. Bead omnes, Ps. cxxvii. in the Vulgate ; cxxviii. in the A. V. 

246. ' But I bid thee, quoth Hunger, if thou desire (to have) thy 

257. Calabre, i. e. a Calabrian fur; a gray fur with a black stripe. 

269. W»/« A. S. h^or/i unleavened. 

276. Lammasse, i. e. Loaf-mass, August i. 

303. Lawis. After the pestilence of 1349, there was a want of 
labourers. The king published a proclamation, limiting their wages ; 
but it was evaded, and, especially in harvest, exorbitant wages were 
both demanded and given. 

305. Statues, statutes. 

37 1. Satume. The influence of the planet Saturn was supposed to be 
malign, and to cause floods and similar disasters. 



The poem of the Bruce is not divided into books in the MSS. The 
division into twenty books (here followed) was made by Pinkerton. 
Jamieson divided the poem into fourteen books, but in his Scottish 
Dictionary he always refers to Pinkerton' s numbering of the lines, and 
not to his own. For further information about the meaning of words, 
see Jamieson's Dictionary. Observe that, in Lowland-Scotch MSS., 
u, V, and w are interchanged ; so that vy/A, vod, mean with, wood; 
wenge means venge ; mwre is for mure, a moor, and so on. 

Line i. The reader should consult the notes to Sir Walter Scott's 
beautiful poem entitled * The Lord of the Isles ;* especially note 2 B. 

2. Vill ofvayn; cf. note to 1. 225. 

7. Begouthf began. This corrupt form arose from supposing a con- 
nection between gan (sometimes can) — which was used as an auxiliary, 
like did, although a part of the verb ginnen, to begin, — and the totally 
different word can, which had a past tense couth, now spelt couid. 

\ I 

33^ NOTES* 

lo. Abyde j* ^«r, if ye abide here. Obser ve that an inferior, spea king 
to a s uperior, uses thejerm ye ; the superi or replies with thou (L 15). 

17. 6ftsiss = oftsithes, oftentimes; from O. £. sitht a time. 

18. Quha, whosoever. 
Endlong a vatttTy along a stream. 

27. *And continued their way along it*; where held o»s continued, 
persevered in. 

37. * There would he no longer abide.' 
48. Weill fer^ well far, very far off. 
65. Lest on lif^ last alive, remain alive. 

71. Intill a bush lurland, lurking in a bush. 

72. Quhill, until. Cf. Macbeth, iii. i. 43 ; and Rich. II, i. 3. 122. 
At his handy dose at hand. 

81. Amer, Sir Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke. 

87. Randale, Sir Thomas Randolph, who afterwards sided with Bruce. 

90. Price and lotyng, honour and praise. If loving were intended, the 
word used would have been luff, 

103. *If he were attacked (or, challenged to fight) on equal terms.* 

105. This story is told in *The Lord of the Isles,* canto iii A 
similar story is told of Wallace. 

118. * And asked them whither they wished to go.' 

127. Late, demeanour; see the Glossary. 

132. Bryng of daw, bring out of day, i. e. kill ; cf. did o lijf, i. e. did 
out of life, slew ; Sect. VII. 1. 191. 

135. Hawytig, behaviour; literally, having. 

137. 'Ye must all three, till we be better acquainted, go in front all 
by yourselves.' 

139. Forrouthf before, in front; so also forrow in L 145. Sw. fontt, 

142. • Sir, there is no need to believe any ill (to be) in us.* 

145. * Until we be better acquainted with each other.' 

148. * And forth upon their way did go.* 

160. Here a is emphatic, and signifies one ; see 1. i62, 

177. * Saw that it became him of necessity to sleep.' 
( 179. Valk, awake; used transitively. The intransitive form is walkyn, 
I whence valhnyt in 1. 210. The introduction of the letter n renders a 
( verb intransitive in Moeso-Gothic, Swedish, &c. Thus we have Sw. vaka^ 
, ]to watch, vakna, to awake. 

188. As foul on twist, as fowl on twig, like a bird on a bough. 

192. Routit he, snored loudly; where Ae =high, highly, loudly. 

216. So stratly stad, so closely beset, so hardly put to it, 

218. Na war, had it not been for his defensive armour. 
\ 225. Will ofvayn ; for will of wane. Will means at a loss, distracted. 

xvii. (a) JOHN wrcLiF. 337 

puzzled, whence our wild. Wane means weening, purpose, design, plan. 
Will of wane^ at a loss for a plan, not knowing what to do. Jamieson 
explains it quite wrongly. Cf. 1. 2 above. 

423. Cwmynys^ Comjm's. Bruce stabbed John Comyn before the 
high altar in the Greyfriar's Church at Dumfries, shortly before his own 
accession to the crown in 1306. See *Lord of the Isles,* note K. 

434. iVo^tV,' naked ; this means, unprovided with defensive armour. 

439. Ha/ifUt i.e. if ye have. 

447. But langarfrest^ without longer delay. 

455' ^op oor taill, top over tail, head over heels. 

467. Schot^ rushed ; which is the right meaning in Havelok the Dane 
1. 1838. 

470. * In his rising; such a blow gave him 

That stone-dead to the earth he went * (lit. diove). 

471. Draf, drove, felL 


Cap. i. Verse 11. And a vays; Lat. Et uox facta est de caelis. 

t6. Sendynge, an exact translation of the Lat. mittentts. It must be 
remembered that Wyclif follows closely the peculiarities of the Latin 
(Volgkte) version, from which he translated. Some of his expressions 
can only be wholly understood by examining the Vulgate. Thus, in 
verse 18, the phrase ^e netHs forsaken is an imitation of the Lat. abl. 
absolute, relictis retibus ; and so on. 

19. He gon forth; Lat progressus; c£ he gon yn (Lat. ingressus) in 
T. 21. 

$1. ]>e hand ofhir taken; Lat. apprehensa manu eius 

32. i>e euenynge maad; Lat. uespere autem facto. 

35. Gon out; Lat. egressus. 

40. ^e knee f olden ; Lat. genu flexo. 

Cap. ii. 2. Tok not ; Lat. ita ut non caperet neque ad ianuam. 

9. What ; Lat. Quid est £acilius. 

15. It is don ; Lat. factum est. So also in v. 23. 
19. Sonnys ; Lat. filii nuptiarum. 

26. Loouys ; Lat. panes propositionis, i. e. shewbread. 

Cap. iii. ' 4. To make a soul saaf; Lat animam saluam facere. 

10. How many euere; Lat. quotquot 

21. Wodenesse, madness; Lat in farorem uersus est 

27. Diuersly rauyshe, a translation of Lat. diripiet. 

28. For, put for Lat. quoniam. 

VOL. U. Z 



39. Into itnthouten tend; Lat. in aetemum. 
34. In ^e cumpas: Lat. in circuitu eius. 

Cap. iv. 9. Cf hteryng ; Lat. audiendi. 
10. Singular; Lat. singularis. 
12. pat sum tyme; Lat. nequando. 
20. Taken; Lat. susdpiunt 

34. On^i(Us hond, aside ; Lat. seorsum. 

35. Passe we ; Lat. transeamus contra. 

39. Greet pedbhnesse ; Lat. facta est tranquillitas magna. 

Cap. ▼. 3. To hym; Lat. exeunti ei de naui. 
19. To ^ine; Lat. ad tuos, i. e. to thy relations. 
93. In ]>e laste ]>ingis ; Lat. in extremis. 

35. ^// him ^kynge ; Lat. adhuc eo loquente, answering to the (so- 
called) dative absolute in A. S. 

36. ^ word herd; Lat. audito uerbo. 
Nyle \>ou drede; Lat. noli timere. 

37. Reseeyuede ; Lat. admisit. 

38. Si^ nqyse, lit. saw a noise ; Lat. uidet tumultnm. 

39. What, put for why; Lat quid. 

40. Alle kast out ; eiectis omnibus. 

Cap. Ti. 2, pe saboth maad ; sabbato &cto. 

5. Vertu, exercise of power ; uirtutem. 
The honcKs put to ; impositis manibns. 

6. Castelis in enuyrown; castella in drcnitu. 
9. Sehoon wi^ sandalies ; calceatos sandaliis. 

14. Forsopet Sec. ; manifestum enim factum est nomen dus. 

Fro deed men ; a mortuis. 

Worehen; operantur. 
19. Leide aspies to him; insidiabatur illi. 

30. Kepte; custodiebat. 

a6. And for men, &c. ; et propter simul discumbentes, noloit earn 

37. A manquellere sent ; misso speculatore. 

31. Space for to ete; spatium manducandi. 

35. Moche our ; iam hora praeteriit. 

36. Leeue hem, send them away ; dimitte illos. 

37. Goynge, &a ; Euntes emamus ducentis denariis panes. 

41. £t acceptis duobus panibus, &c. 

50. Triste, &c. ; confidite ; ego sum ; nolite timere. 
56. Either the hem ; Lat. uel fimbriam. 

How manye, &c. ; quotquot tiangebant eum, salui fiebant 



1*8. xiv. Verse i. Eft resten, requiescet. Eft, again, Lat. re-. 

2. Qui ingreditur sine macula. Sec. 

3. And reprof &c. ; et opprobrium non accepit aduersus proximos 

4. The dredendif &c. ; timentes autem Dominum glorificat 

5. Upon the innocent; super innocentem. 
In-to withoui ende ; in aetemum. 

Fs. zziii. I. Roundnesse oflondis; orbis terranim. 
2. Befor greitJude it ; praeparauit eum. 

4. Toe not to in veyn his sovle ; non accepit in uano animam suam. 

5. And mercy t Sec; et misericordiam a Deo salutari suo. 

7. Doth ttwei ^oure ^atus ; Attollite portas (a mistranslation). 

Beth rerid out, eleuamini ; in y. 9 it is better translated, viz. beth 
rered vp. 

10. Lord of vertues ; Dominus uirtutum. Cf. note to Mark vi. 5. 

Fs. cii. I. Blesse to the Lord; Benedic Domino. 
2. Wile, &c. ; noli obliuisd onmes retributiones eius. 
4. Ayeen-bieth, buys back, redeems ; Lat. redimit. 
Mercy-'doingis, miserationibus. 

6. Doende, Sec. ; Faciens misericordias Dominus. 

9. Non in perpetuum irascetur ; neque in aetemum comminabitur. 

10. Afitr, according to ; Lat. secundum. 

14. Quoniam ipse cognouit figmentum nostrum; recordatus est quo- 
niam puluis sumus. 

15. Homo, sicut foenum dies eius; tanquam flos agri, sic efflorebit. 

16. Quoniam spiritus pertransibit in illo, et non subsistet, Sec. 

1 7. Sones of sones ; filios filiorum. 

19. His reume. Sec; regnum ipsius omnibus dominabittir. 
ao. Mi}ti bi vertue ; potentes uirtute. 

To ben herd; ad audiendum uocem sermonum eius. 


(A) Description of Britain* 

The following is an extract from Mr. Babington's preface to Higden, 
vol. ii. p. viii. 

*The natural productions of the island are enumerated in the 41st 
chapter. It is to be regretted that Higden, instead of stating facts 

Z 2 



I I 


' i I 

which must have come within his own knowledge, should have done 
little else but remand us to the classical authors Pliny and Solinus, 
and to earlier medieval writers, as Isidore, Bede, William of Malmes- 
\ bury, Alfred of Beverley, and Henry of Huntingdon. There is little 
> or nothing in their accounts of the animals, plants, or minerals of 
England to call for remarks here. Higden himself remarks principally 
on the richness of our ores, marbles, and other minerals ; of our exports 
of wool to Flanders, of iron and lead to Gascony, of salt to Ireland, 
and of white metal (so Trevisa translates aera nivea) to all Europe. 
An enumeration of some of the marvels of England follow, which may 
be passed over lightly. They are principally derived from Alfred of 
Beverley, Giraldus Cambrensis, and William of MaUnesbury. Among 
the mar\'eb are recounted various petrifying springs and windy caverns, 
while others are of a magical or supernatural character in connection 
with lakes, mountains, and caves. In conclusion it is observed that in 
no country are there more bodies of saints preserved from corruption 
than in England, as instanced in St. Etheldreda, St. Edmund, St. El- 
phege, and St. Cuthbert.* 

The English text of Trevisa in the * Rolls * edition is from MS. H. i 
in St John's College, Cambridge. It is a fine MS., and a few readings 
are given from it here. Some others have been adopted from MS. HarL 
1900, as pointed out in the footnotes. The Cotton MS. (here chiefly 
followed) has been preferred as preserving the author's own (Southern) 
dialect ; it has been collated for the * Rolls ' edition, the various read- 
ings from it being there marked by the Greek letter y. Mr. Lumby 
(vol. iii. p. XXV.) has the following remarks upon it. * In the personal 
, pronouns the favourite forms for the first person singular are ych^ ich , 
.[ andy; and for all genders of the third pe rson sin pnlar^ as well as for 
•t~nie^hird' person plural, the not unusual lorm is a! [See 1. 30.] This 
I islnbSt common for the masculine, and least common for the neuter of 
' the singular. The feminine likewise appears as Juo, also the neuter Ay/, 
.' and the pluisd,^. The orthography is also peculiar; v is very fre- 
■ queptl y^use djnst ead of/, in dicating the Southern char acter of the MS., 
but there occurs an equal number of instances of the contrary mter-. 
: change ^ There is a marked preference also shown for forms with the 
i vowel combinations 00, ev, t/y, oa, et, 00, The mark of the feminine 
form in nouns is as (as ^ wolvas , a she- wo lf, £oda St a goddes s), and a 
frequent form of the plural is on (as roj^eron, oxen). liTthe words live an d 
l^ave, the v is always represente3T)y W, as lybbe, h abbe ; and y by gg%v^ 
ligge for Tay and sigge^^Sf say. Frcterites and~peHect participles nave 


* There are no instances of/ being put for v in the extracts here given. 


unusual [i.e. the usual Southern] forms, as Ijop^ leapt, ful^ fel l. Now and 
then we find a word entirely differing from the reading in the text [i.e. from . j 
the St. John's MS.] and of a more antiquated character, a s teer, clean . I k>0*^ 
fulled, baptized, eldede, lived.* The word teer i s Welsh; cf. W. / er, pure. 

Line i. Passe^, surpasses; Lat. * vincit.* Throughout Extract A, Tre- 
visa follows Higden closely. 

10. Balenes, Lat. ^balaenae.* The words in parentheses are not in 
the Latin. 

13. Margery-perles, pearls; Lat. ' margaritas.' >^ ^ 

15. CarefiiUy observe the use of me, which is equivalent in use to the j 
French on, signifying men, people. Note also that wi^ would follow I 
reed in niodem English; cf. 1. 47. The Latin is, *quibus tinctura ( 
cocdnei coloris efficitur.' ' J 

17. W et^t the older it is; Lat. 'quo uetustior, eo solet esse ue- 

25. \e \ryfl, the essence, the most profitable part ; Lat. * desiccante se 
pinguedinis nucleo.' 

30. Gagates, the agate ; see Halliwell's Dictionary. 

^/me axe]p, if people ask about ; Lat. ' cuius si decorem requiras, 
nigro-genmieus est.* 

33. yhat, heated ; repeated in 1. 35 in the form hai. 

35. Lat. 'calefactils applicita detinet, aeque ut succinum.' Trevisa 
calls it ' suecinis, a stone that is so named.' Succinumy or rather sucinuniy 
means amber ; and there is clearly the allusion to the electrical experi- 
ment of warming and rubbing amber to cause it to attract very small 
light articles. 

48. Lat. *uelut altera Samia.' The words *))at hatte Samos also/ 
i. e. that is also called Samos, were added by Trevisa. 

51. Whyt nutayU Lat * aera niuea ; * meaning tin. 

54. A vercefyourt a versifier; not in English, but in Latin. The 
Latin has * Unde quidam metricus in laudem eius sic prorupit. 
* Henricus de Praerogativis Angliae. Versus. 
'Anglia terra ferax et fertUis angulus orbis, 
Anglia plena iocis, gens libera, digna iocari; 
Libera gens, cui libera mens et libera lingua, 
Sed lingua melior liberiorque manus.' 
Next follow ten Leonine verses, hexameters, and pentameters alternately, 
beginning — * Anglia, terrarum decus et flos finitimarum* — and ending 
(in Trevisa) at the word ixf^es (1. 69). After these six more lines, by 
one Alfridus, beginning — 

*Illa quidem longe celebri splendore beata.* 
Trevisa begins by translating these into prose ; but at 1. 61 evidently 



\ V. 

begins to aim at poetry. His lines are very irregular, but may be thus 
arranged — 

'Strange men that needetfa. 

That land well oft reliereth; 

When hunger giieveth. 
That land all such men feedeth. 

That land is good enough; 

Wonder-much fruit beareth, and com. 

That land is well at ease. 

As long as men live in peace. 

East and West all land 

Knoweth havens right well of England. 

Here ships fondes [approaeht seek to come}, 

And oft help many *londes.' 

Their meat, their *monay' 

Men have more common alway. 

For here that *creftes* 

Men will gladly give gifts. 

In land and in strand 

Well wide men speak of England. 

Land, honey, milk, cheese! 

This island shall bear the prise. 
As of lands aright, this island hath need of none ; 
All lands must seek help, needs, of this alone. 

Of liking [pleixsure'] there the * woon ' [abundanee'] 

Wonder at might Solomon; 

Riches, that there is in. 

Yearn (for) would Octavian.' 
The word ereftes^ of a craft or trade, is used here in a very singular 
manner in place of the Latin de more ; as the original has * Nam de more 
uiri sunt ibi magnifici.* In 1. 72, neodes signifies 0/ necessity, as usual. 

76. Maysier ; probably Maistresse (as in the John^s MS.) was intended. 
The Latin is * Quibus fontibus praesul est numen Mineruae.' 

81. Pectoun; Lat. *Peccum.' The reference seems to be to the 
Peak in Derbyshire, as Henry of Huntingdon has the words * in monte 
qui uocatur Pee; * Monum. Hist Brit. p. 694. In fact, a short pass near 
Castleton is still called the Wirmats or Wind-gates. Another wonder of 
the Peak is the chasm called the Eldon-hole. 

88. Cherdkol, Henry of Huntingdon has Chederhole, i. e. Cheddar 
in Somerset ; see Mr. Babington*s note, vol. il p. ix. Mr. Lumby adds 
(vol. iii. p. xxvii.) * it is worth while to observe that Ceadboldes wgk 
is mentioned (Cod. Dipl. 427, 1198) near La mboume and Welford in * 
Berkshire, and seems to approach more nearly to the name in tke text. 



The name Chaddleworth exists still in that neighbourhood, and close by 
is the carious natural feature known as Wayland Smith's cave/ 

96. Egle hys nest, eagle's nest. The genitive case-ending in A. S. 
was -*« jBc in Tnof!f>]i^ " Hutch and Ge rman ; in Early English i t was -es 
This ending was sometimes by careless scribes written apart 

or -15. 

iVorii the word, so that we find sont is written for sones (Romans of Par 
tenay, 1. 38). Conversely, the word Jus was often spelt is (William of 
Paleme, 1. 8) ; and hence arose a curious confusion, by which, at the 
close of the fourteenth century, such substitutions as egle hys for egles 
became common. But besides this, the use of his, after a proper name, 
sprang up independently, for the sake of convenience of expression, as is 
apparent from the later text of Layamon ; in which case it is not to be 
regarded as a mistake, but as an intentional periphrasis. See Sir F. 
Madden's * Glossarial Remarks* on Layamon, 1. 1459 ; and an article in 
the Cambridge Philological Museum, vol. ii. p. 245. At a later period, 
the frequent use of bis suggested the use of her after feminine nouns 
(names especially) ; but this is far less common, and seems to have 
been rather avoided than sought. Lastly, the error arose, and is still 
current, of looking upon his as the real sign of the genitive case, and 
of supposing eagles to be derived, not from the Old English egles, but 
from the awkward periphrasis egle hys. The plain answer to which 
absurd notion is to remember that we cannot thus account for such 
words as woman* s, queerCs, and the like; and that to suppose his to 
be itself a contraction of he his (as, by the same rule, it would be) is to 
offer an inexplicable explanation. 

114. There are actually such phenomena as wind-caverns. * From a \\ ■ / 
blowing cave in the Alleghany Mountains a hundred feet in diameter, \ \ /' ' /( 
the current of air is so strong as to keep the weeds prostrate at the I ' 
distance of sixty feet from its mouth. But the most extraordinary / 
example is the great cavern of Ouybe, of unknown extent, in Central y 
Asia.* Atlas of Physical Geography, by Petermann and Milner, p. J3. ^ 

117. TVtf in'to yre, wood into iron. He evidently means stone, and 
alludes to petrifaction. Cf Hamlet, iv. 7. ao. 

123. Wynhurney; Lat. monasterium Wynbumense. Clearly Wim- 
bome, or Wimbome Minster, in Dorsetshire. But it must be at least 
fifty miles from Bath. 

136. Pimbilmere; the English name for the Bala Lake, through which 
the river Dee runs. The sources of the river are in the Berwyn 
mountains. ^ 

143. Etheldred; Lat. Etheldreda. The day of St. Etheldreda, virgin | 
and martyr, is June 23 in the Romish, but Oct. 17 in the English j ^ 
calendar. She founded a convent at Ely, and died as its abbess a.d. 679. v/\ji y\^ 
She was commonly called St. Audry, and from her name, as is well I 

344 NOTES. 

known, is derived the word tawdry, originally applied to fineries bought 
at St. Audry's iair at Ely. Compare Tooley Street, named from Si. 
Olavi. See Chamber's Book of Days, ii. 459. 

The day of St. Edmimd, king and martyr, is Nov. ao or 22. He was 
shot to death with arrows by the Danes a.d. 870. By St. Elphege is 
meant ^Ifheah, archbishop of Canterbury, martyred by the Danes 
A.D. 1012. — Freeman^s Old Eng. History for Children, p. 219. His day 
is April 19; see under that date in Chambers' Book of Days. St. 
Cuthbert, bishop of Lindisfame, died March 20, a.o. 687 ; Chambers' 
Book of Days, i. 395. 

150. By comparing this chapter with the original, we find that 
Trevisa has added something of his own, viz. the passage beginning 
with 1. 175 down to the word Frensch in 1. 190. The whole chapter is 
of considerable importance, and has been frequently quoted from ; for 
which reason Higden's Latin version is here subjoined. 

* Ut patet ad sensum, quot in hac insula sunt gentes, tot gentium quot 
linguae; Scot! tamen et Wallani, utpote cum aliis nationibus imper- 
mixti, ad purum paene pristinum retinent idioma ; nisi forsan Scoti, ex 
conuictu Pictorum, cum quibus olim coufoederati cohabitabant, quip- 
piam contraxerint in sermone. Flandrenses uero, qui ocddua Walliae 
incolunt, dimissa iam barbaric, Saxonice satis proloquuntur. Angli 
quoque, quamquam ab initio tripartitam sortirentur linguam, austrinum 
scilicet, mediterraneam, et borealem, ueluti ex tribus Germaniae populis 
procedentes, ex commixtione tamen primo cum Danis, delude cum Nor-> 
mannis, corrupta in multis patria lingua peregrinos iam captant boatus 
et garritus. Haec quidem natiuae linguae corruptio prouenit hodie 
multum ex duobus ; quod uidelicet pueri in scholis, contra morem cae- 
terarum nationum, a primo Normannorum aduentu, derelicto proprio 
uulgari, construere Gallice compelluntur ; item quod filii nobilium ab 
ipsis cunabulorum crepundiis ad Gallicum idioma infqrmantur. Quibus 
profecto rurales homines assimilari uolentes, ut per hoc spectabiliores 
uideantur, francigenare satagunt omni nisu. Ubi nempe mirandum 
uidetur, quomodo natiua et propria Anglorum lingua, in unica insula 
coartata, pronuntiatione ipsa sit tam diuersa ; cum tamen Normannica 
lingua, quae aduentitia est, uniuoca maneat penes cunctos. De prae- 
dicta quoque lingua Saxonica tripartita, quae in paucis adhuc agrestibus 
uix remansit, orientales cum occiduis, tanquam sub eodem coeli climate 
lineati, plus consonant in sermone quam boreales cum austrinis. Inde 
est quod Mercii sine Mediterranei Angli, tanquam participantes na- 
turam extremorum, collaterales linguas arcticam et antarcticam melius 
intelligant quam adinuicem se intelligunt iam extremi. Tota lingua 
Northimbrorum, maxime in Eboraco, ita stridet incondita, quod nos 
australes eam uix intelligere possumus; quod puto propter uiciniam 


l)arbarontin contigisse, et etiam propter iugem remotioncm regiim 
Anglorum ab illis partibus, qui magis ad austnim diuersati, si quando 
boreales partes adeunt, non nisi magoo auxiliatomm manu pergunt. 
Frequentioris antem morae in austrinis partibus quam in borealibus 
causa potest esse gleba feracior, plebs numerosior, urbes insigniores, 
portus accommodatiores.' 

153- Sole yfy except it be that; a translation of nisi forsan. 

168. A Freynsch, in French. See the passage at p. 9, 11. 216 to 219. ^^ 

175. Here begins Trevisa's addition. The furste moreyn is the first / 
great plague, a.d. 1349. See note to Section XV, v. 13. Johan Cornwal V 
was probably, like Trevisa, a native of the county of Cornwall ; Pen- \ 
crych certainly appears to be a Cornish name. 

180. He gives the date 1385, which he also calls the ninth year of 
Richard's reign. This is correct, as this ninth year was from June 22, 
1385, to June 21, 1386. 

187. pan can here lift hde, than their left heel knows. 

188. tf a scholle passe, if they shall cross. 
202. Party 0/ heuene, i.e. degree of latitude; Lat. 'sub eodem 

climate lineati.' In old astronomy, a clima or climate was a portion 
the earth bounded by two given lines of latitude ; cf. our use of zone, J 


(B) TJ&f Norman Invasion, 

Compare this passage with Section I. and the Notes to that section. 

9. NameUche, especially, in particular. 

21. Robert, archbishop of Canterbury, was deprived of his bishopric 
in 1052, at the time when Earl Godwine was again received into favour 
by Edward the Confessor. He was succeeded by Stigand. 

27. William Filz-Osbem is the right name; see Freeman's Old Eng. 
Hist, for Children, p. 303 ; or Freeman's Norman Conquest, iii. 258. 

48. A similar story is told of Caesar when he landed in Africa ; 
Freeman^s Old Eng. Hist. p. 317. 

50. One of the Penivian princes is said to have made a similar 
remark, viz. ' We must spare our enemies, or it will be our loss, since 
they' and all that belongs to them must soon be ours ; ' Prescott, Con- 
quest of Peru, bk. i. c. 2. 

65. See Freeman's Old Eng. Hist. p. 328. 

69. See the same, p. 325 ; and the whole account of the battle, pp. 

104. In and out, inside out. Bourd, a jest. 

136. See the story, quoted from Giraldus (Itin. Kamb. ii. ii> in 
Freeman's Norman Conquest, iii. 758. To this account Higden (lib. vi: 

34^ NOTES. 

p. 286, Gale) adds that the scene of Harold's penance was ' oella Sancti 
lacobi, iuxta ecclesiam Sancti lohannis ; ' which statement Trevisa here 


A story, agreeing closely with The Man of Lawes Tale, is found in 

I Book II. of Gower's Confessio Amantis, from whom Tyrwhitt supposes 
that Chaucer borrowed it. He observes further that it resembles in 
many points The I^yjof Emar e, which is printed in the second volume 
of Ritson's Metrical Ro mances. The story also exists in French prose 
(^ Nicholas Trivef) In MSTArundel 56, in the British Museum. In 
som'e'placerChaucer agreerwith tEis French version tolerably closely, 
but he makes variations and additions at pleasure. 

The first ninety-eight lines of the preceding Prologue are written in 
couplets, in order to link the Tale to the others of the series ; but there 
is nothing to shew which of the other tales it was intended to follow. 
Next follows a more special Prologue of thirty-five lines, in five stanzas 
of seven lines each; so that the first line in the Tale itself is 1. 134 of the 
second of the fragments into which the Canterbury Tales are broken up, 
owing to the incomplete state in which Chaucer left them. 

In this extract, such final e*s as may be considered to form a distinct 
syllable are marked by two dots above. In like manner -es is marked, 
when forming a distinct syllable. There are, in general, sufficient 
reasons for the full pronunciation of these final syllables, but these 
cannot here be stated. The reader is referred to Morris's edition of 
Chaucer's Prologue and ICnightes Tale (Clarendon Press Series), p. xliv. 
for general rules ; and to Ellis's Early English Pronunciation for a full 
discussion of the subject. In the first stanza, for example, the word 
trewe is dissyllabic, being plural ; hewe is so, because it is an oblique 
case governed by the prep, of, which formerly governed a dative, though 
now associated with the idea of a possessive case ; newe is so, because 
modified from the A. S. dissyllabic niwe, Chaffare is an infinitive mood, 
and infinitives are^ commonly marked by the termination -g or ■€» ( A. S. 
-an). Ware is dissyllabic, being the A.S? wdru. Sometimes an e is 
sounded in the middle of a word, as in wydewher (three syllables). 
Observe also clothe (A.S. eld^as). In some French words, such as 
eompanye, the pronunciation of the e final is less certain, and seems to 
partake of poetic licence ; yet there is nothing very remarkable in the 
assumption, since the same word contains four syllables to this day, and 
is accented on the penultimate, both in Spanish and Italian ; cf.. Span. 
compania and Ital. compagma* Again, such words as grace, space, from 


the Latin p'atiam, spattum, may fairly be allowed two syllables ; espe- 
cially when we find cause (Lat. cattsam) with two syllables; Cant. Tales, 
4142, 5705. Against this view it has been ui^ed that French words, in 
French poetry, did not at that time exhibit a distinct final -f ; and that 
such a word as rose, for example, was then a pure monosyllable in 
French poetry. On the other hand, it is fair to suppose that such a 
word, when completely adopted into English, would become dissyllabic 
as in German; and hence Chaucer so uses it in the Knightes Tale, 1. 180. 
The fact seems to have been that, in Chaucer's time, the habit of the 
Southern and Midland dialects inclined to the pronunciation of the final 
-«, whilst the French habit inclined to its suppression. In the conflict, 
the English habit prevailed at Jirst for a short time only, but was soon 
overwhelmed, and succumbed completely. Moreover, if the final e be 
followed by a vowel, or (in some cases) by the letter h, it is elided, 
or, to speak more strictly, slurred over by rapid pronunciation. This is 
why the e is left unmarked in the words dwelte (134), riche, sadde (135), 
and riche again (137). Chaucer's lines, if read with attention, are beau- 
tifiilly melodious. 

Line 134. Surrye, Syria; called Sarazine (Saracen-land) by N. Trivet. 

145. The final e in Rome is pronoi^ced, as in 1. 142 ; but the words 
the ende are to be run together, forming but one syllable, thende, accord- 
ing to Chaucer's usual practice; cf. note to 1. 255. Indeed, in 1. 423, 
it is actually so spelt; just as, in 1. 150, we have thexcellent, and in 1. 151, 

151. Themperoures, the emperor's. Gower calls him Tiberius Con- 
stantine, who was Emperor (not of Rome, but) of the East, aj>. 578, and 
was succeeded, as in the story, by Maurice, a.d. 582. His capital was 
Constantinople, whither merchants from Syria could easily repair ; but 
the greater fame of Rome caused the substitution of the Western for the 
Eastern capital. 

166. Mirour, mirror. Such French words are frequently accented on 
the last syllable. 

171. Han doonfraught, have caused to be freighted. 

1 85. Ceriously, with great minuteness of detail. It is the Low Latin 
seriose, used in two senses; (i) seriously, gravely; (2) minutely, fully. 
In the latter case it is perhaps to be referred to the Lat. series, not 
serius. A similar word, cereatly (Lat. seriatim) is found three times in the 
Romance of Partenay, ed. Skeat, with the sense of m due order. 

190. This refers to the old belief in astrology and the casting of 
nativities. Compare Scott's novel of * Guy Mannering.' 

197. Tyrwhitt shews that this stanza is imitated closely from some 
Latin lines, some of which are quoted in the margin of many MSS. of 

/. ( 



Chaucer. He quotes them at length from the Megacosmos of Bemardus 
Silvestris, a poet of the twelfth century. The names Ector (Hector), &c. 
are too well known to require conmient. The death of Tumus is told at 
the end of Virgil's ^neid. 

305. ' And, briefly to pass away from this matter ; ' i. e. to get over it 

207, 208. Here haue seems to be used as the form of the auxiliary 
verb, whilst kan signifies possession. See kan again in 1. 241. 
C 224. Mahoun^ Mahomet. The French version does not mention 
\ Mahomet. This is an anachronism on Chaucer*s part ; the Emperor 
] Tiberius II. died a.d. 582, when Mahomet was but twelve years old. 
^ 228. 7 prey yow kolde, I pray you to hold. Here holde is the infinitive 
mood. The imperative plural would be holdeth; see saueth in the next 

236. MaumeUrie, idolatry ; from the O. £. maumet, an idol, corrupted 
from Mahomet. The confusion introduced by using the word Mahomet 
for an idol may partly account for the anachronism in 1. 324. See note 
to Sect. VII. 1. 378. 

242. Not, put for ne wot, know not. 

248. An imperfect line. There are a few such lines in Chaucer, in 
which the csesural pause seems to count for a syllable. Scan it thus: — 
That th^m | per6ur jj — 6f | his gr6t | noblesse || 
255. Vnowe, being plural, may take a final e; we should then read 
th*ende, as explained in note to 1. 145. The pi. ino^e occurs in the 

263. AUe and some, collectively and individually, all and singular, 

one and all. See Some in the Glossary, and cf. note to Sect. IV (c). 1. 28. 

276. Ve. It was a mark of respect to use ye for thou. It is most 

curious to observe that, although Constance says thou to her father, she 

says ye to her * souerayn plesance.' 

295. In the margin of the EUesmere MS. is written — * Vnde Ptholo- 

meus, libro i. cap. 8. Primi motus celi duo sunt, quorum vnus est qui 

mouet totum semper ab Oriente in Occidentem vno modo super orbes, 

&c. Item aliter vero motus est qui mouet orbem stellarum currendum 

contra motum primum, videlicet, ab Occidente in Orientem super alios 

f duos polos.* The old astronomy imagined nine spheres revolving round 

I the central stationary earth ; of the seven innermost, each carried with it 

1 one of the seven planets, viz. the Moon, Venus, Mercury, Sun, Mars, 

I Jupiter, and Saturn ; the eighth sphere, that of the fixed stars, had a 

' slow motion from west to east, to account for the precession of the 

equinoxes, whilst the ninth or outermost sphere, called the primum^ 

mobile, or the sphere of first motion, had a diurnal revolution from east 

to west, carrying everything with it. This exactly corresponds with 


^ Chaucer's language. He addresses the outermost sphere or primum 
mobile (which is the ninth if reckoning from within, but the >£rs/ from 
without), and accuses it of carrying with it everything in its irresistible 
westward motion ; a motion contrary to that of the * natural ' motion, 
viz. that in which the sun advances along the signs of the zodiac. The 
' result was that the planet Mars, hurried into a position of evil influence, 
prevented the marriage. 

302. A planet is said to ascend directly, when in a direct sign ; but 
tortuously when in a tortuous sign. The tortuous signs are those which 
ascend most obliquely to the horizon, viz. the signs from Capricomus to 
Gemini inclusive. The most 'tortuous* of these are the two middle 
ones, Pisces and Aries. Of these two, Aries is called the ' mansion ' of 
Mars, and we may therefore suppose that Chaucer is speaking of Aries, 
the lord of which (Mars) is said to fall * from his angle into the darkest i 
house.' The sign of Aries rises so obliquely that the whole of it appears | 
alcove the horizon in less than an hour. The use of the word ' angle ' is 
technical. The whole sphere was divided into twelve ' houses,' or equal 
parts. Of these, four were called * angles,' four others * succedents,' and 1 
the rest ' cadents.' It seems to be meant that Mars was not placed in I 
an * angle ' or lucky ' house,' but in the unluckiest of the four ' cadent' 
houses, and so in the * darkest house' of all. See the full explanation in | 
Chaucer's Treatise on the Astrolabe, ed. Skeat ; p. Hi. 

305. The meaning of Atazir has never hitherto been discovered. But, 
by the kind help of Mr. Bensly, one of the sub-librarians of the Cam- 
bridge University Library, we are now enabled to explain it. In Spanish, 
the letter z (or e before t ) is pronounced like tk ; hence atazir or atadr 
is the Spanish spelling of the Arabic attatkir, influence, given at p. 13 of 1 
Freytag's Arabic Lexicon. It is a noun derived from dihara, a verb of 
the second conjugation, meaning to leave a mark on, from the substantive 
ithar, a mark. Its use in astrology is commented upon by Dozy, who 
gives it in the form atacir, in his Glossaire des Mots Espagnols d^rivds 
de I'Arabique, p. 107. It signifies the influence of a star or planet upon 
other stars, or upon the fortunes of men. In the present case it is 
clearly used in a bad sense; we may therefore translate it by 'evil in- 
fluence.* On this common deterioration in the meaning of words, see 
Trench, Study of Words, p. 53. The word craft, for example, is a very 
similar instance; it originally meant skill, and hence, a trade, and we 
find star-craft used in particular to signify the science of astronomy. 

307. *Thou art in conjunction in an unfavourable position; from 
the position in which thou wast favourably placed thou art moved 

.\i J. * Is there no choice as to when to fix the voyage?* The favour- 
able moment for commencing a voyage was one of the poiats on which 

350 NOTES. 

it was considered desirable to have an astrologer's opinion. Travelling, 
at that time, was a serious matter. 

314. Roote is the astrological term for the epoch from which to reckon. 
The exact moment of a nativity being knoMm, the astrologers were sup- 
posed to be able to calculate everything else. 

333. Alkaron, the Koran ; ai is the Arabic article. 

333. Here Makomete is used instead of Makoun (1. 224). See Extract 
XIV (B). 

Message^ messenger. This is a correct form; according to the 
usages of early English. In like manner we find prison used to mean a 
prisoner, which is often puzzling at first sight. 

340. * Because we denied Mahomet, our (object of) belief.' 

356. *She shall have difficulty in washing away the red;* i.e. the 

360. * O serpent under female form ; ' alluding to the curious belief 
that Satan had the head of a woman with the tail of a serpent; as in 
Piers the Plowman, B. xviii. 335. A scorpion was also said to have this 
shape; cf. 1. 404. 

367. Knowestaw is probably a trisyllable; and the olde to be read 
thoUe, But in 1. 371, the word Mahestow, being differently placed in the 
line, is to be read with the e slurred over, almost a dissyllable. 

380. Moste, might. It is not always used like the modem mmt, 

401. See Lucan's Pharsalia. 

404. There are undoubtedly a few lines in Chaucer, in which the first 
foot consists of one syllable only ; this is one of them, the word But 
standing by itself as a foot See Ellis's Early English Pronunciation, 
pp. 333, 649. This peculiarity was pointed out by Mr. Skeat in 1866, 
in the Aldine edition of Chaucer, i. 174. 

421. Pronounce euer rapidly, and accent successour on the first 

438. Compare Trivet's French prose version : — * Dount ele fist estorier 
vne neef de vitaile, de payn quest apele bisquit, & de peis, & de feues, 
de Sucre, & de meel, & de vyn, pur sustenaunce de la vie de la pucele 
pur treis aunz ; e en cele neef fit mettre la richesse & le tresour que 
lempire Tiberie auoit maunde oue la pucele Constaunce, sa fille ; e en 
cele neef fist la soudane mettre la pucele saunz sigle, & sauntz neuiroun, 
& sauntz chescune maner de eide de homme.' I. e. * Then she caused a 
ship to be stored with victuals, with bread that is called biscuit, with 
peas, beans, sugar, honey, and wine, to sustain the maiden's life for three 
years. And in this ship she caused to be placed the riches and treasure 
which the Emperor Tiberius had sent with the maid Constance his 
daughter ; and in this ship the Sultaness caused the maiden to be put, 
without sail or oar, or any kind of human aid.' 


Foot-koty hastily. It occurs in Gower, in The Romaunt of the 
Rose, 1. 3827, and in Barbour's Bruce, iii. 418. 

4(10. Hym and here, him and her, i e. man and woman ; as in Sect. 
XV. Pass. i. 1. 100. 

464. See cf Grace, here put for the Mediterranean Sea. 

Marrok, Morocco ; dlluding to the Strait of Gibraltar. 

474. llker, where ; as usual. 

475. * Was eaten by the lion ere he could escape.* 
491. See Revelation vii.' I --3. 

497. Here As seems to form a foot by itself. See note to L 404. " 

500. Alluding to St. Mary the Egyptian {Maria Egiptutea) who» 
according to the legend, after a youth spent in debauchery, lived entirely 
alone for the last forty-seven years of her life in the wilderness beyond 
the Jordan. , 

508. Northumberlond, the district* not the county. Yorkshire is, in 
fact, meant, as the French version expressly mentions the Humber. 

513. Tlie constable; named Elda by Trivet and Gower. 

519. Trivet says that she answered Elda in his own language, 
'ea sessoneys,* in Saxon, for she had learnt many languages in her 

525. The word deye seems to have had two pronunciations ; in 1. 644 
it is dye, with a different rime. 

527. Forgat hir tnynde, had lost her memory. 

531. The final e in plese is preserved from elision by the csesural 
pause. Or, we may read plesen ; yet the MSS. have plese. 

578. Alia, i. e. ^Ila, king of Northumberland, a. d. 560-588; the same 
whose name Pope Gregory turned, by a pun, into Alleluia, according to 
some versions of the celebrated story about Gregory and the English 

585. ' The plot of the knight against Constance, and also her subse- 
quent adventure with the steward, are both to be found, with some vari- 
ations, in a story in the Gesta Romanorum, ch. 101 ; MS. HarL 2270. 
Occleve has versified the whole story.* Tyrwhitt. Compare the con- 
duct of lachimo, in Cymbeline. 

584. Quite her while, repay her time ; i. e. her occupation, action. 
Wile is not intended. 

645. Perhaps seyn is pronounced seyen, a dissyllable. 

660. ' For pite renneth sone in gentil herte ; ' Knightes Tale, 1. 903. 

664. Vs auyse, deliberate with ourselves, consider the matter again. 
Compare the law-phrase Le roi s'avisera^ by which the king refuses 
assent to a measure proposed. 

666. I. e. a copy of the Gospels in Welsh or British, called in the 
French prose version * liure des Ewangeiles.' Agreements were some- 

352 NOTES, 

times written on the fly-leaves of copies of the Gospels, as may still be 
seen in two copies of the A. S. version of them. 

669. A very similar miracle is recorded in the old alliterative romance 
of Joseph of Arimathea. The French version has: — *a peine auoit 
fini la parole, qe vne mayn close, com poyn de homme, apparut deuant 
Elda et quant questoient en presence, et ferri tiel coup en le haterel le 
feloun, que ambedeus lez eus lui enuolerent de la teste, & les dentz hors 
de la bouche ; & le feloun chai abatu a la terre ; et a ceo dist vne voiz 
en le oyance de touz : Aduersus filiam matris ecclesie ponebas scanda- 
lum ; hec fecisti, et tacui.' I. e. * Scarcely had he ended the word, when 
a closed hand, like a man's fist, appeared before Elda and all who were 
in the presence, and smote such a blow on the nape of the felon's neck 
that both his eyes flew out of his head, and the teeth out of his mouth ; 
I and the felon fell smitten down to the earth ; and thereupon a voice said 
in the hearing of all, ** Against the daughter of Mother Church thou 
wast laying a scandal ; this hast thou done, and I held my peace." ' 

693, The story may conveniently be broken off here, with Constance^s 

momentary happiness. After many further troubles, the son of ^lla 

and Constance, named Maurice, succeeds Tiberius as emperor of Rome. 

I This is an allusion to the fact that a Maurice (who was, however, a 

i^ Cappadocian) succeeded Tiberius II as emperor of the East, a. d. 582. 

f I 


The numbering of the lines in these extracts is arbitrary. The Fifth 
Book is of great length, and the extracts begin at some distance from 
the beginning of it. 

' Chap. cix. [of the Gesta Romanorum contains the story of] the chest 
and the three pasties. A like story is found in Boccace's Decameron, 
X. I., in the Cento Novelle Antiche, Nov. Ixv., and in Gower's Confessio 
Amantis, lib. v. The story, however, as it stands in Gower, seems to 
i ' be copied from one which is told by the hermit Barlaam to king Avena- 
, , more, in the spiritual Romance, written originally in Greek about the 
year 800, by Johannes Damascenus, a Greek monk, and translated into 
.' , Latin before the thirteenth century, entitled Barlaam and Josaphat, But 
Gower's immediate author, if not Boccace, was perhaps Vincent of 
Beauvais, who wrote about the year 1 290, and who has incorporated 
Damascenus's history of Barlaam and Josaphat, who were canonised, 
into his Speculum Historiale. Barlaam 's fable is probably the remote 
but original source of Shakespeare's Caskets in the Merchiuit of Venice.' 
Warton, Hist. Eng. Poetry, i. clxxiii. ed. 1840; i. 271, ed. 1871. 

XX. yOBN OOWER. 353 

The final 8 commonly forms a distinct syllable, as in Chaucer, except 
when slurred over before a following vowel. Thus we have mosih, 1. 2 ; 
olde, 1. II ; atti (for at ike), 1. 15 ; wiste, 1. 32, and the like. So also 
htmdis, 1. 34 ; auancement (four syllables) 1. 7. 

Lines 38, 39. Mull, mould, dust ; meined, mingled ; /dde, filled. 
44. A herd vpset, a table set up (upon trestles). 
119. There are several peculiarities of expression in this story which 
can only be rightly understood by observing the language of the original 
from which Gower is, to a great extent, translating. In this account he 
closely follows the story as told by Ovid, Metamorph. vii. 164-293, and 
the Latin version should be compared with the English one throughout. 
139. 'Above her clothes she wore a girdle.' In this and the two 
preceding lines, Gower copies Ovid. 

*£greditur tectis, uestes induta recinctas, 
Nuda pedem, nudos humeris infusa capillos; 
Fertque uagos mediae per muta silentia noctis 
Incomitata gradus ;* Metamorph. vii. 182-5. 
So again, the expression in 1. 13a above is Ovid's — ' Sidera sola 
micant;' 1. 188. 

145. * Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine. 

And thrice again, to make up nine.' Macbeth, i. 3. 
Ovid has, in like manner — 

*Ter se conuertit; ter sumtis flumine crinem 
Irrorauit aquis; temis ululatibus ora 
Soluit ; et, in dura submisso poplite terra,' &c. 
149. A drechinge onde, a labouring, heavily-drawn breath. 
153. Observe that a difference is here made between vnnd and air. 
In exactly the same way we find in Piers the Plowman, B. ix. 3, that the 
c^tle of m a n*s body is said to be made of four things, viz. wind, air » 
TOter, and earth. It is, however, most likely that the use of thes e 
wor ds by Go wer was'merely due to the wording of the original, as the 
corresponding line m u'vid" runs thus : — ■ " 

'Auraeque et uenti, montesque, amnesque, lacusque.' 
155. EchaUs, i.e. Hecate, as in Macbeth, iv. i. Ovid has — 'tuque, 
triceps Hecate ; * Metamorph. vii. 194. 

168. ]k) parties, those parts. Thessaly is meant ; see 1. 192. The 
aiention of Crete in this line is a singular mistake; Ovid does not 
mention that island at all, but has the line : — 

'Despicit, et cretis regionibus applicat angues.' 
The sense of cretis is not quite certain, but it is generally considered 
as equivalent to ereteis, i.e. chalky. See the long note in Burmann*s 
edition of Ovid. 

VOL. II. A a 

354 J^OTES, 

171. Othrys and Olympus, mountain-ranges of Thessaly. 

179. Amphrysus, Peneus, and Spercheus, are rivers of Thessaly ; the 
fourth river is wrongly called Eridian by Gower. The original has 
Apidanus, which also is a Thessalian river ; but the English poet was 
evidently more familiar with the Eridanus, now called the Po. 

204-208. For these five lin6s Ovid merely has — ^'et tantum coelo 
tegitur/ which Gower, singularly enough, seems to have understood to 
mean that she became invisible, and was covered otdy with air; but it 
refers rather to her remaining out-of-doors. 

211. luuente, i. e. Juventas, the Latin name of Hebe, the goddess of 

214. Fieldwode msiy he taken perhaps to mean Jieldwori or gentian; 
but it is evident that Gower obtained the word by translating the words 
agresHs silua in the line — . 

'Has ubi uerbenis siluaque indnxit agresti.' 

241. Spelling ofhir charmes, recital of her spells. 

301. Cimpheius, put for Cinyphiusy which is, however, an adjective, and 
has reference to the African river Cinyphus. Ovid has-» 

* Nee defuit illis 
Squamea Cinyphii tenuis membrana chelydri.' 

303. Chelidrey Lat. Chelydrus (Virgil), Gk. x^^vS^s, an amphibious 
and venomous serpent. See above. 

311. Cf. * Scale of dragon, tooth of wolf. 

Witches* mummy, maw and gulf 

Of the ravin'd salt-sea shark,* Sec. Macbeth, iv. i. 


Section XVIII (a). This • Description of Britain ' may be compared 
with the opening Imes of Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle, and the first 
section of Camden^s Remaines concerning Britain. 

Section XIX. 295. It is worth while to note the following passage 
in Chaucer's translation of Boethius : — ' O ])ou maker of ])e whele ]».t 
berej) )>e sterres, whiche "pat art fastned to J?i perdurable chayere ; and 
tumest l>e heuene wi)> a rauyssyng sweighe and constreinest j)e sterres to 
suf&en ]>i lawe;* ed. Morris, p. 21 ; see also pp. 106, no* 


[For words beginning with K sec 7% ; for words beginning with 3, after F.} 

Abbreviations employed^ and List of Dictionaries referred to. 

A. S. = Anglo-Saxon (Bosworth, 

Ch. = Chaucer (Clar. Press Series). 
Dan. B Danish (Ferrall and Repp). 
Du.« Dutch (Tauchnitz). 
E.= English (Webster, revised by 

Goodrich, Porter, and Mahn). 
F. « French (Pick's Etymological 

G.= German (Fliigel). 
Gael. » Gaelic (Macleod and Dewar). 
Icel. 3= Icelandic (Egilsson, Mobius, 

It. as Italian (Meadows). 
Low Lat.s=Low Latin (Ducange). 
Mceso-Goth. =Mceso-Gothic(Skeat). 
O.E.«01d EngUsh (Halliwell, Strat- 


O.F. = OId French (Burguy^ Roque- 

O. H. G. = Old High German (Wack- 

P. PI. s= Piers the Plowman (ed. Skeat, 
or ed. Wright). 

Prompt. Parv. — Promptorium Parvu- 
lonim, ed. Way (Camden Society). 

Prov. E.B Provincial English (Halli- 

Sc. = Scottish (Jamieson). 

Sp.= Spanish (Meadows). 

Sw. = Swedish (Tauchnitz). 

Suio -Goth. «= Suio - Gothic, or Old 
Swedish (Ihre). 

W. = Welsh (Spurrell). 

Wedgwood = Wedgwood's Et)rmo- 
logical English Dictionary. 

Also adj. adjective ; adv. adverb ; num. numeral ; pres, part, present par- 
ticiple ; pp. past participle, &c. 

The following abbreviations are used in a particular sense : — v. verb in the 
infinitive mood ; pr. s., pt. s. the third person singular of the present or past 
tense ; pr. pi., pt. pi, the third person plural of those tenses, except when 
I ^. or 2 p. is added ; imp. s., imp. pi., the second person singular or plural 
of the imperative mood. 

Further information concerning many of the words may be found in the 
Glossaries to Chaucer's Prologue and Knightes Tale and to Piers the Plow- 
man in the Clarendon Press Series, to which the reader is particularly 


A. for ane, i. e. one, one and the 
same, 10. 1418; one, a single, 
15 i. 99 ; the Harl. MS. has oon, 
A.S. dn. 

A, prep, in, I a, 466; a jfre= in 
three, 18 a. 199; in, on, 6. 33, 
1 16; aFreynsch, into French, 18 a. 

168 ; on, I &. 3 ; a nyhi, on night, 

at night, 4 c. 25 ; a rode, on the 

cross, 9. 239. A. S. on. 
A, prep, of, 15 ^. 6. A. S. of. 
A, put for he, with the sense of it, 

18 a. zo; for he, 18 a. 188, &c.; 

put for they, 18 a. 185, &c 

Aa 2 



Abale, in phr, at )>e abaie, i. e. at 
bay, when at bay, la. 206; at 
abaye, 12. 46. O.F. haer^ to open 
the mouth ; It. tenere a bada, to 
keep open-mouthed, to keep at 
bay. See Bay in Wedgwood. 

AbaiBOlit, pp. astonished (lit. 
abashed), 17* Mar.- ▼. 42; A- 
bayste, afraid, 10. 1430; Abashed, 
frightened, 5. 5642. O. F. es- 
bahir, to frighten, from baer, to 
open the mouth, cry ba or bo, 
Cf. Prov. £ng. basb, modest. 

Abashed. See Abaisoht. 

A-baye. See Abaie. 

Abayste. See Abalscht. 

Abbe, V. to have, i a. 20, 154 ; 
2 p. pr. pi, Abbe}>, i a. 4, 179; 
Abbe y-do, have done, 1 a. 501. 
A.S. hahhan, 

Abbeis, s6. pi. F. abbeys, i a. 277. 

Abbod, s5. abbot, i b, 58; pL 
Abbodes, I a. 397. A. S. abbod, 
from the Lat. abbas, gen. abhatis. 

Abide, v. to wait for, i a. 92 ; to 
wait, tarry, i a. 99 ; pr. s. Abit, 
abides, 3. 248 ; imp. s, Abyde, 3. 
244; Abyd, 3. 245; pt. pi. 
Abide, they waited for, I a, 58. 
A. S. abidan, from bidan, to wait. 

Aboue, prep, above, i a. 126; 

prep, as s6. in phr. at here aboue 

Bsat their exaltation, i.e. having 

the upper hand, 18 a. 134. A.S. 


Abuflioun, sb. F. imposture, deceit, 
19. 214. See Cotgrave's F. Diet. 

Abyme, sb. abyss, 13. 363. F. 
abime, O.F. abisnu; Gk. d, not, 
$va<r6t, depth, bottom. 

Abyt, pr, s. abides, delays, 9. 40. 
See Abide. 

Ao, conj. but, I a. 95, 136; 6. 29. 
A.S. ac, 

Aooord, sb. agreement, 19. 244. 

Aohaped, pt. s. escaped, 13. 970. 
O.F. eschapper. See Escape in 
Wedgwood. Cf. £. skip, 

Aohtaade, adj, eighth, 8 a. 129. 

Aoorde, pr. pi, agree, ao. 85; 

AcordeK 18 a. 202 ; pres, part, 

Accordyng, suiting, suitable, 18 a. 

20; pp. Accorded, agreed, 19. 

238. Lat. eor.' 
Aoouped, pp. accused, 5. 5679 

O. F. encolper, from Lat. culpa. 

Cf. E. culprit, corrupted from cul- 

pit or culpat, Lat. culpatus. 
Aooyed, pt. s, F. coaxed, 12. 56. 

£. coy, from Lat. quietus, 
A08e|), pr. s. demands, 9. 32 ; asks, 

9. 33. See Aze>. 
Aoumbrid, pp. F. encumbered, 15. 

i. 179. F. encombrer, prob. from 

a Teutonic source; G. kummer, 

Adauiitede,//.s. subdued, i a. 345. 

F. dompter, to tame, Sc. dani, to 

subdue, from LaL domitare, which 

is from domare; cf. £. tame, 
Aday, adv. in the day, 1 a, 16$, 

Here a is for on, 
Adde, pt, s, had, i a, 10. 
Addre, sb, adder, 20. 141 ; gen, 

Addres, 20. 303. 
Adele, prop, name, Adela, I a, 503. 
Adelston, Athelstan, i b. 23. 
Adelwold, St. Athelwold, i b. 55. 
Adonward, adv. downwards, i a. 

Adoun, adv. down, i a. 115, 398; 

15. i. 4. A.S, of dune, off the 

down or hill, downwards. 
Adtadfpp. afiraid, alarmed, 5. 564I. 

A. S. adnedan, to dread. We also 

find the form ofdrad. 
Adrawe)>, imp. pi. draw out, i a. i a 7. 
Aferes, s6. /}. afiain, dealings, 8 6. 

Afltasred, pp. afraid, frightened, 

19. 563. F. effroi, terror. 
After, prep, according to, 3. cB. 

20; 17. Ps. cii. II ; for die sake 

of, for, I a. 240. 
After ))at, conj, according as, 3. 40. 
AftiT,prep. according to, 10. 2311. 
Afure, adv. on fire, i a, 48a ; i 6. 




Agaat, adj. amazed, 19. 677; A- 
gaste, terrified, I a. 142 ; aghast, 
afraid, fearing, 15. ii. 187. Cf. 
MceschGoth. usgaisjatif to terrify. 
The mod. aghast is misspelt. 

Agayn, prep, in an opposite direc- 
tion to, towards, 12. 233; opposite 
to, to meet, 19. 391. A. S. Ofi- 
geatit against, towards. 

Agaynward, adv. back again, 19. 

Agh, pr. s. ought, 7. 1 28 ; Aght, pi. 
fd. ought, 10. 1836. A.S. dgan, 
to own; pr. s. ah, pt. pi. akton. 

Aght, sb. possessions, wealth, 2. ciii. 
56. A. S. dhi, Mceso-Goth. aihis, 
possessions ; A. S. dgan, to own. 

Agon, pp. ago, 20. 9. A. S. agdn, 
gone by, pp. of agdn, to go by, 
pass by, a contracted form of 
agangan^ which is equivalent to 
the G. ergeken. The prefix a- is 
the G. prefix «r-. 

Agray^inge, sh. apparel, 9. 158. 
See Grai)>ed. 

A-gre))ed,/>^. arrayed, 12. 52. Icel. 
gre&Soy to prepare, dress. 

Agrotmde, adv. on the ground, i a. 

Agryse, v. to shudder, to be sdzed 
with horror, 19. 614. A. S. 
agrisan, to dread. Cf. E. grisly, 

All, eonj. but, 3. 122, 189. See Ao. 

Ahte, 56. property, 3. 180. See 

Ai, adv. always, 2. xiv. 4 ; in at, for 
ever, 2. xiv. 16 ; 2. cii. 18 ; til ai, 
for ever, 2. cii. 38. A.S. aa, £. aye. 

AV, conj. but, 12. 106. See Ac. 

Aire, sb. F. heir, 116. 28. 

AkeK pf' s- aches, 3. 93. A. S. eee, 
ace, a pain. 

AI, adj. all ; of al a tyde » during a 
whole tide, 19. 510; Al out, 
utterly, I a. 405 ; pi. Alle, i a. 51. 

Al, adv. S. all, quite, I a. 24, 55 ; 
AI as, just as, 18 b, 32. 

Alast, at last, 9. 157. 

Alblast, sb. arblast, crossbow, 116. 
82. Lat. arcubalista. 

Aid, adj. old, 7. 9 ; Aide, 10. 437. 
A. S. eald. 

Ale, sb. ale, 6. 19 ; alehouse, 15 pr, 
42. See. the note. 

Alain, prop^ name, t a. 303. 

Algates, adv. all the same, never- 
theless (lit. by all ways, by all 
means), 19. 520. A. S. algeats. 

Alisandre, prop, name, Alexander, 
I a. 48. 

Alijt, pp. alighted, I 6. 32. A.S. 
alihtan, to alight, descend. 

Alkaran, sb. alkatrau, 13. 1035. 
Alkatran is a term employed by 
Mandeville to mean pitch. 

Alkaron, i. e. the Koran, 19. 33a. 

Alkjm, of every kind, 10. 7816. 

Allane, adj. alone; hym allane, 
alone by himself, 16. 229. 

Alle-kynez, of every kind; ofalU' 
hynezflesch, of flesh of every kind, 

13. 303- 
Alle only, adv. simply, merely, 14a. 

1 5 ; Al only, 20. 75. Sc. alanerly, 

for <d anerly. See Anerly. 
Alle soule day, All Soul's day, 

I a. 347. See the note. 
Almes-dede, sb. deed of mercy, 5. 

Almesse, sb. alms, 19. 168 ; Almes, 

5. 5694. A. S. almesse, from Lat. 

eleemosyna, which again is from 

the Greek. 
Almest, adv. almost, i a, 135. 
AlmoTis, 56. alms, 8 b. 148. See 

AlmyBty, adj. almighty, 5. 5742. 
Alneway, alway, every way, 9. 

141. . A. S. ealne, ace. masc. of 

eall, all. 
Alond, adv. ashore, on land, I a. 

63,64; Alonde,intheland, la. 257. 
Along on, prep, along of, owing to, 

20. 55. A.S. gelang, owing to. 

Chaucer uses long on, on account 

of; Shakesp. has long of, Cymb. 

V. 5. 271. 



A-longet, pp. {^of4onged) filled 

with longing, greedy, 15. vii. 254. 
Aloaed, pp, lost, destroyed, 13. 274. 

A. S. lostan, to perish ; also, to 

Alrebest, adv. best of all, 3. 301. 

A. S. ealra, gen. pi. of eall, all. 
Als, eonj. also, 13. 253 ; as, 2. xvii. 

87. See Alsua. 
Al8-80» conj. as; als so faste=as 

quickly as possible, 20. 16. 
Als-suith, adv. as soon as possible, 

immediately, 7. 65. From als, as, 

and switket quickly. 
Als-swa, also, 2. xvii. 128. 
Als-tite, adv. as soon as possible, 

immediately, 10. 471. See Tite. 
AlBua, eonj. also, 7. 21. A. S. 

eallswa, whence O. £. alsua, als- 

swa (2. xvii. 128), also, alse, als, 

ase, and mod. £. as. 
Alswa, conj, also, 10. 1235. See 

Alther-feblest, adj. feeblest of all, 

10. 746. The forms alther, alder, 

aller, aire, of the gen. pi. of cUl, 

are found in O. E. frequently. 
Alwais, adv. always, 7. 56. 
Alweldand, adj. almighty (lit. all- 
wielding), lie. 26. 
Alwes, for Halwes, sb. pi. saints ; 

hal alwes=al halwes, 12. 37 1> 
Alyhte, pt, s, alighted, 20. 249. 
Alyned, pp. smeared, anointed, 6. 

144. Cf. Lat lino, I smear; 

A. S. fynd, grease. 
Alyte. See^Iiyte. 
Ajoeaig, prep, among, 7. 25, 3 a. 
Alyue, adv, alive, 6. 93. A. S. on 

life, in life. 
Amended, pp. made amends for, 

I a. 106. See Tamenden. 
Amidde, prep, amid, i a. 103. 
Amonges, ^«^. among, 19. 650. 
Amorewe, adiv, in the morning, 3. 

43; Amorwe, i a. 97, 18 b. 93; 

fram ]>9it it was amorwe « from the 

time of daybreak, I a. 163. A. S. 

on morgen. 

AmounteK pr. $. amotinteth to, 

signifies, 15. iii. 87; 19. 569. 
Axnpolles, sb, pi. ampulla^ very 

small bottles for holy water, 15. 

vi. II. 
An, eonj, and, 5. 5800 ; 7. 6a ; 9. 

An, prep, on, I 6. 25 ; 6. 92 ; in, 6. 

118 ; \>ar ys an, is therein, 18 a. 

*j^\ PiM honde, in hand, in their 

hands, 4 c. 15. A. S. on. 
An, art, a, i a. 99 ; An tuo jeraa 

space of two years, I a. 25 1 . A. S. 

an, whence £. an, often shortened 

to a. Cf. Lat. untis. 
Anannter = an adventure or 

chance ; anaunter ^f « it's a 

chance whether, i a, 176. F. 

aventure. See Anntour. 
Anores, sb. pi. anchorites, 1^ pr. 

28. A. S. dncra, from Gk. dya- 

And, eonj. if, 15. vii. 246; And, 
{vfHtten 8c), if, 18 a. 188. 

And, conj. also, 2. xvii. 71. A,S. and. 

Anerly, adv. singly, 16. 59; sepa- 
rately, 16. 158. A. S. dnlice. So. 
anerly, E. only, 

Aner)>e, adv, on earth, i a. 498 ; 
into earth, l a, 198; to bringe 
fln«r))e«=to bury. 

Angers. See Angre. 

Anfi^e, sb. an astrological term, 19. 
304. The whole sphere was 
divided into twelve equal parts 
called * houses,' four of which were 
named * angles.' See the note. 

Angre, sb, vexation, trouble, afiHic- 
tion, 10. 1284; pi. Angers, 10. 
691. Still in use; A.S. ange, 
trouble ; Lat. angor, 

Angre, adj, angry, caustic, 13. 
1035. Or read augre ^ atgre, 
eager, biting. 

An-heiB, adv. on high, 15 pr, 13 ; 
An-hei, I a. 158; Anhey, i a, 
1 43. See An, prep. 

An-£e3ed, pp. exalted (lit. on-high- 
ed), 9. 124. 



Ani, pron, any one, 7. 35. 

A Hirer, sb, an anchorite, 18 6. 140. 

See Anores. 
ATily, adv. only, XO. 2345. 
Anon, adv, soon, i a. 68, 398. 

A. S. on dn, in one. 
Anoy, sb. annojrance. sorrow, 9. 

136. O. F. noirt, Lat. nocere, to 

Anoyeth, imp. pi. injure ye, 19. 

494. See Tanoyen. 
Axis, adv. once ; ai ans, at once, 7. 

136. A.S. an#s. 
Ant, conj. and, 3. II ; 4 c. 6 ; if, 3. 

Anuyjed, pp. annoyed, 15. t. 74* 

From Lat. nocere, to hurt. 
Aper, vb. to appear, 10. 2370. 
Apert, sb. open view, that which is 

openly displayed, 17. Mar. iv. 22 ; 

into apert a^Vnlg. in palam. Cf. 

Lat. apertus, open. 
Aperteliohe, adv. openly, I a. 373 ; 

evidently, 15. v. 15. See above. 
A.'peyredt pp. impaired, made worse, 

1 8 a. 162. F. empirer, to make 

worse, from Lat. peius^ worse. 
Apeyryng, sb. injuring, 18 a. 164. 
Apon, prep, upon, 7. 46. 
Aposen, v, .to question, examine 

verbally, 15. iii. 5 ; pt. s. Aposede, 

15- »• 45. 
Apostata, 56. apostate, 15. i. 102. 

Apparayleden, pt. pi. apparelled, 

dressed, 15. ii. 190. 
Appayre, v. impair, injure, 10. 691. 

See Apeyred. 
AppendeJ>, pr. s. belongs, 15. i. 

43; Apende[>, 98. Lat. pendeo, 

I hang. 
Aqueynte, pt. s. quenched, went 

out (speaking of light), i 6. 6. 

A. S. acwencan, to quench. 
Aqueyntaunoe, sb. acquaintance, 

5- 5791- 
Aquynt, pp. acquainted, 16. 138. 

Ar, prep, before, i a. 19 ; 7. 1 1 ; 

eon;, before, ere, i a. 136; 6. 98. 

A* S. <er« 

Ap, pr. pi. are, 7. 24, 

Arblaste, sb. crossbow, I a. 412. 

Lat. areubalista. 
Arblasters, sb. pi. crossbowmen, 

I a, 430. See above. 
Aro, sb. an ark, chest, 8 b. 174. 
Archers, sb. pi. i a. 139. 
Arohiflamyn, sb. high priest, 14 b. 

62. From Lzt. Jlamen. 
Are, adv. before, 12. 226. See Ar. 
Areohe, v. to reach after, strive 

after, desire, 3. 67. A.S. ardcan, 

from rdcan, to reach. 
Arere, v. to raise, hoist, i a. 60 ; 

pp. Arered, reared up, 18 a. 85 ; 

lifted, drawn, 18 a. 92 ; Arerd, i 

a. 76. A. S. ardran. 
Arest, sb. stop, stay, 16. 63. Lat. 

ad, re, and sto. 
Arewe, sb. an arrow, iSb. 123. 
Argumenten, pr. pi. argue, 19. 

Arise, pp. arisen, I a. 285. 
Arist, pr, s. (contr. from arisetK), 

arises, 19. 265 ; arises, stands up, 

9. 163. (Cf. zUtende in 1. 164.) 

A. S. arisan. 
Ariuede, pt. pi. landed, come to 

shore, i a. 321. Lat. ad, to, 

ripa, a bank. 
Arijt, adv. aright, just, I 6. 21 ; 

rightly, 6. 104. 
Arly, adj. early, 10. 1433. 
Armene, prop. name. Armenia ; 

armene hUles, the hills of Armenia, 

^ 13. 447. 

Arxnyng, sb. armour, 16. 218. 

Arskes, s6. pi. newts, 8 b. 179. 

Prov. E. ask, a lizard, A.S. a)>exe. 

Cf. Gaelic easg, an eel; the 

first element in A. S. apexe, G. 

eidechse, a lizard, signifies prickly, 

Artousart thou, a. zvii. 121; 

Artow, 19. 308. 
Arwes, tb. pi. arrows, a. zvii. 39 ; 

14 c. 135. A. S. arewe, drwe, an 

Asaas if, X a, 14a. See Alsua. 



Asaut, sb. F: assault, i a. 491. Lat. 

ad, to, salio, I leap. 
Asory, sb. outcry, alarm, 11 &. 40. 

Sw. anskri (on-shriek), alarm. 
Ase, conj. as, 3. 39 ; Ase — ase ^k as 

— so. 3. 39. 
Asent, sb, F. assent, 6. loi. Lat. 

ad, to, sentiOf I feel. 
Aseuele,>br ase uele = as many, 9. 

189. O. £. fele, many. 
Asise, sb, assize, judgment, 8 a, 

Askes, sb, pi, ashes, 18 a, 78; 

Askez, 13. loio. A.S. asce, 
Aske]), pr, s, asks, requires, 15. pr. 

Aslawe, /^. slain, i a. 136, 198. 

A. S. adagen, pp. of dsledn, from 

s/tfdff, to slay, strike. 
A-soylen, v. to absolve, 15. pr, 

67 ; ^/. 5. Asoylede, 15. iii. 48 ; 

Asoilede, absolved, I a. 51. Lat. 

ab, from, solvo, I loose. 
Aspaltoun, sb. asphaltum, as- 

phalte, 13. 1038. 
Aspien, v. to look after, mind, 15. 

ii. aoi. 
AssalBeit, pp, assailed, 16. 459. 

See Asaut. 
Assay, sb. proof, 20. 330 ; was of 

assays which had been proved. 

F. essayer, from Lat. exapum, a 

balance, from ex and ago. 
Assay, v. to attack, 16. 440. Lit. 

to examine, try, find out, as in 16. 

401. See above. 
Assayen, v. to examine, 15. iii. 5. 
Asselen,^. pi. seal, 15. iii. 143. 
A88wy]«, adv. immediately, at 

once, 5. 5710, 5931. From as 

and switke. See Als-suith. 
Asterted, pL s, escaped, 19. 437; 

pt. s, subj, Asterte, might get 

away, could escape, 19. 475. Cf. 

£. start, Du. storttn^ to pre- 
cipitate, rush, G. sturzen, 
Astorede, pt. s, stored, stocked, i 

a, 378. O.F. estorer, to bu9d, gar- 
nish; Lat. instaurare, to repair. 

A-strangeled, fp, completely 
strangled, 13. 150. 

A-Bwi)>e, ,/or as swi)>e, adv, as 
quickly as possible, 15. iii. 96. 

At, prep, to ; at seme =sz to serve, 7. 
366; atfigbt^Xo fight, 3. xvii. 
89. At is the sign of the infin. 
in Icel. and Dan. ; so Sw. ati, 
Eng. ado = at do, i. e. to do. 

At, prep, to, 8 6. 133 ; according to, 
13. 348 ; from ; at h3rm, from him, 
5- 5599? ««* 1- 5638; at here 
myjt, to the best of their power, 

5. 5652. 

At, eonj. and demon, or rel, pron. 
^at, 16. 153, &c. 

Ataohe, v, to attach, arrest^ 15. ii. 
1 74 ; pp' Atachet, taken prisoner 
(lit. attached), 15. ii. 213. From 
Lat. ad, to, tango, I touch. 

Atazir, s&. evil influence, 19. 305. 
See the note. 

J^\>9pr. s, hath, I a. i, 3. 

At)e, on the, 9. 341. 

Ai>el, adj. noble, 13. 358,411. AS. 
ee^l, G. and Du. edd, noble. 

Atir, sb, attire, i. e. preparation, 20. 

A-to, atwo, in twain, 14. e. 7. 

Atom, adv, at home, i a, 216; 
I b, 91. 

Atones, adv. at once, 19. 670. 

At-route, v, to assemble in troops, 
I a, 338. O. F. route, G. rotte, 
a troop, of Teutonic origin. 

At-stonde, v, to abide, i a, 340. 

Atte,/or at the, I a. 73 ; 6. 141 ; 
atte fidle s at the full, in complete- 
ness, 19. 203; ate laste, at the 
last, 30. 15; atte laste, i a. 7; 
18 6. 133 ; att alle, in every way, 
13. 383. 

Attele, V, to go directly, .13. 205. 
North. £. and Sc. ettle, to design, 
intend; Icel. atla^ to aim at, 

Attentat ]>en, at the, i a, 471. 
Here \>en=A,S, yam, dat of def. 



At-uore, prep, before, I a. 53. 
A. S. atforan, close before. 

Atwo, a-two, in twain, 19. 600. 

AxL, pr, s, impers, ought ; us au, it 
behoves us, 8 6. 69. A. S. ah, 
pt. t. of dgaUf to own. 

Auaille>, pr, s. avails, 6. 147. Lat. 
ueUeOf whence E. value, 

Avaled, pp, descended, 14 c. 67. 
F. d i/o/, downwards; Lat. ad 
nallem, whence O.E. vail, to 
lower. Cf. E. avalanche, . 

AuazLoedy pp. F. advanced, pro- 
moted, ao. 10; Avaunset, 15. i. 
165. Lat. ab and ante, whence F. 
avant, avancer, 

Aoanoement, sb, F. advancement, 
ao. 7. 

Auantage, sb, as adj, advantage- 
ous, 19. 146. 

Aoarous, adj, greedy, 5. 5578. 
Lat. auarus, 

Auoht, a p, pi. pt. (as pr,) ought, 
16. 436. 

Auenge,^/.^. received, i a. 183. 
A. S. afin, to receive. See Fon. 

Auentur, sb, adventure, danger, 
16. 70. 

Auere, on fire (a^on, ttfre »fire)i 

9- 45. 
Aiieril, sb. F, April, 4 a, 1, 

Aiiht, s6. possessions, wealth, 8 b, 
loi. A. S. dhi. See Aght. 

Anise, pr. pi, refl, consider, ao. 
%2\ pp. Auised, well-advised, ao. 
90. F. aviser, from Lat. ad, and 
uiso, I visit, from uideo, 

Avisement, sb, careful considera- 
tion, counsel, ao. 7a. See above. 

Anisioii, sb, vision, i a, 187. 

Auxnenere, sb, almoner, 5. 5575. 
, O. F. aumosnier, almosnier, from 
almosne, the O. F. form of Lat. 

Aunoel, sb, a Idnd of steel-jTard, 
known as the * Danish ' steelyard, 
15. ▼. 132. Etym. doubtful. 

Aunoeteres, sb, gen, sing, ances- 
tor's, 13. 258. 

Aiinore, sb. anchoress, x a, 485. 

See Ancres. 
Aiingeles, sb. pi. angels, a. viii. 

16; Aungels, a. cii. 46; a. ciii. 

9 ; Aungelez, 13. a40. 
Auntour, sb, adventure, 8 a, 19a. 

Fel auff/o«r Bs the adventure be- 

fel, it chanced. F. avenlure, from 

Lat, uenio, I come. 
Auote, adv. afoot, on foot, i a, 430. 
Auow, sb. vow, 19. 334. Lat. 

uoueo, I vow. 
Austyn, St. Augustin, i b. 50. 
Auter, sb. F. alur, 13. 506 ,* 15. v. 

90; 19. 451. 
Auyse, v. to consider; vs auyse, con- 
sider with ourselves, deliberate, 

19. 664. See Auise. 
Away, int, away! go away I 4 c. 

Awayled,^/. s. availed, la. 408. 
Awayte, v. to watch, guard, keep 

(in prison), 15. ii. i8a. 
A-wede, v. to become mad, go out of 

one's wits, la. 45. A.S. awidan, 

to go mad, from w6d, mad. 
A- wondered, pp. astonished, la. 

310. A.S. awundrian, to admire. 

Here a- = A. S. of-, 
Awreke, v. to avenge, i a, itg, 
Axebf pr. s. asks, inquires about, 

18 a. 30; pi, pi. Axiden, 17. 

Mar. iv. 10 ; imp. s. Axe, id, vi. 

a a. A. SI dcsian, to ask. 
Ay, adv. aye, ever, for ever, 10. 

548. A. S. a, aa, 
A-Ye,prep. against, 9. 18. Contr. 

from a^en. A. S. ongean, 
Ayl'or o)>er, i. e. each one the 

other, 13. 338. 
Aywhere, adv. everywhere, 13, 

965 ; Aywhore, 5. 5580. 
Aje, adv, again, back, i a, 337; 

I b, 83. 
A3een-bieth, pr, s. redeems, 17. 

Ps. loa. 4; pt. s, Ajenboght, 

14 a. 4a. Lit. to buy again, 
A^ein, prep, against, ao. i a, 48. 
Ajeinward, adv. again, ao. ia3; 



back, to the other side, 17. Mar. 

»v- 35. 

A3en, prep, against, I fl. 55 ; adv, 
back, I a. 89 ; prep, towards, I a, 
-212. A. S. ongean, against. 

A^enboglit. See Ajeenbieth. 

Ajens, prep, against, 5. 5584, 
5667 ; Ajenes, 186. 19, &c. 

Ajer, adv. in the year, i a. 399. 

ABOyn, adv. back, 3. 178, 188. 

A3t, num. eight, 13. 357 ; A3te, 13. 
33 1 . A. S. eahta, G. acht, Du. acht. 

A3t, adj. rich ; al |>a/ 03/ was, all 
the men that were rich, i a. 416. 
A. S. cihtigf rich. See Aght. 

A3te, subj. pt. 5. ought, i a, 25. 
See Agh. 

A3t<8uin, adj. either (i) sorrowfiil, 
or (2) eight in all, in a company 
of eight, 13. 411. Cf. G. acht, 
care, heed. The former seems to 
be the right explanation, but the 
O. £. 03/, care, is very rare. 


Bad, pt. s, I p. asked, 4 b. 9. See 

Bad, pt. s. bad, 4 e. 20. See Bede. 

Bale; inphr, to baie^sat bay, I2» 
35. See Abaie. 

Balaunoe, sb. balance, a pair of 
scales, 5. 5665. 

Bald, adj. bold, 7. 17. A. S. 

Baldly, adv. boldly, 11 a. 96. 
. Bale, sb. S. sorrow, 12. 75; destruc- 
tion, 8 6. 41; 13. 276. A. S. 
bealo^ bale, woe, evil. 

Balenes, sb. pi. large fish, some 
species of whale, 18 a. 10. Lat, 

Balftilly, a</v. sorrowfully, 12. 84. 

Balies, sb. pi. bellies, 15. pr. 41. 

Balledie, adj. bald, i a. 408. The 
original meaning seems to have 
been shining, white (as in bald' 
faced stag). W. haliy a white spot, 
hal, marked with white. 

Ban, A. bone, 8 &. 216; ^. Banes, 

220; Bannes, 229. A. S. ban, 
Baner^ sb. banner, i a. 53, 76. 
Baneur, sib. a banner-bearer, i a. 

135 ; Banyour, 18 6. 109. 
Banne, v. to ban, curse, 15. i. 60 ; 

pt. 8. Banned, 13. 468. A. S. 

Baptym, sb. baptism, 17. Mar. i. 4. 
Bar, pt, 8. bore, 7. 47 ; Bare, 5. 

5837. See Bere, vb. 
Barbre» adj. barbarous, 19. 281. 
Bare, sb. boar, 11 e.g. See 1. 21. 
Bares, pr. s. flows, beats noisily, 8 b. 

41. Cf. E. bore, the tidal wave in 

a river ; Icel. bora, a wave. 
Bargane, sb, business, strife, com- 
bat, 16. 221. O. F. barguigner, 

to haggle. 
Barme, sb. bosom, lap, 5. 5583; 

Barm, 7. 228. k.^.bearm. 
Bam, sb. a child, 7. 46; 12. 9; 

gen. Barnes, 12. 81. Mceso-Goth. 

bam, a child, bairn. 
Bamage, sb. childhood, 13. 517. 
Bamde, pt. s. burnt, i a. 484 ; pp. 

Barnd, burnt, 18 a, 47. See 

Barn-site, sb. child-sorrow, sorrow 

felt for a child, 7. 251. See Site. 
Bamtem, sb, progeny, offspring, a 

number of children, 7. 190. A. S. 

beam-team, posterity. 
Baronage, sb. assembly of barons, 

19. 339- 
Barst, pt. 8. burst, 13. 963. 

Bataile, sb, F. battle, i a. 3, 52 ; 

Batayle, I a. 'J 2; pi. Batayles, I. 

a. 5. 
Batede, pt, s. abated, 13. 440. 

F. battre, E. beat, bat. 
Bathe, pron, both, 2, viii. 21. 
Baundoun, sb. power, 4 a. 8. 

F. bandon, power. The orig. 

meaning is proclamation. Cf. 

It. bando, E. banns, 
Bansenea, badgers, 13.39a. 

* Bawstone or bawsone, or a gray, 

Taxus, melota.* Prompt. Pary. 



Bawelyne, sb. bowline, 13. 417. 

Bayte, v. to bait, feed, 19. 466; 
also irkphr. bayte on, i. e. set on, 
I a. II. Icel. heitay to feed ; also 
to set on dogs ; £. 6a//, abet. 

Bo, prtp, by, 7. 23 ; 20. 96. 

Be, suhj, pr. pi. if they be, when 
they be, i a. 285. 

Be-bered, pp, buried, 9. 240. 

Bebledd, pp, covered with blood, 

14 «. 55. 
Become, pp. become ; was become 

shad gdne, 5. 5818. 
Bede, v. to offer, i a, 34 ; to 

proffer, place, put, throw, 6. 91 ; 

p. s. Bed, offered, I a. 201 ; bade, 

13. 440; pt. pi. Bode, offered, i a. 

454 ; subj. pt. s. Bode, I a. 451 ; 

pp. Bede, bidden, 20. 29 ; Bedene, 

13. 351* A. S. beddan, to offer, 

bid; Mceso-Goth. biudan. 
Bede, pt. s. prayed, i b. 66. A. S. 

biddan, pt. s. bad. To bid beads, 

is to pray prayers. 
Bedene, adv. forthwith, 7. 188. 

Du. bij dien, by that. See 

Bedes, sb. pi. prayers, I b. 66 ; 9. 

75. A. S. bSd, a prayer, biddan, 

to pray. 
Bedreden, adj. bedridden, 10. 808. 
Beestes, sb. pi. F. beasts, 2. viii. 

22 ; Bestes, 2. ciii. 23. 
Be-for, adv. before, 7. 20. 
Befyl, pt. s. befell, 5. 5581. 
Begon, pp. filled, 20. 63. A. S. 

begdn^ to go over, follow after, 

take in hand, occupy. 
Begouth, p. s. began, 16. 7. See 

the note. 
Beheste, sb. promise, 14 a, 3. A. S. 

beh<Bs, a promise, hds, a command, 

hestf hdtan, to ordain. 
Behighte, ^/. s. promised, 14 a. 57; 

Behihte, 15. iii. 36; 20. 125. A.S. 

hdtan, to order, pt. t. ie het, ic keht. 
Behouelicli, adj. behoveful, neces- 
sary, 20. 186. A. S. behdftie, 

needful, behdfan, to behove. 

Behoue)), pr. s. behoves, 5. 5650. 
Be-kenned, //. s. commended, 12. 

Beknowe, i p. s. pr. acknowledge, 

15. V. 114. 
Beld, sb. protection, ii e. 27. So. 

beild, protection. 
Belyue, adv. quickly, 5. 5619. 

A. S. bi life, with life. 
Be-xnene)>, pr, s, signifies, means, 

15. i. I. 
Ben, V. to be, 3. to ; Bene, 2. ciii. 

73; Buen, 4 fl. 18; Bue, 3. 18; 

By, 9. 9 ; Beo, i 6. 20 ; pr. s. 

(with/u/. sense) Bes^ shall be, 2. 

xvii. 69, ciii. 2% \ Bes, shall 

be, 8 a. 124; Ben, are, 2. xvii. 

122; Bej), 6. 76; Bcl>e, 6. 57; 

Bee)>e, 6. 143; Bu]?, 18 a. 9; 

Bue)>, 3. 109 : Bye]>, 9. 46 ; subj. 

pr. s. Bue, 3. 31 ; pi. Buen, 3. 84;, Beth, 19. 229; Byc|>, 9. 

75 ; PP' Bue, 3. 183. A.S. beon, 

to be, commonly with future 

Bend, pt, pi. bent, 16. 432. 
Bende, sb. d. pi. bonds; hence, 

distress, I a. 470. A. S. bend, a 

band, a bond. 
Bene, sb. petition, 3. 174; pi. 

Benes, 9. 163. A. S. ben, a 

petition, E. boon. 
Benymh, pr, s, seizes upon, sur- 

prises, 9. 30. A. S. niman, to 

take, seize ; cf. £. benumb, 
Beo. See Ben. 

Beode, v. offer, 4 e. 43. See Bede. 
Beodeles, sb. pi. beadles, 15. iii. a. 

A.S. bydel, bidel, orig. a messenger; 

cf. A. S. b6d, a message, beodan, 

to bid. 
Beodemon, s6. beadsman, one who 

prays for another for money, 15. 

iii. 47. See Bedes. 
Beodes, s&. pi. prayers, 15. ▼. 8. 

See Bedes. 
Beoheold, i p., beheld, 15 pr, 

Beohote, i p, s,pr, promise, 15. vii. 



a6s ; pt. 8, Beohi3te, vowed, 15, 

r. 47. See Behighte. 
Beoleeiie» s6, belief, creed, 15. 7. 7. 
Ber, sb. noise, 8 a. 1 19. See Bere. 
Ber, imp, s. 2 p. bear, 3. 122;^/. s. 

bore, I a. 399. See Bere, vb. 
Berd, sb. beard, 11 b, 30. 
Bere, sb. a roaring noise, 16 83 ; 

violent noise, here used of the 

barking of a dog, 12. 43. Cf. Sc. 

birr, a loud whirring sound ; E. 

burr, a rough sound; Sw. bar, 

wind. See Ber, Bire. 
Bere, v. to bear, i a. ^yi; pt. s, 

Ber, bare, brought forth, i 6. 52 ; 

bore, I a. 134 ; Bar, 7. 47; Bare, 

5- 5837; pfp^' Bere, i 6. 10; 

eubj. pt. s. Bere, I a. 1 1 2 ; imp. pi. 

BereK 20. 114. A.S. biran, pt.t. 

ie bdr. 
Berke, v&. to bark, 12. 35 ; pt. 9, 

Berkyd, I a. 48. 
Bemakes, sb. pi. barnacles, 14 e. 

15. Gael, baimeachf a limpet; 

W. brenigf limpets. 
Bemynde, pres. part, burning, 9. 

Berth, pr. s. bears, 19. 620 ; Ber>, 

20. 1 76. See Bere. 
Bes. See Ben. 

Betoglit, pt. s. besought, 5. 5858. 
Bessette, v. to shut, exclude (lit. 

be-shut), 9. 23. 
Best, sb. F. beast, i a. 375 ; 14 c. 

8 ; pi. Bestes, i a, 378. 
Besteriinge, sb. pi. bestirrings, 

emotions, 9. 7. 
Bestow, for best )>ow, » shall than 

be, 1 2. 344. See Ben. 
Bet, adj. better, 19. 311. 
Bet, adv. S. better, i a. 14; I a. 

17a; IB' pr. 63. A. S. 6«/, better. 
Bet, imp. s. beat, 3. 33. 
Bet, pp, kindled, 13. loia. See 

Be-taken, v. to betoken, 10. 1260. 
Bete, V. to amend, make amends for, 

1 a. 274; 4 c. 54; pp. Bet, 

kindled, 13. Z012. A.S. bitan. 

to make better, kindle ; Sc. beet, 

to kindle ; £. 600/, profit. 
Betere, euij. better, i a. 36. 
Be)>, pr. pi. are, i a. 7 ; Bee]w, 6. 

143; Be|>e, 6. 57; Beth, 

19. 229. See Ben. 
Be)>enohinge, sb. thinking npoa, 

meditation, 9. 37f loi. 
Be-]>out, ^/. s. bethought, 12. 290. 
Betre, adj. better; more betre« 

better, 18 a. 59. 
Betwe, prep, between, 5. 5786. 

A. S. betweoh. 
Bewreyyng, pr. pa. accusing, 5. 

5644. A.S. wrdgtm, to accuse. 

See Bewray in Bible Workbook. 
Beye, adj. nom. mas. both, i b. 44. 

A. S. bd. 
Bi, conj. by, throughout, 6. 58; 

to the extent of, commensuratdy 

with, 15. V. 76; near, la. 240. 
Bi, V. inf. be, 6. 66; in^. s. la. 

32a. See Ben. 
Bicome, v. to become, 3. 36 ; pp. 

Bicome, gone to, 12. a 2 a. 
Bidde, v. to ask, i 6. 38 ; to pray, 

'5* ^* 144* ^ki' pr* ^> Bidde, 3. 

190 ; pt. s. Bad, i 6. 39. A. S. 

biddan, to ask, beg ; orig. a weak 

vb. ; cf. Goth, bidjan. 
Bidden, sb. pi. beggars, 15 ^. 40. 
Bidene, adv. at once, soon, quickly, 

a. xxiii. 7; a. ciii. 74; 11 a. 77. 

Du. 617 dien, by that, thereby; 

hence, forthwith. See Bedene. 
Bi-fiEdle, pp. befallen, happened, 

IB' pr. 6a. 
Bies, pr. s. bujrs, redeems, a. cii. 7. 
Bifom, adv. before, a. ciii. 61. 
Bi-gat, ^/. 5. acquired; bigot him, 

acquired for himself, 12. 177. 
Bigg, adj. wealthy (?), lo. 1460. 

It seems to be here connected with 

A. S. byggan, to build, inhabit; 

hence, perhaps, built up, well- 

furnished, well-endowed. See 

Biginne, v. to begin, i a. 38 ; pt, 

pi. Bigonne, I a. 93. 



BihaldeSy pr. s. beholds, 2. ciii. 

Biheste, sb, promise, i a. 184. 

See Belieste. 
Bihet. See Bihote. 
Bihiiide, adv. behind, i a. 117. 
Bih-ote, V. to promise, i a, 346 ; 

pt.s, Bihet, I a. 17, 500. A.S. 

hehdtatij to tow, promise. 
Bihiild, pt, s. beheld, 1 6. 14. 
Bijy V. to atone for, pay the penalty, 

7. 1 80. O. E. ahy » A. S. abicgan, 

to buy back, redeem; wrongly 

written abide in later authors. 
Bi-kenned,^/. 5. recommended, 12. 

350; Be-kenned, 12. 371. 
Bileue> sb. belief, I 6. 27. 
Bileuede, pt. s. remained, i a, 

339; Bileuid, iia. 66; Bileuede, 

pt, fil. remained, abode, i a. 71, 

356; Bileuid, ilc. lOI. Cf. £. 

leavCf Sc. laify lave, remnant. 

From A. S. belifan, to remain 

Bilfoder, s6. food, sustenance, 12. 

81. Probably from A.S. bylg, 

belly, znd fodder. Cf. prov. Eng. 

bellytimber, food. 
BiJiue> adv. quickly, at once, 12. 

248; as biliuea=as soon as possi- 
ble, immediately, I a. 351. See 

Bilonked, pp. locked up, shut up, 

enclosed, 2. dii. 50. A. S. be- 

liiean, to lock up. 
Bilowen, pp. lied against, accused 

falsely, 15. v. 77. A.S. ledgan, 

to lie, pp. logen, 
BineJWf adv.henezth, la. 162. 
Binoxn, pt. s. took away, I a. 380. 

See Ben7in)>. 
Biiior)>e, adv. in the north, i a. 328. 
Biof |>e> d>. behoof, advantage, bene» 

fit, I a. 42. A.S. bekdfan, to 

Biquebf ^Z* '• bequeathed, I a. 504, 

525. A. S. ewiSan, to say, cwidef, 

a speech, £. bequeath, bequest, 
Biguide^ sb. S. bequest, la. 503. 

A.S. evnde, a speech, saying, 
becw^an, to bequeath. 

Bird, pt. s. subj. it would behove, 
8 a. 171. A. S. bjrian, to behove, 
lit. to taste; Dan. burde, it be- 
hoved, pr. b6r, it behoves. 

Bire, sb. force, rush, haste, i 'j. Mar. 
V. 13. Vulg. impetu. Cf. Sw. bor, 
a fair wind, W.bur, violence; prov. 
E. bur, force. See Bere. 

BiroUed, pp. berolled, rolled about, 

}S' 959- 
Biryel, sb. a burying-place, tomb, 

17. Mar. V. 2. A. S. byrgels, a 

sepulchre, from byrgan, to bury; 

cf. G. bergen, to hide. 

BiT)>e8, sb. pi. nations, 2. xvii. 125. 
A. S. gebyrd, a family, lineage ; 
from b^an, to bear. 

Bisay, pt. s. ordained, i b. 55. Lit. 
besaw, saw concerning. 

Bisend, pp. likened, betokened, 8 b. 
100 ; signified, 8 6. 94. A. S. 
iysen, an example, bysenian, to 
give an example. 

Biseninges, sb. pi. resemblances, 
8 6. 96. A. S. l^senung, a resem- 
blance. Se^ above. 

Biseo, V. to see about, ordain, 
appoint, I 6. 60 ; Bisay, i b. 55. 

Bi-side, prep, beside, i a. 62. 

BiBied, pt. pi. were busied about, 
troubled, 2. xvii. 14. Suggested 
by the Lat. pr€eoccupauerunt. 

Bisou3ten, pt. pi. besought, 15. ii. 

Bisojtey pt. 5. besought, i a. 200. 

Bissopes, sb. pi. bishops, i a. 397. 
A. S. biscop, from Lat. episcopus. 

Bistad, pp. established ; hence, 
brought about by force of circum- 
stances; it was bistad =it came 
about, 4 tf. 19. A. S. stede, a 
place, stead. 

Biatad, pp. hard bestead, greatly 
imperilled, 19. 649. See above. 

Bi-stode, pt. s. approached, came 
upon, 12. 175. Lit. stood by. 

Biswikes, pr. s. deceives, 2. xiv. 



12. A.S. hesvdeant to deceive; 

from swican, to deceive; cf. 

swica, a traitor, swic^ treachery. 
Bitake» pp» handed over, delivered, 

committed, i a. 1 1. A. S. betdcan, 

to deliver to, commit, betake. 
Bitel-browed, adj, with projecting 

hrows, 15. V. 109. Cf. £. beetling, 
Bi)>03te, pt. s. planned, i a, 141 ; 

BiJ>03te him, bethought himself, 

I a. 265; considered, i 6. 76. 

A. S. be^encan^ to think about. 
Bitide^^/. s. happened, 12. 7. 
Bi-tiine, adv, betimes, soon, i a. 18. 
Bi-tok, pt. s. entrusted, gave over, 

12. 66. See Bitake. 
Bitter, sb. bitterness, 15. 7. 99. 
Bituene, prep, between, i a. 331. 
Bitiime, v, to turn, I a. 229 ; ^/. 

pi. Biturade hom= turned them- 
selves about, I a. 147. 
Bitwiz, prep, between, 2. ciii. 22. 

A. S. betweoxt betwix. 
Bi-uore, adv, before, la. 93 ; 

prep, before, la. 119. 
Bi-yond, prep, beyond, 7. 24. 
Bijendis, prep, beyond, 17. Mar. 

••• O 

Ul. O. 

Bijete, sb, S. gain, winnings, I b, 

84. Lit. what one can get, A. S. 

gytan, to acquire, get ; begytan, to 

Bi3onde, prep, beyond, i a. 255. 
Blaberde, pt, s. babbled, mumbled 

over, 15. V. 8. E. blab^ babble, 

from the sound made by the lips. 

Dan. blabbre, to gabble. 
Blake, adj. black, 4 a. 14. 
Blake, sb, black, blackness, 13. 

Blawen, pp. blown, 10. 685. 
Blede}), pr. pi. bleed, 6. 135. 
Blef)>, pr. s. remains, endures, 9. 

131. A short form of bileueih. 

Perhaps we should read bleue, may 

BleiSf Blois, i a, 304. 
Blende, />^. mingled, blended, mixed 

all together, 1 3. 967. 

Blenkit, pi. s. blinked, glanced, 

looked, 16. 203. Cf. E. blink, 

blench, G. blicken, to look. 
BleOf sb. colour, 4 </. 16. A. S. 

bleo, colour, hue, complexion. 
Blere, vb. to leer, 10. 2226; pi. s, 

Blered, bleared, blinded, 15 pr. 

71; pp. Blered, dimmed, 15. v. 

109. O. E. hlere is to put out the 

Blesseth hir, i.e. crosses herself, 

19. 449. 
Ble)>ely, adv. blithely, cheerfully, 5. 

Bleue, pr. s. subj. may remain, 9. 

215. See Ble^. 
Blinne> v. S. to cease, 12. 55 ; 

Blin, to leave off, make to cease, 

Sa. 169; imp. s. Blinne, cease, 

12. 322. A. S. Minnan, to cease, 

from bit prefix, and linnan, to 

Blis, imp. s. 3 p. bless, 11a. 126; 

2 p. Blisse, 2. cii. 3; imp. pi. 

Blisses, 2. cii. 45; pp. Blissed, 2. 

xvii. 117. A. S. blissian, to make 

Blisse, sb. 6. joy, 2. viii. 17 ; glory, 

a. xxiii. 18; Blis, gloijy, 2. ciii. 

75. A. S. blis, bliss, joy. 
Blissing, sb. blessing, 2. xxiii. ii. 
Bli)>e, adj. b'Jthe, cheerful, i fr. 87. 
Bliue, adv. quickly, 12. 372 ; as 

bliue, as quickly as possible, 12. 

149; 20. 315. For bi life, with 

life, quickly. 
Bio, adj. blueish, livid, 13. I017. 

Dan. blxia, Lancash. bla. 
Blod, sb. S. blood, i a. 44 ; dai. 

Blode, 6. T34. 
Blome, sb. flower, 2. cii. 32. G. 

bluftie, E. bloom; from vb. to blow. 
Blosmen, sb. pi. blossoms, ^d. 2, 

A. S. blifsma, a blossom. 
Blubrcmde, pres, part, bubbling, 

foaming. 13. 1 01 7. Prov. E. 

blob, bid), a bubble, pimple> 
BlU3, sb. blue, 18 a. 14. A.S. bleo, 

a colour ; also, blue. See Bleo. 



Blynke, v. to blink, awake, 5. 

Blynne, v. to cease, 13. 44a See 

Bly)>e, adj. glad, 5. 5630. A.S. bHiSe, 

glad ; Mceso-Goth. bleiihs, kind. 
Boo, 56. book, 4 e. 3. 
Boohen, sb, pL butchers, 15^* 

98 ; iii. 70. F. boucher. 
Bod, sb. abiding, waiting, delay, 

12. 149. 
Body pL s. waited, 13. 467; Bode, 

awaited, waited for, 5. 5605 ; 

abode, 13. 1030; waited, 13. 

467. A. S. bidan, to bide. 
Bode, I a. 454. See Bede. 
Bodes, sb, pi, commandments, a. 

cii. 42. A. S. bod, a command. 
Bodworde, sb. message, 13. 473. 

A. S. bod, a command. 
Bodyn, pp. bidden, hence, bidden to 

do batde, challenged to fight, 16. 

103. See Bede. 
Bogh, imp, s. bow, 7. 307; pi. s, 

Boghed, bowed to, obeyed, 2. xvii. 

112; Boghud, bowed, 7. 314. 

A. S. b4gan, to bow. 
Bogh, sb. bough, 7. 314. A. S. 

Boght, pp. bought, 5. 5607. 
Bok, sb. S. book, 7. 9; dot, s, 

Boke, I a. 362. 
Bolle, 56. bowl, 15. V, 89. A.S. 

and O. Fries, bolla. 
Boiled, pp. swollen, 15. v. 67. 

Also spelt bolned. See Boln. 

Used in Ezod. ix. 31. 
Bolle)), pr. s. swells, 15. y. 99. 

Also spelt Bolne|>. 
Boln, V. to swell, 8 a. 108 ; pt, s, 

Bolned, swelled, became fiiU, 13. 

363. Dan. bc^ne, Sw. bidna, to 

swell, bulge; cf. E. bole of a tree, 

boil, a tumour, billow, a swelling 

Bon, adj. (generally boun), bowne, 

ready, ready to start, 7. no. 

Icel. biiinn, pp. of biia, to prepare; 

whence bound in the phrase *a 

ship bound for New York;' un- 
connected with the vb. bind. 

Bon, sb, boon, 8 a. 209 ; prayer, 8 b, 
66. Cf. A. S. b^n, a prayer. 

Bon, sb. bone, 3. 144. A. S. ban. 

Bonayrelyolie, adv. debonairly, 
reverently, 9. 85, 87. Fr. de 
bon air, of good mien. 

Bonchede, pt. s, struck, iSpr. 71. 
Du. bonken, to knock. 

Bond, pt. s, bound, i a. 116; en- 
closed, 15. i. 159. 

Bonde, sb. dot. pi. bonds, 46. 12. 

Bonde, sb, gen, bondman's, 5. 

Bondemen, sb. pi. bondmen, serfs, 

I a. 287 ; peasants, 15 pr. 96. 
Bone, sb. petition, 1 6. 37 ; prayer, 

116. 46. See Bon. 
Bonen, adj. made of bone, 3. 141. 

A. S. bdnen, bony. 
Bonk, 56. bank, 13. 379; gen, 

Bonkez, 13. 483 ; pi. Bonkez, 13. 

Bonure, adv. debonairly, politely, 

12. 332. See Bonayrelyche. 
Boot, sb. S. a boat, 17 a. iv. I. 
Bor, sb. boar, 12. 203. 

Bord, sb. a table (lit. a board), 20. 

Bordnn, sb, a pi1grim*s staff, 15. 

vi. 8. F. bourdon, Ital. bordone, 
Bore, pp. bom, 5. 5646; 12. 240; 

Boren, 6. 98. 
Borewe, sb. a surety, 3. 1 13. A. S. 

borh, a pledge, loan. 
Borewyng, sb. borrowing, 3. 194. 
Borgages, sb. pi. tenements in 

towns, held by a particular tenure, 

15. iii. 77. F. bourg, town, and 

gage, pledge. 
Borgoiinez, pr. pi. burgeon, bud, 

13. 1042. O. F. bourgeon; cf. 
Gael, borr, a knob, bunch, burr. 

Borne, sb. stream, burn, 13. 482. 

A.S. bume; cf. G. brunnen, a 

Borwes, sh, pi, sureties, sponsors, 

i5< i. 75* See Borewe. 



Borwjs S. a place of shelter, ii. 9. 
£. borough, barrowt from A. S. 
beorgan, to hide. 

Bosk, imp. s. stow, 1 3. 35 1. O. £. 
busk, to get oneself ready, led. 
b&aA, to prepare oneself, from 
bua, to prepare. See Busk. 

Boske, s6. bush, wood, 3. 168; 
sb, pi, Boskez, bushes, thickets, 
13. 322. IceL buskr, a tuft of 
hair, bush; cf. It. bosco. The 
O. £. boshe is not derived from It. 
bosco, but is of cognate origin. 

Botf 56. boot ; to bot asas a remedy, 
for our good, 13. 473. See 

Bot, pt, s. bit, 15. ▼. 67. 

Boty conj. but, however, *j, 4; 
Bote, except, I a. 45 ; unless, I a. 
18 ; 6. 39 ; but, except, i a. 70. 

Bote, sb. amendment, remedy, 3. 
176; 46. 9; 20. 298; good, 
3. 300. A. S. bdt, a remedy, 
hoot ; from A. S. bet, better, b6lan, 
to make better, kindle a fire ; cf. 
Sc. beet, to kindle. See Bete. 

Bote-3ef, conj. but if, except that, 
180. 153. 

Bo)^xn, sb. bottom, 13. 1 030; 
Bo^om, a bottom, vale, 13. 383 ; 
pi. Bol^emez, 13. 450. 

Botles, adv. without remedy, ir- 
remediably, 12. 134. See Bote. 

Boiiele, sb. bowel, 20. 311. O. F. 
bod, from Lat. botellus, a little 

Bounty, sb. F. goodness, 4 a. 30; 

6- 5849- 
Bourd, sb, jest, 186. 105. O. F. 

bourde, a jest, conupted from 

O. F. bohort, a tournament, game ; 

from horde, a barrier, E. hurdle. 
Boure, sb. bower, i. e. lady's 

chamber, 15. iii. 97; pi. Bourez, 

bowers, sleeping-places, 13. 322. 

A. S. bur, a bedchamber, from 

buan, to dwell in. 
Bourne, sb, brook, i$pr, 8. See 


Boute,^£^. widioQt, la. 149, an. 
A. S. bdtan, without. 

Bowande, pres. pari, bowing, obe- 
dient, 5. 5836. 

Bow-draucht, sb. bowshot (lit. 
bow-draught), 16. 19. 

Bowe, V. to bend one's way, go, 
13. 48a ; pt. s. Bowed, bent their 
way, made their way, went, 13. 
379. See Buee. 

Boxum, €uij. obedient, 15. i. 108. 
A. S. buhsom (for bugsom), pliant, 
obedient, from bugan, to bow, 

Boxumly, adv, obediently, 12. 


Boxiunnes, sb, obedience, 15. i. 
III. A. S. buhsomnes. See 

Boye, sb, young man, 15^. 77. 
It implies contempt rather than 

Bo3te, pt. s. bought, i a. 455. 

Brade, adj. broad, 2. viii. 4. 

Brak, pt. s. broke, 5. 5922. 

Braste, pt, pi, burst, T9. 671. A. S. 
berstan, pt. t. barst, later £. 

Bratful, adv. brimful, i^pr. 41. 
Sw. brdddful, brimful, from brddd, 
a brim. Cf. A. S. brerdjul, from 
brerd, a brim. 

Brayde, sb. moment ; at a brayde 
at a start, in a moment, 13. 539 ; 
attack, 10. 1925; pi. Braydes, 
grimaces, 10. 2227. Icel. bragS, 
a sudden motion, trick, sleight, 
look, expression. 

Braydes, pr. s. moves quickly, 
hastens, rushes, 12. 149. IceL 
bregma, to start. See above. 

Brayinde, pres, part, bra3ring, 
roaring, 9. 79. O. F. braire, to 
bray, roar, W. bragal, to voci- 

Brec, pi. s. broke, i a. 386. 

Brede, sb. bread, a. ciii. 31, 34. 
A. S. bread. 

Brede, sb. breadth, 13. 316; a 



broad space, freedom, 2. zvii. 53. 

A. S. hrddo^ G. breite. 
Bref, adj, short, little, 4 e. 56. F. 

bref, Lat. 6r««*s. 
Broke, v. to break, 2. xyii. 99. 
Breme, a<$. S. fierce, bold, 12. 18; 

Brem, furious, angry, 8 a. 152. 

A. S. bremman, to rage, roar. 
Breme, adv, boldly, loudly, 4 d, 

27. See aboTe. 
Bremely, adv. S. fiercely; hence, 

loudly, 12. 25; Bremly, furiously, 

8 a. 128 ; Bremli, 8 b. 41. 
Bren, sb, bran, 15. vii. 270. 
Bren, v. to burn, 8 a. 122 ; Brenne, 

20. 251 ; pr. 8, BrenneK bums, 

18 a, 31 ; pt s. Brende, burnt, 

I 6. 7 ; 19. 289 ; pt. pi. Brenned, 

burnt, 13. 959; Brend, 11 a. 

61 ; pp. Brend, 3. 183. See also 

Bamde. A. S. brennan, to bum, 

G. brennen, 
Brene, sb. burning, fire, 9. 56. A.S. 

bryne^ a burning. 
Brexxed, pt. pi. burned, 13. 509. 

See Bren. 
Brent, pt. s, burnt, 2. xvii. 24. See 

Brentest, adj. superL steepest, 

highest, 13. 379. Sw. brant, 

steep ; of. W. bryn, a hill. 
Brest, V. to burst, 8 b. 104. 
Breuet,s6. brief, letter of indulgence, 

15.^. 71. 
Breuh, pt. s. brewed, 15. v. 133. 
Breusters, sb. pi. alewives, female 

brewers, 15 pr. 98. 
Briddes, sb. pi. birds, 4 ^. 27 ; 12. 

33 'f g^f^' fi' Briddes, 4 d. 2; pi. 

Briddis, 17 a. iv. 32. A. S. 6r/rf, 

a brood, the young of any bird or 

Brig, sb. bridge, lie. 78. A. S. 

brig, brycg, G. brwke. 
Brin, v. to bum, 8 a. 142 ; 8 b. 

228; II a. 55; pres. part. Brin- 

nand, 2. ciii. 10. See Bren. 
BritU, adj. brittle, frail, 17. Pi. 

cii. 14. ^ 

VOL. n. 

Brochede,//. s. ip. fastened (them) 

together, 15. v. 1 26. Cf. E. brooch, 

Gael, brog, to goad, prick. 
Brod, adj. broad, 4 r. 27. 
Broght, pt. pi. brought, 7. 3; 

Brohte, J^e. f^-, pp. Broght, 7. 25 ; 

pp. Broht, 46. 13. 
Brond, sb. brand, 3. 182 ; 20. 

3^3 > fi' Brondes, brands, L e. 

fireside, 3. 109. 
Bro)>ely, adv. hastily, quickly, 13. 

1030. The proper meaning of 

Icel. brci^Ugr is suddenly, quickly ; 

it also means rashly; but Sc. 

braithly sometimes means violently. 

It is here a mere expletiFe. See 

Br6^l, in Stratmann. 
Broucli, sb. brooch, 18 a. 1 71. 
Brou3te, pt, s. brought, 1 b. 50; 

Bronte, I a. 273; pt. pi. Bro3te, 

I a. 122 ; pp. Brou3t, 6. 76. 
Brord-ftil, adj. full to the brim, 

brimful, 13. 383. A.S. brerd, 

breord, a brim. See Bratful. 
Brusten,/>^. damaged, hurt severely, 

12. 154; ijtave being omitted). 

A. S. berstan, O. £. bresten, to 

burst. Cf. Dan. brost, hurt, 

Brutayne, Brittany, i a. 302. 

Brittany was sometimes called 

Little Britain to distinguish it from 

Gh-eat Britain. 
Bruttenet, pp. destroyed, slain, 1 2. 

206. A. S. breotan, brytan, Swed. 

bryta, Dan. bryde, to destroy ; cf. 

A.S. brytse, a fragment, britlic, 

broken in pieces, E. brittle. The 

n appears in Sw. brytning, a 

Bryche, adj. reduced, poor, 5. 5821. 

A. S. bryee, liable to break, frail, 

vain. (Grein.) 
Bryddea, sb. pi. birds, 13. 288. 

See Briddes. 
Bryht, adj. bright, 4 c. 27 ; 4 £?. 26. 
Brynston, 56. brimstone, 13. 967. 

A better modem spelling would be 

brinstone^ where 6r»i » burning, 




from O.E. brenne, to burn. Cf. 

Sc. hrunslane. See Brene. 
Br3r3t, adj. bright, 5. 5651 ; as sb. 

bright one, fair one, 13. 470. 
Buen, to be, 4 a. 18 ; subj. pr, pi, 

3. 84. See Ben. 
Bues, pr. s. hows, obeys, 8 6. 20. 

A. S. bugatiy to bow, bend. 
Bue>, pr. pi. are, 3. 109. See Ben. 
Bugge, V. to buy, 18 a. 52 ; pr. 5. 

Bugge]>, buys, bribes, 15. iii. 151; 

pr.pi. Buggen, 15. iii. 72; BuggeK 

id. 74. A. S. bicgan. 
.Buglies, sh. pi. boughs, 10. 680. 

A. S. boh. See Bogh. 
Bugles, sb. pi. wild oxen, 14 c. 

132. O. F. bugle, Lat. buculus, 

dim. of bos. 
Bnile, v. to boil, 20. 295 ; Builen, 

20. 304. 
Bulez, sb. pi. bulls, 13. 392. 
Bnmmede, pt. s. tasted, took a 

draught, 15. v. 137. Prov. E. 

bum, drink, bumpsy, tipsy. Cf. £. 

Bun, 7.- 221. See Bon, adj. 
Bundyn, />p. bound, 16. 115. 
Buo])e, adj. pi. both, 9. 64. 
Burde, sb. woman, lady, 4 &. 36 ; 

13-378. A. S. brjd. a wife, bride, 

lady. The opposite change is 

seen in O.E. brid for bird. 
Burgeis, sb. pi. burgesses, 15 pr. 

96; iii. 150. 
Buriel, sb. tomb, 1 7. Mar. vi. 29 ; 

Buryel, 18 a. 119. A.S. byrgels^ 

tomb, from byrgan, to bury ; cf. 

A. S. beorgOHt to hide. 
Burling, sb. burying, i a. 522. 
Bum, sb. stream, 16. 39. 
Bum, sb. man, 12. 332; Bume, 13. 

288 ; pi. Bumes ; of bumes, by 

men, 12. 121. A.S. beonij a 

warrior, chief. 
BuT}7-tonge, sb, native tongue, 18 

a. 192. 
BuBohen, v. to go, 12. 173. 

Generally spelt busken, buske, or 

busk. See Busk. 

Busemsre, sb. scorn, mockery, i a. 

464. A. S. bysmSr, infamy, from 

bismirian, to besmear; from bi, 

by, and smdre, ht. 
Busk, imp. s. get ready, 7. 211 ; pi, 

s. Busked, went his way, 12. 372; 

Buskede him, hurried, 12. 21 ; 

Busked him, prepared himself to 

go, repaired, went, 15. iii. 14; 

imp, s. Busk, prepare (for thyself), 

13* 333* ^ccl* biiask, to prepare 

oneself, reflexive form of hiia, to 

prepare. See Bosk. 
Busk, sb. bush, 16. 71. 
Bustelyng, pres. part, used as pr. 

pi. bustle, hurry, 15. vi. 4. 
But, prep, without, 16. 447. 
But, eonj. unless, S- 6757 ; 19-553; 

provided that, 5. 5764; but if=s 

unless, 19. 636. 
Bu)>,pr. pi. are, 18 a. 9. See Ben. 
Buyrde, sb. lady, 15. iii. 14. A.S. 

br^d, E. bride. See Burde. 
By, conj. by the time that, 13. 403. 
By, V. to be, 9. 9; 13. 356; 1 p. 

pi. pr. subj, may be, 9. 102. See 

Byclypped, pp. surrounded, 18 a. 

Bycome, v. to become, suit. 3. 

162 ; pp. Bycome, become, 5. 

Byd, pr. s. asks, begs for, 3. 175. 

Put for byt, contr. form of bydde^. 

See below. 
Bydde, v. to pray, intercede, 9. 

119; 1 p. pi. pr. Bydde)?, pray, 

9. 166. A. S. biddan. See 

Byddinde, pres. part, praying to, 

9. 124. 
Byde, subj. pr. s. 2 p, abide for, 

have to wait for (a surety), 3. 

Bydene, adv. at once, besides, 116. 

53. See Bidene. 
Bye, subj. pr. s. 2 p. buy, 5. 5793. 
Bye)', pr. pi, are, 9. 46 ; imp. pi 

be ye, 9. 75. See Ben. 



Byfyi, pi. s. it befell, 5. 3873. 
Bygeten, pp, gotten, gained, 3. 

Byggyng, sb, building, habitation, 

13* 37^' ^'S' biggartf to build, 

Sw. hgga, 
By-hest, sb, S. promise, 12. 57; 

grant, 18 6. 9; Byheste, 18 b, 25. 

See Beheste. 
Byhote, pp. promised, 18 6. 23. 

See Bihote. 
Bylioueh, pr. s. is needful, 3. 37 ; 

pr. pi, Byhoues, behove, are 

obliged to, 10. 492. A. S. behdfian, 

to behove. 
Bylyue, adv. quickly, 10. 1229. 

See Belyue. 
Bynne, prep, within, 13. 452. 

A. S. binnan, within ; cf. Sc. ben. 
By-rad, pp, determined, resolved, 

self-advised, 40. 22. A. S. r<;^c^- 

an, to advise, determine. 
Bys, sb, purple, 4 6. 38. Lat. 

byssusy Gk. ^vaaot, 
Byschyzie, pp. shone upon, 18 a. 

Byse, imp. s. 2 p. look about, be 

circumspect, 3. 160. A. S. besedn, 

to look about. 
Bysyhede, sb, busyhood, continual 

care, 9. 1 1. 
By-talit, pp. committed, delivered, 

4 ^> 32 ; pt, s, Bytajt, entrusted, 

gave, 13. 528. A. S. betdcan, to 

commit, betake. 
By-[>aii, by the time that, 12. 220. 

A. S. bi ^m. 
By-thuixte, betwixt, 6. 121. 
Bytuene, prep, between, 4 a. I. 

A. S. betwynan, 


Caccea, pr, s. takes, lit. catches, 12. 

353 : P^- «• Ca3te, i a. 385. See 

Caitifte, sb. wretchedness, 8 fr. 30 ; 

Caytefte, 10. 529. O.F. caitivete, 

from Lat captivilas. 

Cald, sb, cold, 10. 1438. 

Oalewe, sb, baldpate, shaveling, I b. 
89. A. S. calOf bald, E. callow. 

Caliztes, Saint Calixt*s, i a. 191. 

Cam, Caen, i a, 271, 301. 

Cam, pt, s. came, i b. 70. 

Cam, /rqp. namey Cain, 13. 299. 

Can, pr. s, knows, 20. 280. A. S. 
curman, pr. t. ic can, }pu cdhst, he 

Can, pt. 8, and pi. began ; but used 
as aux. vb., as in Can ^a = did 
go, went, 16. 148; cf. 7. 06. 

Candelmasse day, sb. Candlemas 
day. I b. 3. 

Candlen, sb. pi. candles, la. 472. 

Canelle, sb. cinnamon, 14 c. 27. 
F. cannelle, dim. of canne, a cane. 

Canstow, /or canst thou, 19. 632. 

Cant, adj. proud, 11 c. 107. Either 
from O. F. coint, neat, pretty, or 
from the O.Sw. kant^ proud, which 
Ihre connects with the Sw. phrase 
vara pd sin kant, to give oneself 
airs, lit. to be one's corner. 

Carayne, sb. carrion, 13. 459. F. 
charognCf from Lat. caro, flesh. 

Carfuli, adv. full of anxiety, 
anxiously, ruefully, 12. 152. 

Cariexi, v. to wander, go to and 
fro, ispr. 29. A. S. cerran, to 
turn, G. kehren. 

Caroin, sb. carcase, 8 b, 197. See 

Carped, i p. s. pt. spoke, talked, 
12. 217; pt, s. Carpede, told, 15. 
ii. 166. Etjrm. doubtful. 

Gas, sb. case, l a. 33 ; circumstance, 
I a. 36 ; chance, hap, fortune, i a, 
80; 12. 326. Lat. casus, from 
cadere, to fall. 

Cast, V. to imagine, contrive, lo. 
1918; Casten, 15. iii. 18;, 
Casten, reckon, consider, 19. 212; 
pt. s. Caste, threw, I a. 115; 
designed, purposed, 19. 406 ; 
plotted, 19. 584 ; pp. Casten, con- 
sidered, 10. 432. Sw. kasta, to 

B b 2 



Catele, s5. goods, property, 8 &. 77 ; 

Catel, 8 6. 112; Catelle, price, 

14 a. 44. See Eateyl.- 
Caurimauri, 56. the name of a 

rough coarse material, 15 v. 62. 

Sometimes called cary, as in Pierce 

the Ploughman's Crede. 
Caytefte, sb. wretchedness, 10. 

529^ Caytifte, lo. 551. See 

Ca3te, pi. s. caiight, I a. 385. 
Ceoile, Cecilia, i a. 300. 
Cedres, sb, pi. cedars, 2. ciii. 36. 
Oerionsly, adv. minutely, with full 

details, 19. 185. The word is 

glossed by ceriose in the Ellesmere 

MS., and Ducange has *Seriose, 

fuse, minntatim, articulatim.* 
CJhacolie, v. catch, 15. ii. 167; 2 

p, pi. pr. subj. Chacche, 15. ii. 

180. F. ehasseTf to chase, get. 

See Cacoes. 
CJhaffare, sb. merchandise, 5. 5797; 

19. 138; barter, traffic, 15 pr. 

3 1 , Chaffare = chap-fare. A. S, 

eedp, a bargain, sale, whence E. 

eheapt A. S. cedpian, to buy, chop, 

Chaffare, v. to traffick, 19. 139. 
Chalenge, v. to claim, 14 a. 64; 

Chalange, 18 6. 38 ; pt. s. Chalan- 

gede, claimed, 18 6. 18. F. law 

tenn; from Lat. calumniare, to 

Chamberere, 56. handmaid, 14&. 28. 
Chapeleyns, sb. pi. chaplains, 15. 

i. 164. 
Ghapznanhode, sb. trade, barter, 

19. 143. See ChafBare. 
Chapmon, sb. pedlar, 15 ^. 61 ; 

pi. Chapmen, merchants, 19. 135. 

A. S. cedp, barter ; cf. £. chop, 

cheapen; also chap, a fellow; cf. 

merchant in Rom. and Jul. ii. 4. 
Char, sb. car, chariot, 20. 162. F. 

char, Lat. camts. 
Charge, sb. burden, 17. Mar. iv. 19. 

The usual sense of O. E. charge; 

from F. charger, to load a car. 

Charged,|»^. loaded, 5. 5606. See 

ChaxyiS, sb. charity, 5. 5737; par 
charite=for charity, 3. 12. Lat. 
cctrust dear. 

Chaseris, sb. pi. chasers, men in 
chase, 16. 91. 

Chaste, v. to chasten, 15. vii. 303. 

Chaud, adj. hot, 15. vii. 299. F. 
chaudj Lat calidus. 

Chaunoe, sb. chance, 5. 5632 ; 
fortune, 5. 579^ > circumstance, 
12. 54. 

Chatinge]), pr. s. changes, 6. 23; 
pp. Chaunged, 5. 5884. 

Che, she, 12. 118. 

Cheef-mete, sb. chopped food (?) 
15. vii. 281. Other MSS. have 
chiriuellis or cheruelys, i.e. cher- 
vils; Hall, gives *ch^e, a frag- 

Chees, p. t. chose, 14 a. 18 ; Ches, 
14 a. 31. See Chese. 

Cheeuen, v. to succeed (lit. 
achieve), 15 ^. 31. F. achever, 
from chef, head. 

Cheld, adj. cold, 6. 29. 

Chele, s6. chill, cold, 9. 63; 15. i. 
23 ; for chele = to prevent a chill, 
15. vii. 299. A. S. cele, coldness. 

Chenes, sb. pi. chines, chinks, 
cracks, 18 a. 8a. A.S. cint/, a 

Cheose, imp. pi. choose, 15. iii. 94. 

Chepynge, sb. market, 15. vii. 
287. Cf. Chaffare. * 

Cherche, sb. church, 5. 5777; 6. 

Cher, sb. countenance; dreri cher, 
sorrowful countenance, 8 a. 23^. 

Chere, sb. countenance, lb. 72 ; 
manner, mien, 4 a. 15 ; 19. 
396; demeanour, 5.5677; bear- 
ing, II 6. 45. O. F. chere, the 
face ; Low. Lat. cara, face ; Gk. 
Kdpa, the head. 

Cherles, 56. pi. churls, peasants, 18 
a. 8. A. S. ceorl, a peasant ; IceL 
karl, a man. 



Cherli, adv. dearly, fondly, 12. 62. 

F. cher^ Lat. carus. 
Chenibin, sb. pi, cherubim, 2. 

xvii. 29. 
Chese, v. to choose, 19. 227; 20. 

90 ; imp. s. (used for imp. pi.) 

Ches, 20. 61, 184. A. S. ceosan. 
Chesun, sb. cause, reason, 5. 5649 ; 

occasion, account, 7. 185. O. F. 

enchaison, from Lat. ace. occa- 

CheventeyxL, sb. captain, 14 a. 72; 

Cheuetayn, 13. 464. E. chieftain, 

captain, from E. chief F. chef Lat. 

caput, which is equivalent to A. S. 

heafod, E. head. 
Cheviss, v. achieve their purpose, 

be successful, prosper, speed, 16. 

427. See Cheeuen. 
Chewen, pr. pi. chew, i. e. cat up, 

devour, 15. i. 167. 
ChiboUes, sb. pi. onions of a small 

kind, 15. vii. 281. F. ciboule, 

Lat. ccBpulla, dim. of ccepe, an 

Childer, sb. pi. children, 2. viii. 5. 
Chirohe, sb. church, i a. 484 ; pi. 

Chirchen, i a. 511. 
Chiroliegong, sb. churching, i a. 

470. 483* 488 ; Chirgegong, i a. 

474. Lit. a church-going. 
Chiries, sb, pi. cherries, 15. vii. 

Chiualrie, sb. company of knights, 
4 the knights of Christendom, 19. 

Chongeden, pt. pi. they changed, 

9- 137. 
Christen, adj. Christian, 19. 222. 

ChuTOhe, sb. church, I b. 4. 

•Chysly, adv. choicely, dearly, 13. 


Cbyteryng, sb. chattering, chirp- 
ing, 18 a. 163. Formed from 
the sound. 

Cit€. sb. F. city, i a, 482. 

Clam, ^/. 5. climbed, 13. 405. 

Clanlych, adv. cleanly, 13. 310. 

Claustres, sb. pi, .cloisters, 9. 152. 

Lat. claustrum, from claudere, to 

Clef, pt. s. cleft, 13. 368. 
Clexne, imp. s. daub, plaster with 

clay, 13. 312. A. S. clcemian, to 

smear; clam, mud, clay; South 

Prov. E. cloam, earthenware. 

Connected with A.S. lam, loam. 
Clene, adv. thoroughly, i a. 358. 
Clenges, pr. s. clings, adheres, 13. 

1034. 8ee Clynges. 
Clennes, sb, cleanness, purity, 2. 

xvii. 67. 
Clepe, V. to call, 20. 151 ; Clepus, 

2 p. s. pr. callest, 12. 249 ; 

Clepe, 19. 191 ; pt. s. Clepte, 15. 

i. 4 ; Clepide, 17 a. i. 20 ; 

Clepud, 12. 56; Clepet, 15. iii. 3; 

pp. Cleped, 6. 134; Clept, 14 a, 

62. 4' 8. cleqpian, to c all ; cf. 

O. E. clappe ^haucei')' to talk, 

Clerken, sb. gen. pi, clerics*, of 

clerks, i a. 189. 
Cler-xnatin, sb. a kind of fine 

bread used for breakfast, 15. vii. 

292. From clear, fine, and matin, 

Clipped, pt. 5. S. embraced, 12. 


Clom, sb. a profound silence, 9. 35. 

O.E. clom, hush! Cf. Prov. E. 

clam, clem, to pinch, starve, A. S. 

clam, a bandage, Du. klemmen, 

to pinch, E. clamp. 
Cloos, sb. a close place, emprison- 

ment, 14 c. 63. 
Clottes, sb. pi. clots, lumps, 18 a. 

Clo)>e, sb. garment, 5. 5 714; 

clothing (?), 6. 90; Cloth, 5. 

Clobeden, pt. pi. clothed, 15. pr, 

CloH* for Clo]>, sb. clothing, 3. 

III. , 

Cloude, sh. clod, earth, 4 t/. 31. 
Clouen, pt. pi, cleft, became cloven, 

I a. 965. 






Oloutes, s&. pi. old clothes, 15. ii. 

196; pieces, 13. 965. 
ClouBtand, pres, part, patching, 

cobbling, mending; 12, 14. See 

dowe-gylofres, cloves, 14. 

e. 26. F. clou, Lat. clavus^ a nail, 

and F. girqfle, a clove, Lat. 

earyophyllumy from Gk. Kdpvov, 

not, and <p^XXov, leaf. 
Olowtes, sb. pi. fragments, lit. 

patches, 13. 367. A. S. cltit, a 

clouts patch. 
dupie, V. to call, i a. 79. See 

dynges, pr. s. shrinks, 10. 833. 

A. S. clingan, to wither, shrink. 
Glyppe, V. to clasp; clyppe to^ 

draw closely, 13. 418. 
Cnowen, pp. known, 13. 373. 
Cofer, sb. coffer, ark, 13. 310; pi. 

Cofres, boxes, 20. 23. F. cqffre, 

Lat. cophinus, Gk. ie6<f>ivo9t basket. 
Coffins, sb. pi. baskets, 17. Mar. 

vi. 43. See above. 
Cok, sb. cook, 20. 246. 
Ookeneyes, 56. pi. cooks, scullions, 

15. vii. 272. Another interpre- 
tation is small cocks, lean fowls. 

Cf. Shakesp. K. Lear, ii. 4. 123. 
Ooket, sb. a kind of fine bread, so 

called because stamped with a 

coket or seal, 15. vii. 292. 
Cole, sb. coal, 1 3. 456. 
Colopua, sb. pi. collops, 15. vii. 

272. Collops are slices of meat, 

beaten and then cooked. 
Col-plontes, sb. pi. cabbages, 15. 

vii. 273. L. eauliSf A. S. cdl, 

co/^wort, G. kolil. 
Com, V. to come, 7. 14; Come, i a. 

84 ; pt. s. Com, came, i a. 60 ; 5. 

5606; Come, 2. zvii. 27; 5. 

5590; 7- 45 ; P^' Come, I a. 6a ; 

Com, 7. 7; Com by = arrived 

near, came up with, 12. 220; pp. 

Come, descended, 12.314; gerund, 

to Comene, to come, 9. 40 ; pres, 

part. Cominde, coming, 9. 228; 

pp. Comen, 19. 260; A. S. eu' 

Comattndet,^/. s. commanded, 15. 

i. 20; Comande, 12. 347. 
Comandour, sb, commander, 19. 

CoxnbreB, pr. s. encumbers, i. e. 

alters, 13. 1024. 
Come, sb. coming, 13. 467. 
Gome, pi, s. came, 7. 45. See 

Come, V. to come, i a. 84 ; pt. s. 

Come, 2. xvii. 27. See Com.. 
Comen, adj. common, 12. 6. 
Comers, sb. pi. passers-by, 15. ii. 

206. Cf. A. S. euma, a stranger. 
Cominde, pres. part, coming, 9. 

228. See Com. 
Comissarie, sb. conunissary, 15. 

iii. 138. 
Comlyng, sb. a stranger, 18 a. 

194. A. S. cutnan, to come ; 

O. H. G. chomelingf a new comer. 
Commyxstion, 56. admixture, 18 

a. 161. 
Compainie, sb. F. company, i a. 

311. From Low Lat. companium^ 

a mess, from cum and panis, bread. 
Comparisoune, v. to compare, 1 7. 

Mar. iv. 3ps. 
Comperlt,^ 'i&. pi. compeers, com- 
rades, 12. 370. 
Comprehended, pp. retained, 14 

a. 118. 
Comsed, pt. s. F. commenced, be- 
gan, 12. 37; began (to be), 

proved (to be), 12. 194. So also 

parlous 's perilous, 
Comste, 2 p. s. comest thou, 9. 

53 ; pr. s. Com)), 5. 5592. See 

Com, Come. 
Comunlycli, adv. commonly, 5. 

Comynde, pres. part, coming, 9. 4. 

See Cominde. 
Comynge, sb. coming, 9. 41. 
Comyns, commons, 15. iii. 20. 
Con, pr. s. can, 4 a. 30 ; used as 

auxiliary^ did, 13. 363; 



Conen, know, 14 e. 56. See 

Conferxne)), pr. s. confirms, 6. 65. 

Coninge, 56. S. cunning, skill, 12. 

Conne, v. to know, i a. 223 ; x 
p, s. pr, I acknowledge, I owe, 1 2. 
297 ; pr. 5. Can, knows, 1 a. 224 ; 
Con, can, 3. 24; pt, s. Cou3de, 
12. 120;, 1 p. Conne, can, 
19. 483 ; Conen, know, 14 
c. 81 ; (2onne>, know, 18 a. 187 ; 
can, 18 a. 91; pt. pi. Cou>e, 
could, 1 a. 2 15 ; suhj. pr. s. Conne, 
know, I a. 2 1 9 ; pi. Conne, 6. 106 ; 
A.S. cunnafit pr. t. ic can, pt. t. ie 

Cozirai, sb. entertainment, 7. 141. 
O. F. conroi, preparation, from 
O. F. rot, order ; hence F.corroyer, 
to prepare, curry leather. E. 
ar-ray is from the same root. 

Conseil, sb. F. counsel, I a. 27. 

Conseili, v. F. counsel, advise, i a. 
33 J P^- P^- Conseilede, \a. 72. 

Constablesse, &h. constable's wife, 

19- 539- 
Constorie, sh. consistory, an eccle- 
siastical court, 15. iii. 32. 
Contenanoe, 56. appearance, mien, 

19. 320. 
Contesse, s6. countess, i a. 302. 
Contrai, sb. F. country, 16. 90 ; 

Contreie, i a. 'j6; Contreye, 1 a. 

293 ; pi. Contreies, districts, i a. 

203; Contreyes, I a. 221. F. 

contrec. It. conlrada, from Lat. 

contra, against: cf. G. gegend, 

country, from gegen, against. 
Controeued, //. pi. contrived, 13. 

Conyng, sb. pi. rabbits, conies, 12. 

182. The form conynges might 

have been expected here. G. 

kaninchen, a rabbit, Du. konjin. 
Coostez, sb. pi. properties; hit 

cooslez, its properties, 13. 1033; 

Costez, 13. 1024. Icel. kostr, 

custom, habit, circumstance. 

Cop, sb. top, 18 a. 119. W. cop, a 

Copes, sb. pi. copes, capes used by 

friars, i^pr. 53, 58. 
Cope)>, /v. s. gives a cope to, 15. 

iii. 138. 
Coppe, sb. cup, 3. 125. 
Corageus, adj. F. courageous, I a. 

Oorbyal, sb. raven, 13. 456. O. F. 

corbel, a raven, Lat. corvus; prov. 

E. corbie. 
Corns, sb. pi. com, harvests, 7. 39; 

Comes, cornfields, 17 a. ii. 23. 
CorouneK pr. s. crowns, 15. i. 122. 
Cors, sb. F. course, 13. 264. 
Corse, V. to' curse, 15. vii. 302 ; 

pp. Corsed, 13. 1 033. A. S. 

corsian, cursian, to curse. 
Corseynt, sb. saint, 15. vi. 23. 

Lit. a holy body (corpus sanctum). 
Corsing, sb. exchange, barter, 8 b. 

124. O. F. couracier, a broker; 

cf. E. horse-courser, a horse- 
Corsyes, sb. pi. corrosives, caustics, 

13. 1034. A shortened form of 

corrosive ; see the note. 
Corteis, adj. F. courteous, 15. iii. 

60; Corteys, 12. 194. 
Cosin, sb. F. kinsman, i a. 40, 123. 
Cost, sb. coast, 14 c. 64 ; pi. Costes, 

6. 58; Costese, 13. 460. 
Costez, sb. pi. properties, 13. 1 024. 

See Coostez. 
Cote, sb. a coat, garment (either 

for man or woman), 15. v. 91. 
Cotel^,pr. 8. gives coats to, 15. iii. 

Couohe, pr. pi. lie, lie down apart, 

i. e. are left in the lurch, 15. iii. 

35. Other MSS. have clokke, i. e. 

hobble, limp, from E. clog. could, 5. 5648; Coude, 

subj. pt. s. could, were able, 5. 

5596. See Conne. 
Coue, sb. cave, den, 7. 229. 

Northumbrian cofa, a den (of 

thieves), Mark xi. 17; E. cove. 



Couenable, adj, conTenient, suit- 
able, 17. Mar. vi. 21 ; suitable, 
18 a. 94. F. convenable. 

Couer, V. to recover, 10. 811. 

CoueytouSy adj. covetous, avari- 
cious, 5. 5577; Couetous, 15. iii. 

Oouetyse, sb. covetousness, 15. pr. 
58 ; avarice, 15. v. 107. 

Ck>uiiforte, v. to comfort, 15. i. 

Coupes, sb. pi. either hoops, rings, 
or cups, 15. iii. 23. The B-text 
favours the former interpreta^ 
tion; cf. E. cooper; Du. kuiper. 
See Coupe in Stratmann. 

Coiirtepy, sb. short cloak, 15. v. 
63. Du. kort, short, and pije, 
rough coat; whence E. pea- 

Cou)>e, pi. s. knew (how to do), 20. 
231; Cou3de, 12. 120; Cou3)>e, 
12. it8; Couthen, could, 
20. no; pp. Coui)e, known, 
familiar, 3. 44. See Conne. 

Craft, sb, trade, 15. ii. 202. 

Crafbi, adj. crafty, 7. 17. 

Creanoe, sb. belief, object of faith, 
19. 340. O.F. creance, from Lat. 
credere^ to believe. 

Creator, sb. creature, 13. 394. 

Cresten, adj. Christian, Sb. 31. 

Creyme, sb. chrism, oil used in 
anointing, 6. 144. Gk. xP^ana, 
unguent, from xpt^^ I anoint. 

Criede, pt. pi. cried, i a. 95. 

Crist, sb, anointed one, 2. xvii. 
129; Crist = Christ, i 6. 17; dai. 
Criste, 6. 135. Gk. XP^^"*"^** 
anointed, from XP'^» ^ anoint. 

Cristendom, sb. christening, i a, 
183; 6. i; Christianity, i fr. 50; 
the state of being a Christian, 
10. 549 ; baptism, 19. 351 ; 
Christendom, i. e. Christian lands, 
14 c. 88. 

Cristianytee, sb, company of 
Christians, 19. 544. 

Cristni} v. to christen, 6. 31; 

Cristny, 6. 37 ; Cristnye, 6. 45 ; 

I p. s. pr. Cristni, 6. 122 ; pr. s. 

Cristne^, 6. 93 ; pr. pi. Cristneli, 

6. 85 ; pp. Cristned, baptized, 19. 

Cristning^, sb. christening, 6. 10 ; 

Cristnynge, 6. 49 ; Cristnyng, 6. 

104 ; pi. Cristnynges, 6. 127, 
Crimed, i p. s, pt. cried to ; eri^fid 

hire of, cried to her for, 15. i. 

Ori3inge, ^«. />ar/. aying, 15. ▼. 

Croft, sb. meadow, field, 15. vii. 

277. A. S. croft, 
Croice, sb, F. cross, 7. 47 ; 12. 350. 
CrokkeSy sb. pi. crocks, pots, 

earthen vessels, 18 a. 46. A. S. 

crocy a pot. 
Crone, sb. crone, hag, 19. 432. 
Cronique, sb, F. a chronicle, 

20. I. 
Crop, sb. top (esp, of a tree), 7. 

312; 10. 663. A. S. cropy a top. 
Cronkez, pr. s, croaks, 13. 459. 
Crouning, sb, crowning, corona- 
tion, I b. 23. 
Cronny, v. to crown, i a, 225 r 

pr. s. Crounes, 2. cii. 8 ; pt. s. 2 p. 

Crowned, crownedst, 2. viii. 17. 

Lat. corona. 
Crowdest, pr. s. 2 p. dost press, 

dost push, 19. 296. A. S. crydan, 

to crowd, press. 
Crowdyng, sb. pressure, motive 

power, 19. 299. See above. 
Croys, sb, cross, 19. 450. See 

Cruddes, sb. pi, curds, 15. vii. 

269. W. crwdt a round lump 
Cruwelnes, sb. cruelty, 18 6. 30. 
Crystendom, sb, the Christian 

religion, 5. 5764, 
Culuere, sb. a dove, 17. Mar. i. 10. 

A. S. culfrey a dove. 
Cum, V. to come, *j. i^\ pres. pari, 

Cumand, 16. 205. See Com. 
Cumand, pt, s, commanded, ii a, 




Cumbred, -Z*^. encumbered, 15. i. 

Cumrit, pt. s. encumbered, troubled, 
overwhelmed, 16. 486. G. 
hummer^ trouble, seems to have 
been confused with F. combler, 
to heap up, from Lat. cumulus, a 

Cuxnse]), pr. s. commences, 15. i. 
128, 139 ; iii. 99. See Comse)). 

Conne, pr,pL know how to, 15 pr, 
33; Cunnen, can, 15. i. 170. 
See Conne. 

Cuntinaunoe, sb. appearance, out- 
ward show, 15 pr. 34. 

Cuntr^, sb. F. country, 5. 5876; 
i5./r. 95. 

Cuppeznel, adv, by cupfiils, 15. y, 
139. Cf. Poundmele. 

Cnpydez, cubits, 13. 315. 

Curatoiirs, sb, pi. curates, priests 
who have cure of souls, 15. i. 169. 

Cure, sb. care, endeavour, 19. 188; 
in cure = in her care, 19. 230. 

Oorteysy, sb. courtesy, kindness, 
5. 5862; Curteisye, 19. 166. 

CuaaedeJi, pt. pi. kissed, 15 pr. 70. 
A. S. cos, a kiss. 

Ciistome-houses, s&. pi, appa- 
rently the houses or shops which 
beggars used to visit with the 
hope of receiving alms, 5. 5585. 

OutlL, pi, s. knew (how to), 7. 30. 
A. S. eunnan, to know, pt. t« 

tC CttO. 


Daffe, tb. a dolt, 15. i. 129. Old 

Sw. dbft stupid, £. deaf. 
Dai-gang, sb, a day's journey, 7. 

Dampned, pp, F. damned, 5. 

Danoe, sb, dance (used ironically), 

II c, 58; Daunce, 74. 
Parked, pi, s, lay hid, 12. 17, 44. 

Cf. O. E. dars, to lie motionless, 

to be stupefied; Du. bedaren, to 

cause to be still; Prov. E. dor, 

to stupefy, dor, a fool ; G. thor, a 

fool, stupid. 
Daunte, v. to tame, 17. Mar. v. 4. 

O. F. danter (mod. F. dompter), 

from Lat. domitare, inteus. of 

domare, to tame. 
Daw, sb. day ; 0/ daw, from day, 

i. e. out of day, out of life ; bring 

of daw, to kill, 16. 132 ; pi. Dawes, 

days, 12. 77. 
Dayes-ejes, sb. pi. daisies, 4 d. 4. 

A. S. d<sges edge, the eye of day, 

a daisy. 
Dea})e8, sb. gen. s. of death, 6. 72. 
Deawes, sb. pi, dews, 4 d. 28. 
Debonere, adj. F. mild, gentle, i 

a. 279. F. de bon air, of a good 

Debrekynge, pres. pari, tearing, 

17. Mar. i. 26. Vulg. discerpens, 
Debmsed, pp. bruised, i a. 168. 

O. F. bruiser, F, briser, to break, 

Deolpells, sb, pi. disciples, 8 b. 4. 
Ded, pi. s. did, put, 5. 5707. 
Ded, sb, death, 3. 8; Dede, 2. 

zvii. II ; Dede, death's, 10. 1890; 

to ded-ward = towards death, 10. 

807 ; bygan our dede ^ was the 

author of our death, 10. 487. Sw. 

dod, Du. dood, G. iod. 
Dede, pi. s. did, 20. 127; put, 5. 

5776; caused, made, 5.5774; dede 

translate as caused to be translated, 

12. 167. 
Dede, sb, deed, i a. 23 ; pi. Dedes, 

I a. 113; Dedys, 5. 5667; to 

dedes to actual fulfilment, 7. 242. 

A.S. ddd, G. thai. 
Dede-stoure, sb, conflict of death, 

death-struggle, lO. 1820. See 

Deed, adj. dead, 19. 209; pi. Deede, 

6. 139. 
Deexne, v. to judge, decide, 15. i. 

84. See Deme. 
Defalte, 56. fault, ao. 20, 78; lack, 

20. 75. 



Defaute, sh. fault, 14 a. 53 ; lack, 

15. V. 6. O. F. deffaute, from 
faute or falie, lack ; Lat. fallere, 

to fail. 
Defence, sh. prohibition, 13. 243. 

See below. 
Defendet, pt. s. forbade, 15. iii. 55. 

(Defende]>s forbids, is another 

reading.) F. defendrey to forbid; 

whence '£>. fend^ fender^ fence. 
Defye, V. to digest, 15 pr, 108. 

O. F. deffier, to distrust, from 

Lat. fides ; hence O. £. defy, to 

renounce, reject; but frequently 

used in the sense to digest. 
Defygurd, pp. disfigured, 10. 2340. 
Deghe, v. to die, 10. 813. Dan. 

"Degjaet, pp. F. disguised, 15 pr, 

Beid, pi. s. died, 7. 35 ; Deide, i a. 

348 ; pi. I a. 444. Dan. dde, to 

die ; the A. S. word is steorfan, £. 

Deknes, sh. pi. deacons, 15^^92. 
Del, sb. F. grief, sorrow, pain, 12. 

349. See Dool. 
Dele, V. to divide, distribute, I a. 

509; to give, 15. i. 173 ; i p- s. 

pr. I give, 175; pr. s. Deles, 3. 

99 » ''"/'• *• Del, distribute, 3. 97 ; 

pp. Deled, parted, 18 a. 199. 

A. S. dS, a deal, dole, part ; G. 

Delful, adj. doleful, 13. 400. 
Deliuerly, adv. F. quickly, 12. 

349; Delyuerly, nimbly, 16. 206. 
Deliuery, v. to set free, liberate 

I a. 513. Lat. liber, free. 
Delpliyns, dolphins, 18 a. 

Deluers, sh. pi. diggers, workmen 

with the spade 1$ pr. 102. 
Delytable, adj. F. delightful, 14 a. 

Demaunde, so. question, 19. 472. 

Dezne, v. to deem, judge, 4 ^. 30 ; 

9. 243; to tell, 12. 151 ; 

1 condemn, judge, 15. v. 95 ; pp. 

Demed, considered to be, deemed, 

called, 13. TO 20. A. S. dSman, 

to judge, ddm, doom ; O. E. 

deemster, dempster, a judge. 
Deznxned, pt. s. became dammed 

up, 13. 384. A. S. demman, to 

dam, stop water. 
Denel^, sb. pL Danish, Danes, I 

a. 337, 341. This is a French 

form; the termination -eis=ais, 

ois of Mod. French = Lat. -ensi. 
Denemarch, Denmark, i a. 6. 

The ending -mareh = mark, 

boundary; cf. £. the marchess 

the border'land. 
Deimes, sb. pi. dens, 2. ciii. 50. 
Dent, sb. dint, stroke, 18 6. 86. 

A. S. dyni, a blow. 
Deol, sb. grief, sorrow, i a, 497. 

See DooL 
Deore, v. to dure, to endure, i b. 

63. Lat. durare, 
Deores, sb, pi. dears, lovers, 4 d, 

DepartetlL, pr. s. parts, becomes 

separated, 14 a. 74 ! P^' ^- ^^ 

partide, divided, ij a. vi. 41. 
Depe, V. to dip, 6. 83, 117. A. S. 

depart, to dip. baptise. 
Depe, sb. the deep, open sea, 3. 253. 
Depnes, sb. depth, abyss, 2. ciii. 

Der, adv. dearly, 8 b. 129. 

Derelych, adv. beautifully, dearly, 
13. 270. 

Deres,^. s. harms, 2. xiv. 12 ; pr. 
pi. Ders, harm, 10. 1232. A. S. 
derian, to injure, dere, dor, daru, 
injury ; Du. deren, to harm. 

Dereyni, v. F. to fight out, decide 
by battle, i a. 84 ; pp. Dereyned, 
adjudged, decided, 18 b. 86. 
O. F. derainer, deresnier, to try 
the truth of an accusation, as if 
from Lat. derationare, to reason 
out, {rom ratio, reason. 

Derk, adj. dark, 15 ^. 16; 19. 

Derli, adv. dearly, 2. cii. 7. 



Deme, adj. secret, 4 d. 29 ; Dern, 

hidden, secret, 'j. 33. A. S. dearn, 

secret, dyman^ to hide. 
Demly, adv. S. secretly, 12. 17. 

See above. 
DerSy^r.^/. harm, injure, 10. 123 a. 

See Derds. 
Derwor)>e, adj. precious, 15. i. 85. 

Lit. dear-worth; A. S. dedrvmriSe, 

Desaly, adv. dizzily, t6. 210. 
Desarayed ham, pt. pi. fell into 

disorder, 18 6. 118. 
Desavauntage, sb, disadvantage, 

18 a. 184. 
Desolosed, pp. disclosed, perceived, 

20. 204. 
Pesoryfe, vb. to describe, 10. 2305. 
Deseritf de, pt. s. disinherited, i a. 

2fiS; pp. Deserited, i a. 382. 
Desparpletli, pr. s. becomes scat- 
tered, 14 a. 74. O. E. sparple, 

another form of O. E. sparkle, 

Lat. spargere. Desparple is there- 
fore another form ofdisperse. 
Pe8pit,s&.spite, harm, injury, 1 2. 1 3 1 . 
Despitously, adv. despitefuliy, 19. 

605. O. F. despit, contempt, Lat. 

delectus, a looking down upon. 
Desselio, adv. ignorantly (?), 7. 34 ; 

cf. A.S. dysig. The Trin. MS. 

reads Bisily. See the note. 
Pestniede, pt, s. destroyed, i a. 

338 ; pp. Destrued, i a. 344, 438. 
"Dep, pr. s. doth, does, i a. 464 ; 6. 

1 26; deb outssdoeth out, casteth 

out, 9. 216. A.S. dSn, to do; 

pr. s. I p. ic d6, 2 p. bu dest, 3 p. 

he dS^ ; pi. d(f^. 
Deb, sb. S. death ; dat. s. De|>e, i a. 

39,122. A.S.dediS. Cf. Dede. 
De]>-vael, sb. death-sickness, i a. 

414. (Lit. death-evil.) 
Deuel, sb. devil, i a. 115. 
Devise, v. to tell, relate, 14 a. 99 ; 

Deuyse, 19. 154; Deuice, 13. 

1046 ; pt. s. Deuisit, advised, 16. 

25. F. deviser t from Lat. diuidere, 

pp. diuisus. 

Devisynge, sb. narration, relating, 

14 a. 114. 
Devoydynge, sb. banishing, exter- 
minating, 13. 544. O. F. voide, 

from Lat. uiduus. 
Deye, v. to die, 19. 525 ; Dye, 19. 

644 ; pr. pi. Deye>, 6. i lo. See 

Deghe, Deid. 
Deyl, sb. part, portion ; ' neuer a 

deyr = not a bit, 5. 5588 ; 'euery 

deyl' = entirely, 5. 5738. Cf. phr. 

'a good deal* See Dele. 
Deyne, pr. pi. deign, 15. vii. 296. 
Deynt^, sb. dainty ; hence, great 

liking, I 6. 35 ; Deyntec, pleasure, 

wish, 19. 139; pi. Deyntees, 

dainties, 19. 419. W. darUaeth, 

a dainty, a toothsome thing, from 

W. dantf a tooth. 
Deje, pr. s. i p. die, 4 6. 36. See 

"Dioh-Upp. dight, prepared, 16. 155. 

See Dightes. 
Dejter, daughters, 13. 270. 

A. S. ddhtor, G. tochter, Gk. 

Did, pt. s. did o lijf =did off (from) 

life, killed, 7. 191 ; Dide, did, 2. 

xiv. 6; pt. pi. Did ])am = set them, 

put them, 7. 33. 
Difflune, v. to spread abroad, pub- 
lish a rumour, 17. Mar. i. 45. 

Vulg. diffamare. 
Dightes, pr. s. prepares, 11 e. 36; 

pp. Diht, disposed, sent, 46. 25. 

A.S. dihtan, to set in order, G. 

dichten, to compose. 
Digne, adj. F. worthy, 6. 74. 
Dihte, v. to prepare, 15. vii. 278. 
Dilatacioun, sb. diffuseness,i9. 232. 
Dilitable, adj. delightful, pleasant, 

15- »• 33. 
Dimnes, sb. dimness, darkness, a. 

xvii. 28. 

Dingnetes, sb. pi. F. dignities, 9. 

Dintes, 56. pi. dents, blows, knocks, 
8 b. 26. Cf. by dint of. A. S. 
dynt^ a blow. 



Diopendion, ih, a diapenidion, a 
sweetmeat, 15. v. loi. Cf. Lat. 
Penidium^ Ital. penidio, F. pSnide, 
The receipt for making it is given 
in Notes and Queries, 4 S. vi. 20a. 
It was used as an expectorant, and 
was made up like our barley-sugar ; 
the deriv. is from Gk. ir^n;, thread, 

Disclaiindered, pp. slandered, 19. 
6 74* See below. 

Pisolaundre, sb, evil fame, disre- 
spect, 15. V. 75. Lit. dis-slandeTt 
where the prefix is intensive. F. 
esclandret slander, from Lat. sean^ 
dalum, Gk. CKdvdaXov, offence; 
whence E. scandal. 

Disoreue, v. F. to describe, 15. v. 
62 ; Discryue, 10. 1897 ; /jp. Dis- 
criued, lo. 1901. 

Pisherite, v. F. to disinherit, 14 a. 

Disese, sb, lack of ease, trouble, 19. 

Disparpoilid, pp. divided, 17. 
Mar. iii. 25. The lit. meaning is 
dispersed, * Dysparplyn. Dissipo, 
dispergo;* and again, 'Sparplyn. 
Spergo, dispergo.* Prompt. Par v. 

Disport^ sb. pleasure, recreation, 
sport.'i^. 143. 

Distresse, sb. F. distress of others, 
i.e. punishment, 13. 307. Lat. 
stringere^ to draw tight. 

Distruen, pr, pi, F. destroy, waste, 
15 pr, 22. 

Pisturblid, pp, troubled, 17. Mar. 
vi. 50. 

Ditiise, vb, to tell of, describe, 12. 

Diuyn, sb. divinity, i^. pr. 90. 

Di3ete, 2 p, s. pr, subj. diet, 15. vii. 

Di3t€i9 pt. s, ordained, 6. 51 ; pp. 

Di3t, prepared, 12. 315; ready, 

12. 151. See Diglites. 
Diattiy V, to arrange, perform, 6. 

1 28. A. S. dihtatiy to order. 
DOj V, to plsce, put, 8 6. 157; to 

cause, 16. 62 ; 1 p. s, pr, pat ; I 
do it on=:I appeal to, 15. i. 84; 
pr. pi. Does, do, 2. cii. 50 ; pi. s. 
Did, put, Sb. 1 74 ; pp. Do, done, 
6. 13 ; caused, 5. 5896 ; pres. 
part. Doand, doing, 2. xvii. 128. 
A. S. d(Sn, G. thun, Du. doen, to 

Pogge, sb, a dog, 15. v. 98. 

Doke, sb, a duck, 15. v. 58. 

DoluOf pi. s. subj. should dig 
through, break into, 9. 5 ; where 
the Vulg. has perfodi domum 
suatn. A. S. del/an^ to delve, dig. 

Dozn, sb. doom, judgment, opinion, 
8 a. 100; 13. 1046; Dome, 7. 8 ; 
2. cii. 12; pi. Domes, 2. xvii. 61 ; 
4 d. 30. A. S. d6m, judgment ; 
Gk. $4iut. See Deme. 

Domlajidfpres.pari, clouding over, 
cloudy, 10. 1443. From a vb. 
domle, to be dull, disturbed; cf. 
Prov.E. drumly^ muddy; drumble, 
to be confused or disturbed; cf. 
Sw. drutnlOf to be sluggish, Sc. 
drum^ dull. 

Don, adv, down, 3. 142. 

Done, V. to do, 12. 320; pr, pi. 
Done, do, 5. 5580; gerund, to 
done = to do, I a. 426; pp. Don, 
made, 13. 320; also put; stowed; 
don in = gathered, 7. 39. See Po. 

Donet, sb. elementary instruction, 
15. V. 123. O. E. donet, a gram- 
mar, so named from Donaius, a 

Dongen, pp. knocked, beaten, 1 1 c. 
74. Sc. dingt to beat, Sw. ddnga, 
to bang. 

Ponke)?, pr. pi. make damp, 
moisten, 4 d, 28. Milton uses 
dank, moist. Probably connected 
with Du. donker, dark, G. dunkel, 
dark, Prov. £. danker, a dark 

(To) donne, gerund, to do, 6. 126. 
Equiv. to Lat. faciendum. 

Donward, adv. downwards, X a. 

147. i54- 



Dool, sb. sorrow, ^rief, 12. 88 ; 

Del, 12. 349. F. deuU, mourn- 
ing, Sc. dule^ grief, Lat. dolium in 

comp. cordolium, heart-grief, from 

dolere^ to grieve. 
Dore, sb. door, 6. 141. 
Doreward, sb, warden of the gate, 

porter, 9. 21. 
Dorste, pt, s, durst> i a. 364 ; pi. 

Dorste, I a. 391; Dorst, 20. 12. 

A. S. dear, I dare, pt. t. dorste. 
"Doten, pr. pi. dote, are foolish, 13. 

286. Du. dutten, to take a nap, 

to dote ; cf. F. radoter, to talk 

Dotestf adj. superl. most doting, 

stupidest, 15. i. 129. See above. 
Do>, pr. s. does, i 6. 5 ; makes, 3. 

76 ; pr. pi, do, 4 <?. 52. See Do. 
Dovene, sb. dove (a feminine form), 

13. 481; spelt Doune, 469; 

Downe, 485. Cf. vixen, a female 

fox, O.E. wulvene, a female wolf; 

and cf. the G. fem. termination 

Doumbe, adj. dumb, 5. 5907. 

A. S. dumb. 
Doiin, V. go down, be slain, 1 3. 289. 
Doune, sb. hill, mountain, I a. 

158 > P^' Dounes, ^d, 28. A. S. 

dun, E. down, a hill. 
Doiinfalland, pres. part, falling 

down, 2. xvii. 25. 
Doungas, pr. pi. descend, 2. ciii. 

17. Lit. go down. 
Dounriglit, adv. right down, 2. 

xvii. 100. 
Doute, 56. F. fear, 1 b. 8 ; 4 «. 

53; reverence, 5. 5833; Dout, 

fear, II 6. 88. Lit. doubt; but 

almost always =fear in O. E. 
Doutelees, adv. without doubt, 

19. 226. 
Dou3tiore, adj. comp. doughtier, 

stronger, 15 v. 84. 
Dou)>e, adj. doughty, brave, noble 

(onies), 13. 270. See below. 
Dowed, pt, s. availed, 13. 374. 

A. S. dugan (pr. s. deah, pi. dugon. 

pt. s. dohte, pi. dohton), to avail, 
to be noble or doughty; cf. Sc. 
dow, to avail, Du. deugen, G. 
taugen, to profit. Wedgwood de- 
nies the connection with E. do in 
the phr. 'this will do,* *how do 
you do* 

Dozein, sb. F. dozen, 7. 35. 

Do3ter, sb. daughter, I a. 296 ; pi. 
Dojtren, la. 297, 300. A.S.dohtor. 

Draf, pt. 5. drove, fell, 16. 471. 

Dragoun, sb. dragon, 2. dii. 61. 

Drab, imp. s. draw, 3. 1 78. 

Drakes, sb. pi, drakes, wild fowl, 
4^. 19. 

Dranc, pt. pi. drank, 7. 42. 

Drawand, pres. part, drawing near, 
10. 826; Drawis, pr. s. draws, 
inclines (one), 16. 175 ; pp. Drawc, 

19- 339- 
Dra^eK pr. pi. subj, they may 

draw, 9. 51. 
Dre, V. to endure, hold out, 16. 

181. A.S> dredgan, to endure; 

Sc. dree. 
Dreclunge, adj. vexing, painful, 

deeply drawn (said of a breath or 

sigh), 20. 149. A. S. drdcan, to 

vex, oppress. 
Dredand, pres. part, fearing, 2. cii. 

27; they who fear, a. xiv. 10; 

2. cii. 22; Dredeand, a. cii. 38. 
Drede, sb. dread; but we find 

wttkouten drede ^v/'ithout doubt, 

19. 196; cf. 16. 195. 
Drede, v. to fear, 3. 156; where 

him drede isifezT for himself. A.S. 

drddan, to fear, drdd, dread, fear. 
Drenohen, v. to be drowned, 19. 

455. A.S. drencan, to cause to 

drink, to drench. 
Drenchyng, sb. drowning, 19. 485. 

Cf. A. S. drenc-flod, a drenching 

flood, i. e. the deluge. 
Drepez,^. s. slays, 13. 24(5!^ A.S. 

drepan, to wound ; Sw. dr'dpa, to 

kill, Icel. drap, a death-stroke. 
Dressen, pr. pi. prepare (lit. direct), 

19. 263; Dresseth hir= prepares 



herself, 19. 265. F. dresser, from 

Lat. dirigere, 
Dreuoh, pt. s. drew, 16. 468. 
Dreued, pt, s, troubled, 2. xvii. 40 ; 

2. ciii. 70. A. S. drS/an, to dis- 
turb, vex, Prov. E. drovy, dis- 
turbed, dirty, 
Dre3l7, adv. patiently, enduringly, 

13. 476. See Dre. 
Dridnes, sb. fear, dread, 7. 262. 
Diif, V. to drive, follow up, 16. 66; 

to drife (gerund) = to be driven, 

8 a. 229. A. S. drifan. 
Drightin, sh. Lord, 7. 67. A. S. 

drihten^ the Lord. 
Drino, sh. drink, 7. 54. 
Diiue)>, pr, pi, drive; driuej» forJ> 

=pass away (the time), 15 />r. 

103. See Drif. 
Prof, pt. s, drove, la. 239, 464; 

20. 166; Drofe, hurled, 5. 5618. 

See Drif. 
Dronkenes, pr. s. becomes 

drowned, is drowned, 8 b. 109. 

Sw. drunknOt to be drowned. 
Drope, sb, S. drop, i 0. 1 70. 
Drovb., pt. s. drew, 20. 220; Drou, 

1 a. 98 ; Drou3, pulled, i b. 80. 
Drou]i]>e, sb. drought, 15. vii. 275. 
Drouing, sb. trouble, 2. xvii. 15. 

See below. 
Drouy, adj. turbid, 13. 10 16. A. S. 

drd/e^ muddy ; drefan, to disturb. 

See Dreued. 
Drou3, 1 p. s. drew, 15. v. 123; 

pt. s. Drou, la. 78 ; Drow, 1 2. 

42 ; Drou3, 16. 29 ; Dro^, i b. 

77 ; pt. pi. Drowe, 16. 54 ; 20. 

163. A. S. dragon (pt. t. drdg), 

to draw, drag. 
DrulBOSt, 2 p. s, pr. art dry, art 

thirsty, 15. i. 25. 
Drund, pt. pi. were drowned, 7* 

415. See Dronkenes. 
Dnmkene8,/>r. s. drowns, 86. iii. 

Sw. drdnka, E. drench, A. S. 

drencan, to make to drink. 
Dmrie, ib. favourite, darling, ob- 
ject of affection, 15. i. 85. O. F. 

druerie, affection, drut, a lover, 
from O. H. G. triuten^ to love ; cf. 
G. traut, dear. 

Druye, adj. as sh. dry, 15. vi. 21 ; 
adj. pi. dry, 12. 412. 

Drythe, sb. drought, dryness, 18 a. 
17. h.S. druga%. 

"Dtj^, adj. sorrowful, patient, 1 3. 
342. Cf. 'how dree were the long 
nights;* DayofRest,no. 25,p.366. 

Dry3e, v. to endure, undergo, 13. 
372; to suffer, 13. 1032; Dry3, 
13. 400 ', pt. s. Dryjed, continued, 
13. 491. A.S. dredgan, to en- 
dure, Sc. dree, to endure. 

Dry3ly, adv. strongly, vehemently, 
13. 344. See above. 

Pry3tyii, sb. a lord, the Lord, 1 3, 
243. 295; Dry3ttyn, 13. 344. 
See Drightin. 

Dubbed, pp. dubbed, lie. 58; 
Dubbede, 15. i. 96. A.S. dub- 
ban, to strike, thump; E. dub, 
a thump ; hence O. F. adober, 
to dub a knight, also to arm, 
equip, arrange. 

Dubonure, adj. mild, gentle, 5. 
5800. Seems to be miswrittea 
for debonaire. 

Duo, sb. F. duke, I a. 37, 55. 57. 

Dude, pt. s. put, I a. 359 ; did, 1 a. 
13, 18, 82; caused, 15. i. 97; 
pt. pi. Dude, did, i a. 95, 102 ; 
Dude hem no3t, should do nothing 
to them, i. e. should not hurt 
them, I a. 139. See Do. 

Duere, adj. dear, 3. 31. 

Dume, sb. doom, judgment, 15. ii. 
183. See Dome. 

Dungun, sb. dungeon, 15/r. 15. 

Dunstan, ib. i. 

Dunt, sh. stroke, blow, i a. 154, 
165. A.S. dynt, a blow, dent, 

Duppeb, pr. pi. dip, 6. 86. 

Dure, V. F. to last, 19. 189; pr. s. 
DureJ), lasts, 15. iii. 29; DuyreK 
endures, lasts, 18 a. 77 ; pr. pi. 
Duren, endure, 13. 102 1; pi. s. 



Durede, 15. 1. 76; 186. 114. 

Lat. durare. 
Dutande, pres, part, closing, shut- 
ting, 13. 320. A.S. dytian, to 

close, shut; Prov. E. dii, to 

Dute, sb. fear (lit. doubt), 7. a6o. 

See Doute. 
Duyryng, sb. lasting, 18 a. 146. 

See Dure. 
Dwelland, pres. part, abiding, 

remaining, 2. cii. 37. 
Dwer>, sb. a dwarf, 12. 362. Sw. 

Du. and G. dwerg. 
Dwyne, v. to dwindle, 10. 703; 

pr. s, Dwjmes, 10. 707. Sw. tvina, 

to dwindle. 
Dyad, adj. dead, 9. 239; pi, 

Dyade, 9. 243. See Dede. 
D7a|>, sb. death, 9. 37; Dya|>e, 

Dyeuel, sb. devil, 9. 18. 

Dygne, adj. F. worthy, 5. 5718. 

Dyngneliolie, adv. F. worthily, 

9. 105. 
Dykersy s6. //. ditchers, iS pr. 

loa. A. S. die, a <fi^«, Ji'/cA, 

mound, dician, to make a dike, 

to dig ; cf.. Gk. rcrxot. 
Dysslies, £6. //. dishes, 5. 5838. 
Dysstrye» v. to destroy, 13. 520. 
Dyje, V. to die, 15. i. 132. See 

I)73t» pp' dight, ordained, made, 

13. 343. See Dightes. 


XS, sb. eye, 16. I91. 

Saren, sb. pi. ears, 9. la. A. S. 

^aVtf, an ear, pi. edran. 
Xibrayk, adj. Hebrew, 19. 489. 
XiClie, adj. each, i a, 109; ech 

after o]>er= one after another, i a. 

96 ; ech to oj'er »= to each other, 

I b. 9. A. S. <slc, each. 
Bohe, sb. increase, addition, 6. 65. 

A.S. ecan, to eke, increase; cf. 

Lat. augere. 

Eohedayes, apparency an adv. 
on each day, daily, 9. 229. 

Xjohedeyl, adv. every bit, entirely, 
5. 5748. See Dele. 

Echen, to each (one), 9. 37. Cf. 
Lat. motto suum cuique. 

XjOhon, pron. each one, I a. 299 ; 
I 6. 11; Echone, i a. 355; 5. 5585. 

XJdneK (perhaps) returns (to him), 
3. 200. The Camb. MS. has his 
kedttnte=\s a reproach, which 
gives some sense. But the mean- 
ing is uncertain. Cf. A. S. ed, 
back again. 

Edwit, sb. reproach, I a. 468. 
A. S. edivite, reproach, edwitan, 
to blame; from ed, prefix signi- 
fying anew, again, and vdte, a 

Xlese, sb. ease; put for eese iss 
is easy to, 10. 1469. Cf. the 
use of F. aise as an adj. == glad. 

Bf, eonj. if, 8 b. 73. Icel. ef, if, 
prob. connected with Icel. e/, 
doubt, O. Sw. jefwa, to doubt. 

Bffere, sb. show, bustle, 16. 30; 
Effer, appearance, demeanour, 16. 
136; Effeir, 16. 412. Probably 
O. Y. afaire, state, condition. 

Bf-8one, adv. soon after, i a. 135. 
See Bfbsone. 

Bft, adv. afterwards, again, 3. I90 ; 
again, 17 a. iv. I ; Efte, again, 
13. 248; eft resten = Lat. r«- 
quiescet, 17. Ps. xiv. i. A.S. eft, 
again, afterwards. 

Bfter, prep, after, 7. 7 ; for, 8 b. 
77. A. S. after, Sw. efter. 

Bft-8one, adv. again, 6. 1 24 ; I *]a, 
ii. 13 (where the Lat. has rtarsus). 
A. S. eft'sbna, soon after ; lit. 

Bggede, pt. s, incited, instigated, 
15. i. 6^. A.S. eggian, Icel. 
eggja, to sharpen, excite, incite. 
See below. 

Bggez, sb. pi. edges, 13. 383, 451. 
A. S. ecg, Icel. egg, Lat. wies, 
an edge ; cf. Gk. dx/xi}. 



IStSgyngt <&• instigation, 13. 241. 
Icel. egging, an inciting, egging 
on. See above. 

Eghe, sb. eye, 10. 818; £ie, I a. 
160; pi. Eghen, 2. xvii. 68; lo. 
781. A. S. edge, pi. eagan, 

EUd, sb, age, 7. 194. See Eld. 

EileK ^- S' Ails, 15. vii. 244. 

Eir, s&. F. heir, 1 a, 234 ; /!?. Eirs, 
I a. 257. Lat. haeres, 

Ei)>er> pron. each (of two), i a. 91. 

Either, adv, even, 17. Mar. vi. 56. 

Ei^yeiiy s6. pi. eyes, 12. 228; 
Eijen, 15^. 71. See Eghe. 

Ek, conj. also, la. 17; Eke, 6. 38. 
A. S. «ac, G. auch, Du. ooit. 

Eld, s6. old age, I a. 462 ; Elde, 
old age, age, 3. 42; 10. 742; 
15. iii. 90. A. S. yldo, Moeso- 
Goth. aids, alths, old age. 

Elded« pp. grown old, 2. xvii. 
114. A.S. ealdian, G. altem, to 
grow old. 

Eldome, sb, pi, ancestors, i a. 
loi, 102, 105. A.S. ealdor, an 
elder, ancestor, ruler; whence E. 

Eldore, adj. comp. elder, i a, 244 ; 
superl. Eldoste, i a. 301, 506. 
A. S. eald, old. 

Eleooioun, sb. choice (an astro- 
logical term), 19. 312. 

EUeft, adj. eleventh, 8 a. 135. 

EUeme, sb. an elder-tree, 15. i. 66. 
A. u. eUen, 

Elles, adv. else, 5. 5668 ; provided 
only, 13. 466; otherwise (than 
the truth), 15. i. 86 ; cf. 1. 108 
below. A. S. elles ; cf. Gk. &KXw9. 

Elringe, sb. a herring, 8 b. 46. 
Probably an error of the scribe, 
as the Camb. MS. has kerynge. 

El])er, adj. older, 18 a. 18. A.S. 
eald, old, yldra, older. 

Eznbassadxie, sb, cmbassaye, em- 
bassy, 19. 233. 

Emoristen, sb. fellow-Christian, 9. 
86. A. S. e/en-cristen, a fellow 
Christian, from ^en, efn, even. 

So also Svr. jdmnchristen, fellow- 
Christian, {rom jdmn, even, equaL ' 

Emprise, sb. enterprise, 19. 348. 
O. F. emprise, emprinse, from 
prendre, to take in hand, Lat. 

EnchamunenB, sb. pi, enchant- 
ments, 12. 137. 

Enorees, sb. increase, 19. 237. 

Endentur, th. {as pi.) notches, 
crevices, cracks, 13. 313. O. Ft. 
endenter, to indent, notch. 

Endlaag, prep, along, 16. 27. A.S. 
andlang, G. entlang, 

Ene, adv. once, 3. 189. A. S. dne, 

Enes, adv, once, i a, 393 ; Ene, 
3. 189. A.S. ones, gen. case of 
dn, one. 

Enfermer, sb. attendant on the in- 
firm, the infirmarius of an abbey, 

Enflawmed, pp. F. inflamed, 14 a. 
66. Lzt. flamma. 

Engelond, prop. n. England, I a. 
16. A. S. Engla land, land of the 
Angles or English ; where Engla 
is gen. pi. of Angle, Engle, the 

Englissolie, adj. English, 6. 58; 
Engliss, I a. 134; ^. EngUsse, i 
a, 5; Englisch, the English lan- 
guage, 6. 118. 

Enne, ae. s. m. of On ^ one, 6. 100. 
A. S. dn, ac. s. m. dnne, <snne. 

Bimok, Enoch, 5. 5935. 

Enotunbre, v. to conceal, obscure ; 
enoumbre him, to be obscured, 14 
a. 9. Lat. inumbrare, from tm^ 
bra; whence O. F. enombrer. 
See Ombre^ in Burguy. 

Enpoysened, pt. s. poisoned, 13. 

Enqueri, v. F. to inquire, i a. 352. 

Ensample, sb. example, 5. 5939. 

Entente, sb. intent, consideration, 
plan, 20. 21 ; Entent, purpose, 
19. 147. Lat. inUndere^ to give 
attention to. 



Sntreh, pr, s, enters, 6. 6. 
Sxivyrone, v. to go about, roam 

over, 14 a. 8. F. virer, to turn. 
ZSnuyrown ; in enuyrown = in the 

environs, round about, 17* Mar. 

vi. 6. 
Uny, adj, any, i a, 124. A. S. 

Bode, pi, pi. went, came, 4 « . 46 ; 

pi, pi, Eoden, went, J$. pr. 40. 

A. S. eode^ used as pt. t. of gdn, 

to go ; Moeso-Gothic iddja, I went, 

as pt. t. of gangan, to go. 
"Kcfmep, pr, s, runs, iSa, 21; pi, 

18 a. 19. A. S. yman, to run ; 

by metathesis we get A. S. rennan, 

G. renneftt E. run, 
JQr, acPv. before, previously, i a. 2 ; 

16. a; formerly, 15. i. 182; 

eonj, before, 19. 199. A. S. dr, 

formerly, ere; cf. E. early, 
Erbez, sb, pi, herbs, 13. 532. 
JDrdiebissop, sb. archbishop, i a. 

227; Erchebisshopp, 146. 62. 
Sre, pr. pi. are, 2. viii. 4 ; H xvii. 

26; Er, 2. xvii. 114; 10. 434. 

Icel. 3 p. pi. eru, Dan. ere or «r. 
XSrchedekenes, sb. pi, archdeacons, 

15 pr. 92. 
Breznyte, sb. hermit, 146. 7; pi, 

Ermytes, 1$. pr. 50. 
3Qxinge, sb. ploughing, 1$ pr. 21. 

A. S. man, Lat. arar«, to plough. 
Britage, sb. F. heritage, i a, 506. 
Brliclie, a/v. early, 20. 41 ; Er- 

lyche, 18 b, 93. 
Brnde, sb. errand, 15. iii. 42. A. S. 

arend, an errand, Mceso-Goth. 

airus, a messenger, airinon, to 

go on a message. 
Bme, sb. eagle, a. cii. 10. A. S. 

earn, em, an eagle ; Icel. and 

Sw. 6m, an eagle; Gk. 6fvti, a 

Bmest, sb, earnest, i a. 131. W. 

em, ernes, a pledge, O. F. eares or 

ernes, from Lat. arrha, arrhabo, 

a pledge, Gk. dppa&diw, 
Xmestly, adv. quickly, 13. 377* 

VOL. n. 

Erst, adj. first, 4 f. 19. A. S. drst, 

drost, first, from Sr, before, ere. 
Brt, pr, s, 2p, art, 6. 123. A.S. 

^ar/, Icel. ert, 2 p. s. pr. 
Br]>eli, adj. earthly, 2. xxiii. a. 
Br-)>en, con/, before, 3. 84. 
Brtousart thou, 2. ciii. a. 
Bs^is, /r. 5. 2. viii. 3; 2. xir. 9, 

13; 8 a. loi; 10. 476; Esse, 

8a. 115. AS. 15, Icel. es, older 

form of Icel. er, 3 p. s. pr. 
Bsohaping, sb. escape, 16. 54. 
BBOhapit, pt. s. escaped, 16. 53; 

pt. pi. 16. 86 ; pp. 16. 94. 
Eseliolie, adv. easily, i a, 1 47. 
Base, V. to ask, demand, i a. 367 ; 

pt. s. Esste, asked, i a. 230. A.S. 

acsian, to ask, Pro v. E. axe. 
Bat, sb, east, la. 138; 7. 23; 15 

pr. 15. 
Bstdel, sb, the east, 2. cii. 23. See 

Bate, adj, pi, pleasant, 3. 109. 

A. S. 4ste, benign, mild, 4st, grace, 

favour ; Moeso-Goth. an^, grace ; 

G. g'unst. 
Bster, sb. Easter, i a. 400. A. S. 

Bstrinlandy sb. Eastern land, 7. 

Bte, pt. s. ate, 13. 241 ; pi. 7. 42. 
Btteleden, pt. pi. directed their 

way, went straight, 12. 272. See 

Buangiles, sb. pi. gospels, 19. 666. 

Gk. €vayy4\iw. 
Buelez, pt. pi. evils, 13. 277. 
Buene, adj. mean, average, I a. 408. 

A. S. efen, equal, even. 
Buere, adv. ever, la. 118. A.S. 

dfre, from <6, ever, aye. 
Bueiiohon, every one, 19. 330. 
Buerioh, adj. eveiy, la. 354; 6. 

69 ; 9. 190. The termination y 

in every is equivalent to O. £. ieh, 

ilk, A. S. celc, E. each. 
Buerilkan, every one, 8 a. 243. 
Buermo, adv. evermore, ever again, 

I a. 176. 




Buerwik, prop, n. York, i a. 
73» 227, 326. A. S. Eofenvic, 

Eueryolione» tuff, every one, 5. 

XSuesong, sb, vespers, i a. 282 ; 
the time at which vespers were 
sung, 4 c. 13. 

Eueyl, adj. evil, 5. 5685. A.S. 
eofel, y/elf G. ii^el, Moeso-Goth. 
itbils, evil. 

Euro, adv, ever, 2. cii. 37. 

Eurioh., everyone, 9. 224; Eareich, 
every, 9. 190. 

Eztenden, pr.pL spread ovX, 19. 

Ewangelye, sh, gospel, 15. i. 174. 

Ewe ardaunty sh, F. burning 
water, 6. 34 ; compare * fire- 
water,* Span, 'aguardiente,' and 
the * brennynge water * of the 
Booh of Quintessence^ ed. Fur- 

Ewei» adv, zrvrzyt 7. 13. 

Ezpowne, v, to expound, 17. Mar, 
iv. 10. Lat. exponere^ O. F. ex- 
pondre; another E. form is ex- 

Eye,, S. eyes, i a, 390; Eyen, 
19. 560. See Eghe. 

Eyre, sb. F. heir, 12. 128; Eyer, 
12. 77. Lat. haeres. See Eir. 

EyJ>er oher, either (the) other, 
each other, 18 a. 207 ; cf. 18 6. 79. 

E3e» sb, S. eye, 3. 207 ; 4 a. 14 ; 
pi, E3en, 9. 12. See Eghe. 


Faa, sb. foe, 2. viii. 8; pi, Fais, 
8 6. 74; Faes, 2. viii. 7; Faas, 2. 
xvii. 10. A. S. fdh, a foe, enemy, 
from fedn^ to hate. See Fend. 

Fader, sb. S. father, i a, 39; 
19. 274 ; Fadre, 2. cii. 25 ; gen, s. 
Fader, i a. 526; 20. 122; ^/. 
Faderes, I a, 104. A. S. f<Bder^ 
gen. feeder or fcederes, the former 
being more common. 

Fai, s6. faith; parfai^T. par foi, 
by my faith, 7. 76. 

Faie, s6. fay, fairy, 20. 279. F. 
fie, a fairy, from Low Lat. /a/are» 
to enchant, horn f alum, &te,fari, 
to speak. 

Faille, s&. fail, 19. 561. ^ 

Faine, v. to be glad, rejoice, 2, ciii. 
76 ; ^. 5. Faines, gladdens, re- 
joices, 2. ciii. 32. A. S. fcBgn, 
gHdt fcBgnian, to rejoice, E.fam. 

Fairehed, sb. beauty, 2. ciii. 3. 

Fais,, foes, 86. 74; Fayis, 16. 
86. See Faa. 

Fait, sb. action, work done, 15. L 
160. F. fait, Lat factum, £. 

Faithe, 8 a. 191. Either read 
Faithe and, or suppose Faithe put 
for in faith, or read Faithful, 
The Camb. MS. varies, as in the 

Falle, V, trans, to cause to fall, fell, 
overthrow, 15. iii. 43 ; 2. p, s,pr, 
subj, falle the = let thyself fall, 86. 

Falles, pr,s, befals, 12. 14; pr,s, 

impers, it befals naturally, it be- 
comes, behoves, 10. 2353 * ^^ ^^P~ 
pens, occurs, turns out, 10. 553 ; 
suits, 8 a. 183 ; falles for^it suits, 
12. 339 J Falie>, belongs, 15. i. 50; 
pp, Falle, fallen, 19. 303. 

Fallow, sb, fellow, 16. 159; pi. 
Fallowis, 16. 137. 

Fallow, V. to follow, 16. 141. 

FaUynge, adj, falling ; fallynge 
evylle, falling sickness, i. e. epi- 
lepsy, 146. 19. 

Falsliede, sb, falseness, falsehood, 
deceit, la 10, 45, 49. 

Falsnesse, sb. deceit; falsnesse of 
fastinge s= omission of fasting, 15. 
pr. 68. 

Fal>e, pr, s. falls, 6. 32. 

Famen, foemen, 11 e. 39. 

Fand, pt. s. found, 7. 15 ; 8 6. 176 ; Fand, 11 a. 93. 

Fajide, v, to try» experience, 10. 



1463 ; to endeaTour, 10. 2228. 

See Fonde. 
X'anding, sb, temptation, 2. zvii. 

77; pi. Fandinges, 8 6. 82. See 

Vta^gf V, to receive, 2. xxiii. ii ; 

8 b. 207. See Fonge. 
Fantasyes, fancies, devices, 

ludicrous inventions, i^. pr. 36. 
Pantum, sb. a phantom, 17. Mar. 

vi. 49. Vuig. phantasma. 
Pare, v. S. to go, i a. 56 ; to go 

along, 20. 138 ; pr, s. Fares, acts, 

does, behaves, 8 S. 45 ; Fars, fares, 

II a. 40 ; Fare>, go, 15. ii. 

158 ; pp. Faren, gone, passed, 13. 

403 ; Fare, gone, 19. 512; imp, 

pi, I p. Far we = let us go, 7. 57 ; Fare, go, 4 c. 42. A. S. 

faran, to go, to fare; cf. E, 

wayfarer, welfare^ farewdl \ Gk. 

Fare, sb, doing, business, goings on, 

19. 569. See above. 
Faat, adv. close, 12. 3, 293; closely, 

5. 5885. 
Farmed, pt. pi. embraced (each 

other), 13. 399. A. S. fesfSmian, 

to embrace, feetSmt a fathom, 

closing of the arms ; cf. Lzt. pateo. 
Faure, num. four, 13. 958; Fawre, 

13-950. A.S.fe6wer. 
Faurtend, adj. fourteenth, 8 a, 

141. A. S. fedwtrtyne, fourteen. 
Faut, sb. fault, 13. 236. ¥,faute, 

Spzn.falta, a defect, hzt. fallere. 
Fauuel, sb. the personification of 

Flattery, Cajolery, or Deceit, 15. 

ii. 158. O.F.favele,Lsit.fabella, 

dim. of fabula. Quite distinct 

from adj. /au«/ a yellow, bay. 
Fayle, v. to be wanting, 3. 195. 

See Faut. 
Fayis, foes, 16. 86. See Faa. 
Fayn, adj. glad, 13. 962 ; 19. 173. 

A. S. fcBgen, fcBgn^ glad, fain. 

See Faine. 
Fayn, adv. gladly, 19. 222. 
Fayten^ v, to tame, mortify, 15. ▼. 

49. O. F. afaiter, to prepare, 
from Lat. affeetare. 

Fe, sb. money, goods, 3. 150. A. S. 
feok, HvL. vee^G. vieh^ Lit. peeus, 
cattle, property, wealth, whence 
E. fee. Cf. Lat. pecunia, riches, 
from peeus ; also E. feudal, fief. 

Feaw, adj. few, 18 a. 220. 

Feble, adj, feeble, i a. 491. 

Febli, V. to grow feeble, I a, 462 ; 
Febiy, I a, 490. 

Feblore, adj. comp. feebler, i a. 

Feoohe, v, to fetch, 19. 662. 
Fee, sb, cattle, 7. 303. See Fe. 
Feer, sb, fire, 6. 28 ; dat, s. Fere, 

6. 3a A. S. fir, Du. vuur, G. 

feuer, Gk. irvp. 
Feeres, companions, 15. ii. 

Fees, cities, 13. 960. Fr. 
fief O. F.fieu,feu, from O. H. G. 
fehu, equiv. to A.S.feoh, E. fee. 

See Fe. 
Feeres, companions, 15. ii. 

168. See Fere, sb. 
Feffede, pi. s, enfeoffed, i a. 262, 

269; provided for, 12. 193. F. 
jftef O. F. feu, fieu. Low Lat. 
feudum, property in land (whence 

F.. feudal). See Fees. 
Fei, sb. faith, 15. i. 14. . F./o/. 
Feire, adv. fairly, in order, 15. i. 2 , 

kindly, 4. 
FeiBliche, adv. faithfully, verily, 

12. 261; Fei3]>ely, 12. 230. 
Feistful, adj. faithful, 12. 337. 
Fei3l>, sb. faith, fidelity, 12. 275. 
Fel, pt. s. it befell, 19. 141 ; Fel to 

= suited, 19. 149. 
Fel, I p. s. pr. feel ; fel me, feel it 

to myself, 8 a, 198. 
Fel, adv. bitterly, severely, 13, 

1040. See Felle. 
Fel, sb. fell, mountain, 8 a. 109; 

Felle, 1 10. Icel. f;all, a mountain, 

Sw. ^dll, a chain of hills. 
Fel, sb. skin, 2. ciii. 5; 15. i. 15; 

pi. Felly s, 18 a. 50. A. S. fell, 

C C 2 



Lat. pellis, Gk. WxXa, a skin ; E. 
fellmonger, a dealer in hides. 

^elaw, tb. fellow, companion, 5. 
5856 ; pi, Felaws, companions, 
5. 5621; Felaus, 5. 5841; Fe- 
lawes, I a, 40. Icel. filagi^ from 
fi, cattle, property, and lag, law, 
society ; hence filagi is one who 
possesses property in common 
with others. 

FelaTUchip, th. company, 8 6. 14; 
Felajschyp, communion, inter- 
course, 13. 271. 

Feld, pp, concealed (?) ; faire feld, 
completely concealed (?), 11 6. 71. 
Cf. Pro7. E./eel, to hide, Mceso- 
Goth. filhan, to hide ; but it may 
be a mere error for jUd; so that 
/aire fled '^fzirly fled away. 

Feld, pi. s, felt, perceived, 12. 33. 

Felde, pt. s. fell, 17. Mar. iv. 4; 
pt, pi. Felden, fell ; felden to him, 
Lat. irruerent in eum, 17. Mar. 
iii. 10 ; felden dovm to him, pro- 
cidebant ei, ii. Dm. /aide, to 

Felde, ^. s. filled, 20. 37. 

Felde, sb. field, 2. viii. 23; pi. 
Feldes, 2. ciii. 17. A. S. fid, 
fild, a pasture. 

Feldfaresy sb. pi, fieldfares, 12. 

Fele» adj. many, 3. 5 ; 12. 5 ; 16. 
12; adv. much, 4 d. 10. A. S. 
fUa,file, much, many; G. viel, 
much ; Gk. iroXt^t. 

Felefalded, pt. s. multiplied, 2. 
xvii. 40. Latin multiplicauit, 
A. S.fila-feald, manifold. 

Felle, adj. fell, severe, cruel, 2. 
xvii. 14; 13. 283; dreadful, terri- 
ble, 10. 1820; cruel, 8 a. 162. 
A. S. fell, cruel, severe; Du. fel, 
cruel ; O. F. fel, cruel. Burguy 
denies the existence of A. S. fell ; 
but it certainly appears in A. S. 
W(Blfel, murderously cruel, 1. 53 of 
the Legend of St. Helena, in the 
Vercelli MS. See Felonye. 

Felle» fell; at felle»that 

fell, that sinned, 6. 82. 
Felle, s6. skin, 10. 739; pi. Fellys, 

hides, skins, 18 a. 50. See FeL 
Felonye, sh. crime, 19. 643; en- 
mity, II c. 40. O.F. felonie, 

cruelty ; O. F.fel, cruel ; O. H. G. 

fillan, to torment, to flay (cf. Du. 

villen, to flay), which certainly 

seems to belong to A. ^.fel, skin. 

See Felle, cruel, and Fel, skin. 
Felunlyohe, adv. fiercely, angrily, 

5. 5614; Felunly, 5. 5644. See 

Femynynytee, sh. feminine form, 

19. 360. 
Fen, sh. dirt, mire, 2. xvii. 108; 

marsh, II a. 29. A. S.fenn, mud, 

Fend, sb. fiend, devil, 6. 79; Fende, 

5. 5643; P^' Fendes, 5. 5680; 

Fende (for Fendez), 13. 269. 

A.S.fedn, to hate, fednd, hating, 

an enemy, a fiend, Moeso-Goth. 

fljan, to hate, fijands, hating, an 

Feng, pt. pi. took ; feng to the 

flyght, took to flight, 13. 377. 

See Fang, Fonge. 
Fenyl, A. fennel, 4 </. 18. A. S. 

find, fenol. 
Ver, adj. far, 2, cii. 24 ; 19. 658 ; 

on fer^afar, at a distance, x6. 

438. A.S./wr, far. 
Fer, adv. far, 3. 208. 
Ferd, pp. terrified, afraid, 7. 62; 

8 b. 183. A.S.fceran, to frighten, 

afered, afraid, terrified. See 

Ferde, pt. s. S. fared, went, 12. 30; 

Ferd, 8 a. 231 ; ii 6. 19 ; pt. pi. 

Ferd, 7. 165. See Fare, vb. 
Ferde, sb. fear, 11 b. 27; terror, 

13. 386. 
Ferdnes, sb. terror, 10. 2231. 
Fere, v. to frighten, 10. 2227; pr. 

s. Fere>, frightens, 18 a. 35 ; pp. 

Fered, frightened, alarmed, 2. ciii. 

16; 8 b. 12. A.S. f<iran, to 




frighten. Fear is ihus used by 

S*ere, adj. whole, sound in health, 
or dse, akin (see next word), 7. 
37. Sw.ySr, stout, lusty. 

Fere, sb. companion, 12. 3,64; pi. 
Feres, 8 a. 162. A. S. gejfera, 
one who travels or fares with 
one, a travelling companion, com- 

Ferene, sb. fern, 11 b. 71. Pro- 
nounced >%m», with rolled r. 

Ferforth, adv. far away, 13. 209'; 
fully, completely, 19. 573. 

Ferli, sb. a wonder; thoght ferli, 
wondered, 7. 74. See Ferly, 

Ferli, adj. wonderful, 8 a. 104. 

Ferlikes, wonders, 8 b, 235. 
See Ferly. 

Ferlilio, adv. wondrously, 7. 52. 
See Ferly. 

Ferly, sb. a wonder, 1$ pr. 6 ; pi. 
Fcrlyes, 15 ^r. 62. A. S./«r/w, 
sudden, from fckr, fear, sudden 
danger ; cf. Du. vaarlijkt quickly, 
G.gefdhrlich, dzngerous. Sc./erly, 
a marvel. 

Ferly, adv. wondrously, 4 d. 10; 
13. 960; strangely, 1 3. 269; 
extremely, 5. 5620; Ferlyly, 13. 
962. See above. 

Ferme, sb. rent, i a. 450. O. F. 

ferme, Low Lat. firma^ rent, 

really borrowed from a Teutonic 

root ; so that we also find A. S. 

feorm^ provision, food, goods, a 


Ferr, adv. for, 7. 13, 22. 

Ferruxn, adv.; on-ferrum, afar, 
7. 368. 

Fersoh, adj. fresh, 18 a. 102. 

Ferst, adv. first, 6. 2, 8, 30. 

Fertered, pt. s. enshrined, 8 h. 
230. O. F. fertere^ a shrine ; 
Lat. feretruntf Gk. <pip€Tpov. 

Ferth, a<^'. fourth, 10. 1828. 

Fer>yng, sb. farthing, 5. 5770, 

5812. A. S./eoffSung, feor^ling, 
a fourth part, /rarOa, fourth. 
Fesauns, sb, pi. pheasants, 12. 

Fest, V. to make firm, 2. ciii. 34 ; 

1 p. s. pr, Festen, I fosten, ratify, 

13' 327 ; pp- Fested, fastened, 

10. 1907 ; Festend, 10. 1909. 

A.S. feestman, to fasten, from 
/<ss/, fast, firm. 
Festes, sb, pi. F. feasts, I a. 401 ; 

to feste^at a feast, 19. 380. 
Festnes, sb. fastness, 2. xvii. 2. 

A.S. fcesienneSf a fastness, walled 

town, from fcesinian, to make 

Fet. See Fetten. 
Fetel, sb. vessel, 8 b, 163. A. S. 

fetels, a bag,/«/, a /a/ or vat. 
Fehli, adv. faithfully, verily, 12. 

FetiB, adj. F. neatly made, 12. 126. 

O. F. fetis, Lat. factitius, from 

faeere^ to make. 
Fetisliohe, adv. neatly; hence, 

carefully, 12. 98. See above. 
Fette, V. to fetch, 15. iii. 96 ; let 

fette :«= caused to be fetched, 20. 

45 5 P^' P^' Fetten, fetched, 15. ii. 

205; brought, 15. vii. 279; pp. 

Fet, 19. 067, A.S. fetian, to 

Fettled, pp. made ready, set in 

order, 13. 343. Prov. E./etde, to 

set in order, Moeso-Goth. fetjan, 

to adorn, makejl?/ ; allied to A. S. 

fetel, a fetter, and E. fit. See 

Diefenbach, i. 373. 
Fetys, adj, well made, 12. 225. 

Low Lat. factitiua (from facere) ; 

whence O. Y.fetis. 
Feiir)>e, ordin. fourth, 18 a. 91. 
Feute, sb. scent, 12. 90. Also 

spelt Foute, q.v. 
Feuyr, sb. fever, 10. 700. 
Feye, adj. about to die, dying, 4 a. 
20. A. S. /dge, Icel. feigr, 

O. H. G.feigi, about to die ; Sc. 




Feyn, adv. gladly, 5. 5798. See 

VeynedBU,, feigned ifeyneden 

hem, played the hypocrite, 15 pr. 

42. ¥.feindre,Lzt.fingere. 
JPeyntiae, sb. faintness, 15. r. 5. 

O. F. feiniist, from feindre, to 

JPeyre, adj. fair, beautiful, 5. 5655, 

5726; A.S./<Bgr^ Gk. m/ySt, 
JPeyre, adv. fair, kindly, courteous- 
ly. 5- 5877. 
Feyrye, s6. fairy kind, nature of a 

fairy, I a. 230 ; a fejrrie = of feyrie, 

i. e. of fairy origin, J^ pr.6. 
Fe3t, sb. fight, 13. 275. A. S. 

feoht, a fight ; Q.fgehien, to fight. 
FoBtaiide, pres, part, fighting, 13. 

404. Cf. G. feckten, to fight. 
Fieldwode, sb. perhaps the same as 

JUldwort, i. e. gentain, 20. 213. 
FierSf adj. fierce, cruel, sad, evil, 

19. 300. 
Fierth, adj. fourth, 10. 1246. See 

Fifetende, adj. fifteenth, 8 a. 143. 
Fiht, V. to fight, 3. 72. A. S. 

File, V. to defile, 10. 2348 ; pres. 

part. Filand, defiling, 10. 2365 ; 

pp. Fild, 10. 2341. A.S.fdlan, 

to make foul ; A. S. /u/, Icel. 

full, foul ; cf. O. £. file, a wicked 

Filglie» V. to follow, pursue, 2. 

zvii. 97. A. S. fylegan, fyligean, 

to follow. 
Fille, sb. 4 d, 18. Probably wild 

thyme ; cf. * " FiUe, serpyllum," 

in Wright's Vocabularies, 79.* — 

Findestow, findest thou, 12. 132. 
Fingre8» sb, pi. fingers, 2. yiii. 10. 
First, adv. for a long time, 7. 22. 

A.S./yrst, a space of time, inter- 
val; O. E./rest, delay, q. v. 
Flssolies, sb. pi. fishes, 2. yiii. 23 ; 

Fises, 8 a. 118. 
Fisyk, sb. physic, 15. vii. 256, 258. 

Fitte, sb. a fitt or canto of a ballad, 
15. i. 139. A.S. fit, fitt, a song, 
fittan, to sing, dispute. 

Fi3te, sb, fight, I a. 87. 

Flamyn, sb. priest, 14 6. 62. Lat. 

Flaumme, sb. F. flame, 5. 5924 ; 
Flamme, 5. 5923. Lat. }?amma. 

Flaundres, Flanders, i a. 296. 

Flaunkes, sparks, 13. 954. 
Du. flonkerMf to sparkle ; cf. G. 
funke, Sc. fufdi, a spark. 

Flay, V. to frighten, 8 a. T30 ; la 
ia68; pp. Flayed, terrified, 13. 
96a led. fleygja, to cause to 
fiee, put to flight. 

Fie, V. to fly, i a. 141 ; pt. t. 
Flegh, flew, 2. zvii. 29; Fleih, 
fled, 15. ii. 186 ; pt. pi. Flowe, 
fled, I a. 143 ; pres, part, Fleand, 
II c. 90; Fleejmge, flying, 14 c. 
17. A.S. fledgan. 

Flees, sb. fleece, 20. 159. 

Fleet, pr. s, (contr. from fleteth)^ 
floats, 19. 463. See Fletes. 

Flegh, pt, s. flew, 2. zvii. 29 ; Fldh, 
fled, 15. ii. 186. See Fie. 

Fleis, sb. flesh, 8 6. 255 ; Fleissb, 
ao. 246. 

Flexnangrye, sb. Flemings' country, 
Flanders, 116. 75. 

Fleme, v. to drive away, banish, 
13. 287. A. S. flyman, aflyman, 
to banish ; fleam, a flight, banish- 

Fleme, adj. banished, 4 d. 36. 

Flemer, s6. banisher, driver away, 
19. 460. 

Fleo, V. S. to flee, avoid, i 6. 62 ; Flese, 10. 1290 ;^.s. Flcj, 
flew, I 6. 88. See ]i< le. 

Fletes, ^r.s. floats, 8 6. 29; Fletez, 

13- 1035 ; P^'P^* Flette, 13. 387. 

Fleynge, pres. part, flying, 14 c. 

137. Sec Fie. 
Fleyslie, sb. flesh, 3. 71. 
Fleyshlusty sb. fleshly Inst, 3. 




IPlighand, pres, pari, flying, a. ciii. 

9. See Fie. 
Plod, sb. S. flood, sea, 3. 242. 

A. S.fldd; cf. Lat. pluvia, 
VioJkf sb. pi. arrows, i a, 152. 

A. S. fldf flatly an arrow ; pi. 

Plor, sb, floor, ground, 20. 322. 
Flot, sb, grease, lat, 13) loil. 

That which floats on the top of 

what is boiled ; Sw. floit^ fat, 

grease, ^otf, adv. afloat; Du. v/o/, 

Flote, pt. pi. floated, swam, 13. 

421, 432. See Fletes. 
FloTire-de-lioe, sb, fleur-de-Iys 

(French standard), 11 6. 27. F. 

2ts, a lily ; Du. Usch, a water-flag. 
Floures, sb, pi, flowers, youthful 

powers, 20. 348. 
Flowen, pt, pi, flew, 13. loio; 

fled, 15. ii. 209. See Fie. 
Flowed, pt, s, flowed, 13. 397. 
Flwe, pt. s. flew, 13. 432. 
Flyt, sb. contention, force, 13. 421. 

A. S.flUan, to strive, contend. 
Flsrtande, pres, part, contending, 

chiding, 1 3. 950. See above. 
FlyJ), pr. s. flees, 3. 77. See 

Fo, sb, foe, i. e. Satan, 4 c. 53. 
Fode, sb. S. food, 7. 54. 
Fode, sb, ofi^spring, person, 3. 63 ; 

pi. Fodez, creatures, 13. 466. 

Lit that which is nourished. 

A. S./^^an, to feed, S^r./bda, to 

bring forth, Jodas^ to be bom, 

foddf natal. 
Foded,^/.s. supplied (lit. fed), la. 

Fogheles, sb, pi, fowls, birds, 2, 

viii. 23; Foghles, 2. ciii. 25. 

A. S. fugel, Mceso-Qoth. fught, 

G. vogelf a hrxdit fowl, 
"Fohf sb, variegated or gay-coloured 

clothing, 3. 19. A. S. /aA, of 

different colours, Gk. vouciXot, 
Fol, a4^'. S. full, 18 a. 57. 
Fol» adv, full, 3. 44 ; 4 c. 8. 

Folo, sb. S, folk, people, I a, 79, 

132 ; I fr. 4. A.S, folc. 
Folde» sb, earth, the world, 13, 

251. A,S,folde, the surface of 

the earth. 
"FoldBHtpp. folded, bent, 17. Mar. 

i. 40. 
Fole, adj. foolish, 1 a, i$, O. F./o/, 

Foles, sb.pL fools, 6. 25. 
Folewe, v. to follow, 3. 42. 
Tolf\ilt,pp. fulfilled, 15. vii. 309. 
Folie, sS. F. folly, la, 21. See 

Folken, sb.gen,pl, of folk, of men; 

folken v^sey the manner of men, 

13. 271. See Folo. 
Follest, adj. superl, fullest, 3. 1 25. 
Folmarde, sb, polecat, 13. 534.- 

Properly the beech-martin, from 

G. F. foinst Lat. fagina, beech- 
Folted, adj, crazed, 5. 5839. See 

Foluand, pres, part, following, 7. 

6 ; pt. pi, Folud, 7. 63 ; imp. pi. 

Folus, 7. 216. A. S. folgian, 

fylgiaut to follow. 
Foly, adj, foolish, 18 b, 8. See 

Fozn, sb, S. foam, 20. 182. 
Foznon, sb. foeman, 3. 87* 
Fon, pt, s. ceased, ended, 13. 369. 

From O.E. fyni^ to cad. See 

Fyned, Fyn. 
Fon, adj. few, 10. 530. 
Fon, sb, pi. foes, i a. 199, 258; 

I b. 54. A. S./0A (pi. /a), a foe; 

from feSn, to hate. See Fend. 
Fon, V. to receive, 4 c. 10. A. S. 

fdftf to take (short for fangan) ; 

cf. G.fangen, Moeso-Godi. fahan, 

to catch. 
Fonde, v, to tempt, i 6. 70; to 

try, 3. 24 ; 4 c. 21 ; 5. 5745 ; to 

endeavour to persuade, 19. 347;, FondeJ>, endeavour, iS a, 

172. A. S. fandian, to tempt. 
Fonde, pt, s, S. found, 5. 5616 ; 



Fond, 19. 607 ; fond him » found 

for him, provided for him, 12. 73* 
Fondyng, sh, temptation, trial, 5. 

5865. A. S. fandung, a tempta- 
tion. See Fonde. 
Foner, adj. comp, fewer, 10. 765. 

See Fon. 
Fonge, V. to receive, 19. 377 ; 

pr. s. Fongez, takes, 13. 457; 

pr. pi. Fongez, take, 13. 540; 

Fongen, receive, 15. iii. 66 ; 

FongeJ>, receive, 6. 2. See Fon, 

Fonger, sb. receiver, a. xvii. 8. 

The Vulgate has suscepior. See 

Font, I p. s. pt. found, 15 ^. 55. 
Font-fill, sb, a font-ful; font-ful 

«/a/tfr=sfontful of water, 19. 357. 
Foondes, pr. pi, seek (a haven), 

resort, repair, 18 a. 66. A. S. 

fandian, to try ; O. Fris. fandia, 

to visit, 
Foothot, adv. instantly, on the 

spot (lit. foot-hot), 19. 438. 

Tne same phrase fut-hate occurs 

in Barbour's Bruce, iii. 418. 
For, conj. because, I a. 80; 19. 34O; 

in order that, 19. 478. 
For, prep, against, to prevent, 15. 

i. 24, &c. ; on account of, 146. 

32. A.S./or. 
For, pt. s. fared, went, 8 6. 145. 

A. S.faran, to go ; pt. t. ic/oV, I 

For-bede>, pr. pi. forbid, 6. 105. 
Foroome, pt. pi, forestalled, 2. 

xvii. 51. 
Fordedes, sb. pi. previous deeds, 

kindnesses done in former years, 

12. 325. See the note. 
Fordon, v. to 'do for,* undo, 15. 

V. 20 ; Fordoon, 19. 369 ; subj, 

pr. Fordo, destroy, ruin, 2. viii. 7» 

A. S. forddn, to destroy. 
Fore-sleuys, sb. pi. fore-sleeves, 

fronts of the sleeves, 15. v. 64. 
Foreward, sb. covenant, agree- 
ment, 4 c. 10, 42. A. S. fdre- 

taeard, a fore-ward, or previous 

guarantee; Icel. /orvd'rCr, a cove- 
Forfare, i p. pi. pr. perish, 8 b. 

10; pt. pi. Forferde, 13. 1051 ; 

pp. Forfam, destroyed, 7. 186. 

A.S./or/aran, to go *to the bad,' 

to perish ; cf. Lat. perire. 
For-ga, vb. to forgo {now misspelt 

forego), 10. 1842. See Forgon. 
For-gart, pt. pi. lost, 13. 240. 

From gar, Icel. gora, to make, 

is formed for-gar, to unmake, 

destroy, lose ; ci. forfeit. 
Forgete, v. to forget, a. oil. 4. 
Forgoere, sb. fore -goer, avant- 

courier, 15. ii. 162. 
Forgon, v. to forgo, 4 d. 35. The 

modem spelling /orfg'o is wrong, 

as the prefix is j'br, not /or*. 
For-hedeJ>, pr. pi. hide, conceal, 6. 

103 (or, perhaps, pay no heed). 
Forhiler, sb. protector, 2. xvii. 81. 

K.%. forliilan, to conceal, helan, 

to hide ; cf. Lat. celare, to hide. 
Forhiling, sb. protection, 2. xvii, 

52, 91. See above. 
Forlesed, pt. s. 2 p. destroyedst, 2. 

xvii. 104. A. S. forleosan, to 

lose, let go, forldr, destruction, 

fQrl6ren, destroyed, whence E, 

For-lete, v. to leave, renounce, 4^. 

60. A. S. forldtcm, to retin- 

Forlore, pp. lost, 11 «. 59; Forlorn, 

8 a. 156. See Forlesed. 
Forloyned, pp. departed, gone 

astray, 13. 282. Fr. loin, Lat. 

longinquus, far. 
Forme, sb. F. form, formula, 6. 

Forme-fader, sb. ancestor, first 

father, 10. 483. A. S. frum, 

original, primal, first, Moeso-Goth. 

frums, a beginning; hence A. S. 

forma^ "E. former. • 

Forme-foster, sb, progenitor, 13. 
257. See above. 



Formere-fader, ancestor, 14 a 

27. See Forme-fader. 
Formyour, sb. former, creator, 

14 a. 37. 
Fomes, 56. furnace, 13. loii. 
Foroaten, prep, without, 16. 

Forred, pp. furred, 15. vii. 256. 

Forrouth, adv. before, in front, 16. 

139 ; Forrow, 16. 145. Sw./orut, 

Fors, sb. force ; no fors «= it is no 

matter, 19. 285. 
Forsake, v. to refuse, 4 a. 19 ; pt. 

s, Forsoc, refused, 4 c. 6. A. S. 

forsacarif to oppose, refuse. 
For-8waty pp. covered with sweat, 

16. 2. 
Forte = for to = to (before the infini- 
tive), 6. 73 ; 15. V. 49. 
Forte, conj. until, i b. 79 ; 3. 166. 
Forth, prep, along, 7. 279. 
ForK sb, passage, free course, 15. 

iii. I S3' "^-fforddy a way ; A. S. 

faran^ Xofare, go. See Vorj?. 
Forthbring^s, pr. s. bring forth, 

2. viii. 20. 

For>e, sb. scum, froth, 6, 22. Sw. 

fradgOf froth, foam, Icel. JrofSa, 
Forl?er, adv. further, 3. 66. 
For|>er, v. to further, bring to au 

end, 13. 304. 
Forthfare, v. to go forth, 2. ciii. 

Forthgone, pr. pi. travel, 2. viii. 

For-j>i, adv. therefore, 2. xvii. 10, 

125; 12. 255; 16. 133; noht 

forthi=s nevertheless, 8 6. 184. 

Here \>i is the instrumental case of 

the dem. pron. se, seo, fxxt; so 

that /orj>iBson that account, for 

Forthinke, imp. pi. repent, 17. 

Mar. i. 15. A.S.for\>encan, 
FortMrmar, adv. further-more, i.e. 

further on, 16. 8. 
Forthledand, pres,part, producing, 

3. ciii. 29. 

For>ra8t, pp. killed, slain, 13. 249. 

A. S. for\>r<tstiani to bruise, kill, 

\>rcBsHan, to rack, torment. 
Fbrthward, adv. forwards, 19. 263. 
Forth-wit, adv, forward, before, 

onwards, 7. 51. Cf. O.E. in-tuit, 

within, ut-witt without. 
ForJ>-wyth, ^^. right before, 13. 

304. See above. 
For-])y, adv. on that account, 3. 

112; For-H, 4 a. 26. See For>i. 
Forthyheden, pt. pi. went forth, 

2. xvii. 36. O.E. ykede, yede, 

went, A. S. ic e6det I went. 
For])ynkez, pr. s. impers. it repents 

me, 13. 285. See For^inke. 
"FortOf prep, until, 18 a. 102. 
Forfco, to, 20. 243 ; For to, 18 a. 

For-travalit, pp. overcome with 

toil, 16. 176. 
For-waked, pp, tired out with 

watching, 19. 596; Forwake, 4 a. 

Forwarde, sb. agreement, 13. 327. 

Connected with ward and guard, 

not with toord. h.S. foreweard, 

a covenant made beforehand. See 

For-whi, adv. on which account, 

wherefore, 10. 733 ; because, 744. 

Here wld is from A. S. hvA, the 

instrumental case of Au/a, who ; 

cf. Mceso-Gothic hwe, inst. case of 

hwas, who. 
Forwit, prep, before, 7. 56; adv. 

beforehand. 7. 207. See Forth- 

Forworthes, pr. pi., come to 

naught, 10. 780. A. S./or«;tfor'Sfl«, 

to become nothing, perish. 
Foryhelde, v. to render, 2. xvii. 

55t 65 ; pt. s. Foryheld, 2. cii. 20. ' 

Foryheldinges, retributions, 

2. cii. 4. 
Forselde, subj. pr, s. requite (lit. 

for-yield), 15. vii. 263. A. S./or- 

gyldan, to recompense, from gyU 



dan, to psiy, yield; cf. A.S. gyld, 
payment, also, a guild, dub. 

Porsete, pt. s. forgat, 13. 463 ; pp, 
Forjeten, forgotten, 3. 222. 

For30uen> pp, forgiven, 17. Mar. 

11. 6' 
Fot, sb. S. foot, I a. 64, 411 ; feet 

(in measare), 8 a. 112. 
Fot, pr. s, fetches (?), 6. 114. An 

obscure passage ; see the note. 
Foul, sb, S. bird, 4 a. 3 ; 4 J. 6; 10. 

542 ; /)/. Foules, 4 d. 10. A. S. 

FouJe}), ^.5. defiles, reviles, 15. iii. 

149; Fowled, defiled, 13. 

Founde, pt. pi. found, \ a. 35 ; 

Founden, found out» invented (for 

themselves), if^. pr, 36; Founden, 

found, 19. 243. 
Founde, v. to try, endeavour, 6. 

56. See Fonde. 
Foundered, pp, caused to founder, 

destroyed, 13. 1014. 
Founs, sb, the bottom, 13. 1026. 

Lzt. fundus, O, Ft. fons, mod. F. 

Founjt — font, sb. 6. 85 ; Fount, 6. 

Fourtene nijt, sb. fortnight, i a. 7 r . 

Foute, sb. scent, trace of a beast of 
chase by the odour, 12. 33. 

Fowre, four, 13. 540. 

Foyson, sb, abundance, 19. 504; 
Foysyn, plenty, 5. 5808. O.F. 
jfbison, Lat. ace. fusionem, from 
Lat. Jiindere, to pour forth. 

Fra, conj. from the time when, 7. i : 
prep, from, 2. xvii. 10; 7. 29. 
Dan. fra, from, frem, forth, Sw. 
from, forth. In 2. viii. 16, fra is 
wrongly made to mean than ; this 
is no English idiom, but due to 
the Latin ab in the Vulgate. 

Fraind, pt. s, asked; fraxnd a/, 
asked of, 7. 91. See Frayne. 

Fraisted, pp. tried, tested, 2. xvii. 
81. Icel. freista, to try, seek; 
Sw, fresta, to attempt, tempt. 

Frakly, adv. greedily, t6. 166. 

See Frek. 
Fram, prep, from^ I a. 128; 6. 

Frame, sb, advantage, benefit, 5. 

5804. A. S. Jreoma, fremu, 

freme^ pTO&Ufremian^ to benefit. 
Fraught, pp. freighted ; doon fiaugfat 

= caused to be laden, 19. 171. 

Sw, frakta, to \sLde,frakt, freight. 
Fraward, adj. froward, peevish, 

10. 786. 
Frayne, v. to ask, 12. 250 ; pt, s, 

Fraynede, asked, 15. vL 16; i p. 

s, pt. asked, 15. i. 56. A. S. 

fregnan, G. fragen, Du. vragen, 

Moeso-Goth. fraihnan, to ask ; 

Lat. precari, whence E. pray. 
Fre, adj, S, free, h'beral, 3. 220, 

224; 12. 337. 
Fredome, sb. S. liberality, 3. 

222 ; Fredom, 19. 168. 
Frek, sb. S. man, warrior, 12. 264. 

See Freke. 
Freis, adj. fresh, 8 a. 121 ; Freissh, 

20. 319. 
Frek, adj. bold, daring, 11 6. 54, 

84. A. S. free, bold ;fireea, a hero. 
Freke, sb. a man, 13. 236; pi. 

Frekez, 13. 540. See Frek. 
Frele, adj, frail, 15. iii. 117; v. 49. 
Freliohe, adv. nobly, 12. 126. 
Frely, adj. (i) blameworthy, 4 c. 

57 ; (2) free, noble, 12. 124. 

(i) lce\. fryja, to blame; (2) A.S. 

^eJ/ic, liberal, noble. 
Frenss, sb. French, i a. 219. 
Free, adj. free, 18 a. 57. A.S. 

Freond,, friends, 16. 25. 
Frest, sb. delay, 16. 447. A.S. 

fyrst, a space of time. 
Fretes, pr. s, eats, 13. 1040 ; Fret, 

pt. s. ate, 12. 87; Frete, pp. eaten, 

devoured, 19. 475; Freten, 13. 

404. Moeso-Goth. fra-itan, to 

devour, where /rfl=E. /or as a 

prefix, and itan ^to eat. CL Gw 



Prettd, imp, s. furnish, 13. 539. 

A. S. /r€Biman, to deck, adorn. 
Treyliohe, adj. free, noble, 12. 

360. See Prely. 
Frith, sb. wood, 11 a. 29. Gael. 

frith, a deerpark, forest, W.ffridd, 

Prov. £. frith, unused pasture 

land, brushwood. 
Pro, prep, from, 5. 5689; conj, 

from the time that, ii e, 6^, 

Frotyng, cuij, rubbing, grating, 

harsh, 18 a. 309. F. frotter, to 

rub ; cf. Lat. frieare, 
Frount, sb. front, forehead, 10. 

816. Lat. zee. frontem, 
Fruotuoose, adj. fruitful, 14 a. 54. 
Fput, sb. fruit, i a. 339, 439 ; Fryt, 

13. 345- 
Fryth, sb. wood, plantation, 13. 

534. See Frith. 
Fuir, sb. fire, 15. iii. 88. 
Ful ; ioful= to the full, completely, 

10. 535. 
Fnle, sb. fool, 3. 36. See Fol. 
Fulhed, sb. fullness, 2. xziii. i. 

(Lit. ful-hood.) 
FuUefllled, pp. filled full, 2. ciii. 

35; Fulfilled, 3. ciii. 55, 68; 

Fulfild, 19. 660 ; 20, 105. 
Folwes, pr. s, S. follows, 12. 33. 
Ftmden, pp. found, 7. 70. 
Fur, sb. fire, lb. 78 ; 3. 182. 
Fiiat, sb. fist, 15. V. 68. A. S.fysi, 

Furmesty adj. foremost, first, 4 c, 

Furste, adj. first, 16. 23 ; adv, 

Furst, I 6. 47 ; 4 «. a6. 
Fur>, adv. forth, 5. 5905, 5916. 
Fyht, pr. s. fights, 3. 77. (Contr. 

form o{ fighteth; A.S.fKihian, to 

fight; pr.s. hefiht.) 
Fyl,/>^$. fell, 5.5634. 
Fylle, s&. fill, 3. J05. 
Fylyng, sb. defilement, foulnesc, 10. 

2345. See File. 
Fyn, sb. end, conclusion, 19. 424; 

20. 77. F.^n, LzLfitis, ^.finish. 

Fyned, pi, s. ceased, 13. 450. See 

Fyl?er, sb. a feather, 13. 1026. 
Fyue, adj. five, 6. 95. 


Ga, V. to go, 2. ciii. 22. 51 ; to walk, 

S b. 233; 10. 466; 

Gaas, walkest, 2. ciii. 8. A.S. gdn, 

Moeso-Goth. gangan, to gat^, go. 
Gadery, v. to gather, i a. 478; 

Gadir, 10. 2221 ; pt. s. Gadred, 5. 

5579* ^* ^* godrian, gaderian. 
Gaf, ^/. 5. gave, 2. xvii. 38 ; 2 p. 

Gaf»gavest, 2. xvii. 91, 103. 

A. S. gifan, pt. t, ic g<Ef. 
Gagates, sh. an agate, 18 a. 30. 

See HaUiweirs Diet. 
Gainges, goings, 2. xvii. 95. 
Gais, imp. pi. go ye, 7. 1 03. See Ga. 
Galamelle, sb, mead, 14 b. 57. 

See note. 
Galay, sb. galley, 11 a. 57; pi. 

Gaylayes, 11 a. 60. 
Galiotes, small galleys, 11 a. 

81. It. galeotta, from ^a/ra, a 

Galle, sb. gall, bitter drink, 3. 158. 
Galys, 56. Gallicia (in Spain), 15. 

vi. 12. 
Gamen, sb. play, pleasure, 8 b. 

357; Gammyn, game, sport, i6k 

402 ; afiFair, 16. 30. A. S. gamen, 

a sport, a game, a taunt, a scoff; 

hence gammon. 
Gan, pt. s. began, 20. 287; often 

used as an avxiliary =a did, i a. 

34. Cf. A.S. anginnan, to begin, 

pt. t. ic angan. 
Gan, pp. gone, 8 a. 220. 
Gang, sb. goine; d!ai ^ang", day's 

travel, 7. 360. A.S. ^a^jf, a 

going, journey. 
Gangand, pres. part, going about, 

crawling, moving, 8 6. 178; 

walking, 8 b. 140. See Ga. 
Garnade ; apple gamade = pome* 

granate, 13. 1044. Lat. granatutf 

full of seeds, from granum. 



I (^ fL--' 


Oarryng, sb. roughness of sound, 
harshness of voice, i8 a. 163. 
An imitative word ; cf. Harryng. 

Gftrt, pL s, caused, 15. vii. 289. 
See Gep. 

Gas, pr, s. goes, walks, 10. 777. 
See Ga. 

Gast, sb. spirit, 3. xvii. 44; 10. 
738 ; Gaste, 2. cii. 33 ; pi. Gastes, 
2. ciii. 9 ; gaf the gaste = gave up 
the ghost, 8 a. 232. A.S. gdst, 
the breath, spirit; G. geist, Du. 
geest. The modem ghosi should 
be spelt gost. 

asteli, adv. spiritually, 8 b. 34. 
A. S. gdstlic, ghostly. 

Gat, sb. way, road, 5. 5590; 16. 
42; Gate, 5. 5603; 12.372; 15. 
i. 181; graythest gate » readiest 
way, 1 1 c. 48 ; pi. Gates, streets, 
2. xvii. 108. Sw. gata, G. gasse, 
a street ; A. S. geat, Mceso^oth. 
gatwOt a way ; cf. E. gait, 

Gayn, adj. suitable, convenient, 13. 
259. Icel. gegn, serviceable; 
Icel. gegna, to meet, suit. 

Gayned, pt. s. availed, 11 b. 57. 
Dan. gavne, to benefit, be a gain 
to; Sc. gaMf to suffice. 

Gaynliohe, adv. readily, tho- 
roughly, 12. 369. See Gayn. 

Gedelyng, sb. fellow, 3. 146. A. S. 
gcBdelingt a companion ; in Mceso- 
Goth. gadiliggs means a sister's 
son, a nephew (Col. iv. 10). Or 
it may be from A. S. gdd, need ; 
hence, a needy man. 

Gedre, v. to gather, 3. ciii. 65; 
pr. pi. Gedir, 7. 80 ; pp. Gedrid, 
17. Mar. iv. I. See Gadery. 

Geine]), pr, s, avails, 6. 116. See 

Gendrez, kinds (of creatures), 

13. 434- 
Genge, sb. pi. nations, 2. xvii. no. 

Cf. A. S. genge, a flock, E. gang, 
Gentil, eulj. gentle, i a. 1 29. 
Ger, V. to cause, make, 8 a. 148 ; 

16. 19; 2 p. 8. pr. subj. Ger, 

mayst cause, 8 a. a6i ; Gert. pi. 
s. caused, 8 a. 265 ; pt. «. Gart, 
15. vii. 280. Icel. gj&ra^ Sw. 
gora^ Sc. gar, to cause, make. 

Gere, sb, gear, property, 7. 277* 
A. S. gearwa, clothing, gear, gear- 
wan, to prepare, gearo, ready; 
O. E. yore. 

Gem, adv. earnestly, 8 a. 201 ; 8 (. 
204. A. S. geom, desirous, eager, 
georne, eagerly, ^Mnuon, to desire, 
to yearn, 

Gert, pp. girt, surrounded with a 
girdle, 20. 139. In the same 
line, vpon means above, around. 

Gesse, v. to suppose, imagine, 19. 
622; 20. no; 2 p, 8. pr, 
Gessist, 17 a. iv. 41; pt. pi, 
Gessiden, 17 a. vi. 49. Sw. gi&sa, 
Dan. gisse, Du. gissen, to guess. 

Gessynge, sb. guessing, i. e. doubt, 
9. 193. See above. 

Gest, pr, 8, 2 p. goest, 3. 100. 
A. S. gdn, to go ; whence ic gd, 
I go, \>u gdst, thou goes^ he 
gdlS, he goes ; pi. gdiS, 

Gest, sb. guest, 46. 40 ; pi. Gestes, 
guests, 5. 5927. A.S.^a»/. 

Gesten, pp. lodged, 7. 379. Sw. 
gdsta, to lodge ; cf. A. S. gost, 
Mceso-Goth. gasts, a guest, W. 
gwest, entertainment ; but the 
O.F. giste, lodging, is to be re- 
ferred to Lat. iacere, to lie. 

Gestening, df. 7. 84. See Ges- 

Gesting, sb, lodgings, 7. 71. See 

Ge>, pr. s. goes, 9. 63. See GestT 

Get, pr. s. getteth, gets, 15. vii. 238. 

Gett, pp. granted ; and hence, 
committed, handed over, 7. 29. 
(Lit. got.) 

Geynest, adj. fairest, loveliest, 4 a. 
43. Icel. gegn, serviceable, suit- 
able, kindly, gentle; cf. £. sfii- 
gainly. See Gayn. 

G&, V. to give, 2. ciii. 26 ; subj, pr. 
8. Gif, 2. ciii. 64; imp, s. Gif; 



no gif no tale — take no accpunt, 

heed not, 8 b, 195. A. S. gif an, 
Gilden-moth, prop, n. Golden- 
mouth, a translation of the Greek 

name Chrysostom, 7. 8, 21. 
Ginne, «6. contrivance, I a. 137; 

6. 133. Short formof O.F. engin, 

contrivance, Lat. tngenium. Hence 

E. gin, a snare, trap ; also engine, 

a machine. 
Girde, pt, s, 2 p, girtest, 2. xvii. 

85, loi. 
Giuand, pres. part, giving, 2. xiv. 

13 ; Giueand, 2. ciii. 65. 
Glad, adj. i a. 61 ; comp. Gladdore, 

I a. 54. A. S. glad. 
Glade, subj. pr. s. gladden, 2. ciii. 

33 ; pr. s. Glades, gladdens, 2. xiv. 

10; pi. s, Gladed, 13. 499. A.S. 

glcedian, to be glad. 
Glade, pt. s, glode, glided, 7. 56. 

A. S. glidan, pt. t. ic gldd, 
Glam, s6. word, message, 13. 499. 

Sw. glam, chat, talk, Icel. glam, 

glamr, a noise, Sc. glamer, noise. 
Glastnebury, Glastonbury, i 6. 

26, 43 ; Glastnebure, 1 b. 40. 
Gle, ib. glee, singing, 3. 80; 15. 

pr, 34; sport, II a. 69. A.S. 

gled, music, glee, 
Glede, imp. pi, i p. let us gladden, 

let us rejoice before, 9. 78 ; pres, 
part. GIedi3mde, rejoicing, 9. 135. 

See Glade (i). 
Gledye, v. gladden, 9. 92. 
Glette, sb. dirt, filth, sin, 13. 306. 

O. Friesic gled, G. and Sw. glatt, 
. slippery ; cf. £. gleet. 
Gliffiiyt, pt. s. glanced, gave a 

hasty glimpse, looked up quickly 

for a short time, 16. 184. Sc. 
gliff, a moment ; cf. E. glimpse, 
Glod,^/. 8. glode, glided, 13. 499; 

20. 141. ^e Glade. 
Glopnid, pp. terrified, 7. 237. Icel. 

glupna, to look downcast. 
Glosed, pt. 8. spoke smoothly, 
spoke coazingly, 12. 60. 

Glosynge, pres, part, glossing, ex- 
pounding, 15^. 57. 
Glotonie, sb, gluttony, i a. 94, 

Gloiiand, pres, part, glowing, 2, 

xvii. 26. 
Glydande, pres. part, walking (lit. 

gliding), 13. 296. 
Gnide, v. to crush, grind, 2. xvii. 
107. A. S. gnidan, to rub, break 

in pieces. 
Gobetis, sb, pi. small pieces, lit. 

mouthfuls, morsels, 1 7. Mar. v. 4. 

O. E. gobet, a mouthful, from 

Gael, gob, the mouth, whence 

also gobble, gabble, 
God, as an inter;. Oh God t 9. 73. 
God, adj. good, i b. 91 ; Gode, 6. 

88 ; es godd^sit is good, 8 b. 89. 

A. S. gdd. 
God, sb. goodness, kindness, 12. 

319; goods, property, I a, 372; 

Gode, good, alms, 5. 5586. A. S. 

gSd, pi. g6d, good, goods, pro- 
Goddeli, €ulv. in a goodly manner, 

politely, 12. 306; Godly, kindly, 

1 2. 1 69. A.S. gddlie, goodly, kind. 
Goddys, gen. God's, 5. 5661. 
Godenesse, sb. goodness, bounty, 

2. ciii. 68 ; 5. 5872. 
Goderhele ^ fortunately for ; lit. 

to the good health of, i a. 247. 

Compare the opposite expression 

wrotherkele; -er is the old dative 

ending of the adj. answering to 

the A. S. fem. dat. ending -re. 
Godes, sb. pi. good things, 2. cii. 9. 
Godles, adj. goodless, having no 

goods, needy, 3. 117. 
Godnisse, sb. S. goodness, 1 6. 29, 34. 
Godwiiie,^op. n. Godwin, i a. 39. 
Gome, sb. man, 15. vi. 25; gen, 

sing. Gomes, 1 2. 346. A. S. 

guma, a man, Lat. homo, Cf. 

G. brdutigam, £. bridegroom (for 

Gon, to go, 19. 282 ; pr, pi, Gon« 

they go, 20. 7. 



Oon, au9f. i;&.Bdid, 15. i. 147. See 

Gone, V. to yawn, open the mouth 

wide, 20. 238. (There is no 

need to suppose it an error for 

grone; see the phr. 'gape and 

gane' in Occleve, De Regim. 

Princip. st. 635.) A. S. ganian, 
Gonne, pt. pi. began, i a. 60 ; 4 c. 

60 ; as aux, » did, I a. 330. See 

Good, adv. well ; hem good like)>s 

best pleases them, 15. pr. 57. 
Gorde, pt. pi, rushed, 13. 957. 

0.£. girdf, gurde, to strike, 

dash; A. S. gyrd^ a rod, yard; 

Mceso-Goth. gcads, a rod, which 

Grraif connects with Lat. ka^a. 

Cf. £. goad. 
Gore, sb. filth, 13. 306. A. S. gdr, 

mud, gore; cf. £. gorbelly, a 

person with a large belly, gor- 

crow, a carrion-crow. 
Gore, sb. part of a woman's dress ; 

hence, the dress itself, 4 a. 43. 

Icel. geiri, a gore or triangular 

strip, a gusset, G. gehre, a gore ; 

perhaps connected with Icel. geirr, 

A. S. gar, a spear. 
Gorstez, sb. pi. gorse, 13. 531;. 

A. S. gorsi, gorse, furze. Cf. W. 

gores, gorest, waste, open; hence, 

gorse is a shrub growing on waste 

Goat, sb. spirit, breath, 13. 325; 

spirit, 19. 404; gen. Gostes, 6. 

60; pi. Gostes, I a. 187 ; 9. laS. 

See Gast. 
Gotez, sb. pi. streams, 13. 413. 

Prov. E. goit, gowt, a ditch, sluice, 

gutter; Du. goot, a sluice; A. S. 

gedtan, to pour ; cf. £. gush, and 

Gk. x^«. 
Go>, imp. pi, go ye, 12. 263. 
Gotz, put for goz or gos, i. e. goes, 

13. 325. 341- 
Goud, sb. good, 13. 1048. See 


GonlOt V, to yell, cry, 10. 477. 

Prov. E. ymul, E. ydl; cf. yelp, 
Icel. gala, to sing; whence E. 

Qovre,/or Go we, let us go, 15 ^. 

Gowrdes, sb. pi. gourds, 14. c. 7. 

Grace, sb. favour, 19. 176; Grase, 
honour, favour, 15. v. 79. 

Gradde, pt. s, shouted, i a, 65 ; 
cried out, I 6. 88. See Greden. 

Grai]>, adj. direct, ready, 15. i. 181. 
Icel. grei^r, ready, G. gerade, 
direct. See below. 

Grai)>ed, pt, s, prepared, 2. zxiii. 
4; 2. cii. 43. Icel. greifSa, to 
furnish, equip, get ready; Mceso- 
Goth. garaidjan, to prepare. 

Gram, sb. anger, wrath, 2. ziv. 7. 
A.S. gram, fierce, grama, rage, 
fiiry, gramian, to anger, grim, 
rage, grom, fierce, grima, a ghost, 
grimetan, to be furious; Du. 
grimmen, to snarl; £. grim, 
grum^, grumble; ci,G]L.y(p€/jd(ca, 

Granand, pres. part, groaning, 10. 
798. A.S. grdnan, to groan; 
E. groan, grunt. 

Granti, v. to grant, I a. 202 ; pt, 
s. Granted, consented, 5. 5857; 
pt, pi. Grraunted, agreol, 5. 5601. 
See Grant in Wedgwood. 

Grases, sb. pi. grasses, 12. 27. 

Grauynge, sb. engraving, 15. iii. 

Gratheli, adv. readily, 8 b. loo. 

See Graij>. 
GrayJ?ed, pp. prepared, 13. 343. 

See Grained. 
GrayJ»ely, adv. readily, 13. 341. 
Graytheat, 11 c, 48. See Grai|i. 
Graz, sb, grace, S b. 131. Lat. 

Greden, v. to cry aloud, 15. iii. 63 ; 

I p, s. pr. Grede, I cry out, 4 6. 4 ;, GredeJ>, 9.69; ^/. s. Gradde, 

shouted, 1 a. 65. A. S. grcedan, to 

cry, grcetan, to weep, Mceso-Goth. 

gretan, to weep, Sc. greit ; cf. Gk. 

XoAa^a, Lat. grando (Curtius). 



Oredynges, sb. pi. cryings, out* 

cries, 9. 99. See above. 
G-ree, sb, favour, 19. 259. O. F. 

gr«f from Lat. gratus, pleasing. 
G-reithide, pt. s. prepared, 17. Ps. 

33- a ; pt' pl' Grei>ede, I a. 319. 

See Grained. 
Greme, sh, anger, 13. 947. See 

Grene, adj. green, unripe, 3. 83. 
Grenehede, sb, greenness, wan- 
tonness, 19. 163. 
Grease, sb, grass, 2. ciii. 30; pl, 

Greses, 8 a. 1 33. A. S. ^<srs, 

Gret, V. to lament, 8 a, 154. See 

Gret, adj. S. great, i a. 131 ; 6. 

99; dat. s. Grete, I a. 77; d«f. 

Grete, 1 a, 15. A.S. great, 
Gretand, pres. part, weeping. 5. 

5716; mourning, 10. 503; pp. 

Grete, wept, 5. 5721. See 

Gretes, imp, pl, greet, I3. 355; 

Grete>, 12. 359. 
Gretly, adv. greatly, 5. 5676. 
Grette, pt, s. greeted, 12. 369. 

A. S. grdtan, to greet; pt. t. ic 

Gret-wombede, adj, big-bellied, i 

a, 408. 
Gretyng, 56. mourning, lamenta- 
tion, 10. 496. See Greden. 
Oreuea, sb. pl, groves, 20. 189. 
Griffounes, sb, pl, griffins, 14 c. 

1 20. See note. 
Griabitticng, sb. gnashing, grinding 

of teeth, 18 a. 164. A. S. 

gristbitan, to gnash the teeth. 
Grise, v. to be afraid, to fear, 8 a, 

148 ; 8 6. 8. A. S. agrisan^ to 

be afraid, shudder, gridic, grisly, 

Grisli, adj, terrible, 8 a. 124, 149; 

Grislich, horrible, I 6. 83. See 

Grooching, pres. part, complaining, 

12. 271. See Grucolie. 

Oronde. See Gromide. 

Grony, v, to groan, i a, 490. 
A. S. grdnan, to groan, lament. 

GroueUnga, adv. groveling, 7. 384. 
O. E. grqffe, flat on the ground, 
and adverbial suffix, 'ling^ -lings ; 
cf. flailing, darkling, headlong. 

Ground, 56. ground ; dat. Gronde, 
I a, 159; to grounde ibrojts 
ruined, i a. 140, 540 ; to grounde 
corns was ruined, I a, 171; pl. 
Groundes, foundations, 2. xvii. 20. 

Grounded, pt. s, founded, estab- 
lished, 2. xxiii. 3:2^. estab- 
lishedst, 2.. viii. 1 2 ; Groundes, 2. 
ciii. II (where the Vulgate has 
fundasti), A.S. grund, ground, 

Gruoche, complain, 20. 48 ; 
pt. s. Ghncchede, grumbled, 186. 
38. O. F. grocer^ groucer, to 
murmur, grumble ; whence £. 

Gryl, adj, fierce, 5. 5600. * Grym, 
gryl, and horryble. Horridus, 
horribUis;^ Prompt. Parv. Cf. 
G. gr'duely a horror, abomination. 

Grym, adj. fierce, 5. 5600, 5614. 
See Gram. 

Ckya, sb. a kind of fur, 3. 19. So 
named from its gray colour; F. 
gris, gray. 

Grys, pigs, 15 pr, 105. Sw. 
griSf a pig; cf. E. griskin, and 

Gk. x^po*' 
Gult, sb. guilt, offence, 15. iii. 8 ; 

pl. Gultus, guilts, faults, 15. v. 60. 

A. S. gyltt guilt, a debt, from 

gyldan, to pay, yield, 
Gummea, gums, 15. ii. 202. 
Gun, pt. s. did (used as an auxiliary), 

lit. began to, 12. 290. See Gan. 
Guodea, things that be good, 

9. 76. 
Gurde)), strike, 15. ii. 176. 

O. E. girde^ to strike ; cf. A. S. 

gyrdt G. gerte, a rod, switch. 
Gyede, ^/.s. F. guided, 15. ii. 162. 

O. F. guier, guider, from a Teu- 



tonic root ; Moeso-Goth. untoH, to 

Qyle)), pr. s, beguiles, 3. 304. 
O. F. guile, guile; A.S. wile, crafti- 

Oyn, sb. contrivance, machine, i. e. 
the ark, 13. 491. See Oizme. 


Ha, pron, he, 9. 24. 

Habben, v. to have, 3. 34 ; 6. 55 ; 
Habbe, 3. 123 ; pr. s. 2 p. Hauest, 
3. 95 ; pr. s. HaueJ), 3. 114; pr, 
pi. HabbeK 3. 239; 6. 115 ; Hab- 
bez, 1 3. '308. A. S. hcsbban, 

Habide, v. to abide, wait for, 
resist, lie. 106. 

Haburjon, sb. habergeon, coat of 
mail, 18 6. 104. O. F. kaubere, 
O. H. G. halsberc, A. S. heals' 
beorga, a neck - defence, from 
heeds, the neck, and beorgan, to 

Hacb, sb. hatch (of a ship), 13. 

Hadde, pt. s. had, i b. 30, &c. A. S. 
habban, to have, pt. t. ic hcefde, 

Haf, V. to have, 7. 13 ; &c. ; i p.s, 
pt, Hafd, had, 8 a. 253 ; pp. Hafd, 
bad, 8 a. 220. A. S. habban, pp. 
hafed, hafd. 

Hai, sb. grass (lit. hay), 2. ciii. 39. 
See Hey. 

Hal, adj. all, 13. 333; hal alwes^i 
al halwes, i. e. all saints, 13. 371. 

Halde, i p. s. pr. I bold, consider, 
10. 1 261 ; imp. pi. Haldes, hold 
ye, 13. 106; Haldis, 16. 133; 
pres. part. Haldand; hard haldand 
s close-fisted, 10. 790; pp.Kzlden, 
kept, 13. 244; esteemed, 13. 276. 
A. S. healdan, G. halten. 

"B-Aied, pt. pi, dn^ed (themselves), 
13. 380. 

Halely, adv. wholly, ii 6. 93. 
A. S. h<el. 

Halewed, pp. hallowed, 14 a. 5 ; 
pt. $. Halwede, i a. 53 ; Halted, 
13. 506. A.S. hdlgian, to hallow. 

Half, sb. region, part of the world, 
14 c. 125; side, 9. 114; pi. Half 
(better Halues), portions, quarters, 
13.950. A. S. A#a(^, a half, side, 

Hali, adj. holy, a. xiv. a ; a. zvii. 
17; Halgb, 2. zvii. 69. A. S. 
hdlig, G. heilig. 

Halkez, recesses, 13. 321. 
A. S. hylca, hooks, turnings. 

Halpe, pt. s. helped, 5. 5686. 
A. S. helpan, pt. t. ic healp. 

Hals, s6. neck, 15. ii. 170. A.S. 
heals, G. and Du. hals. 

HalaedOf l p. s. pt. besought, con- 
jured, 15. i. 71. A. S. heals, the 
neck, healsian, to embrace, be- 

Halsing, sb. salutation, 16. 117. 
Sw. helsning, salutation, from 
helsa, health. See Halsit. 

Halsit, pt. s. saluted, 16. 116. 
Sw. helsa, sb. health, helsa, vb. 
to salute. [This word should be 
distinguished from Halsede."] 

Halt, pr. s. holds, I a. 465 ; 3. 79. 

Halted, pt. pi, walked as lame, 2. 
xvii. i(5« Moeso-Goth. halts, 

Halwede, pt. s. hallowed, i a. 53. 
See Halewede. 

Haly, adv. wholly, 16. 477. A. S. 
hM, whole. 

Halydom, sb. relics, 5. 5639. Icel. 
heilagr ddmr (or helgir domr, holy 
dooms), things of especial holiness, 
the relics of the saints, on which 
oaths were formerly taken.— 

Haljed, pt. s. hallowed, 13. 506. 
See Halewed. 

Haljexif sb. pi. holy men, saints, 9. 

Ham, pron. them, 6. 1 16. 

Han, V, to have, to possess, 19. 
208. In the preceding line haue 
occurs, but as an auxiliary verb 

Han, pr, pi, have (i. e. who have). 



I a. 361 ; sub. pres, pi. have, 4 h, 

Hand, sh. breath, 10. 775. Better 

spelt and; cf. Sc. aindy breath, 

Lat. anima^ Gk. 6y(fi09. 
Hand; at his hands close at hand, 

16. 72. 
Happe, sh. hap, fortune, chance, 

12. 32. W. hap. 
Happe, pr. pi. 2 p. chance, light 

upon, happen to choose, 20. 64. 

See above. 
Harald, prop, namct Harold, i a. 

21 ; gen. Haraldes, I a. 9. 
Harde, adv. strongly, 12. 301 ; 

close, fast, eagerly, 11, 204. 
Hard^ohe, adv. boldly, i a. 

Hardi, adj. bold, daring, i a. ill. 

O. F. hardly bold, obviously of 
Teutonic origin ; A. S. heard, Du. 
hardt Gk. Kparisy strong. 
Hardyxnent, sh, boldness, courage, 
16. 439. O. F. hardimeni, cour- 
age. See above. 
Hare, their, 9. 49. 
Hares, hairs, 10. 675. 
Harryng, sb. growling, snarling 
like a dog, 18 a. 163. R is 
called the dog's letter ; R or arre 
represents a dog*s growling. 
Hasped, pp. fastened, 13. 419. 
Hastiliche, adv. hastily, quickly, 

I a. 528. 
Hastinge, prop. n. Hastings, I a, 

62 ; Hastinges, I a. 75. 
HasUy, adv. hastily, quickly, 5. 
5747. O. F. haste^ haste ; Sw. 
hasty haste. 
Hasten, /or hast thou, 15. iii. loi. 
Hat, sh. hat, 15. vi. ii, 20. 
Hat, call, name, 13. 448; 
pt, s. Hat, was called, il 6. 74. 
See Hatte. 
Hatand, pres. part, hating, they 

that hate, 2. xvii. 104. 
Ha)>el, adj. as sh. noble one, 13. 

409. See AJ^el. 
Hatren, sh,pl. clothes, 5, 5583. 

VOL. n. 

A. S. h€Bt€ry clothing, G. hader, a 

Hatte, pr. s, is called, 18 a. 30; Hat, call, name, 13. 448; 
pt. s. Hat, was called, 116. 74* 
A. S. hatan^ O. Fris. heta, G. heis- 
seuy Du. heeten, to call, name; also, 
to have for a name, be called. The 
Moeso-Gothic shews that this is a 
passive form, as it has haitith, he 
calls, haitada, he is called, which 
occurs in John ix. 16. 

Hatz, put for Haz or Has, 13. 306; hast, 13. 328. 

Hanberk, sh. coat of mail, 9. 82. 
See Habuzjon. 

Haned,^/. s. i p. had, 8 a. 250; 2 p. 
hadst, 8 a. 225 ; Hauid, pt. s. 1 p. 
had, 8 a. 220. 

Hauene,s6. S. haven, port, i a. 57; 
^. Haunes, havens, 18 a. 66. A.S. 
hcefen, Dan. havn, Sw. hamn. 

Haues, pr. s. has, 8 6. 239 ; 
Haueth, have ye, 19. 654. 

Haukes, sh, pi. hawks, 2. ciii. 39; 
Hauekes, 13. 537. A. S. hafoc, 
Du. havihy G. hahicht, W. hehog. 

Haunted, pt.s. practised, 86. 125. 
O. F. hanter, to frequent, practise, 
either from Icel. hiemta, Svr.hdmta, 
to take home (Burguy), or from 
Breton hent, a path (Wedgwood). 

Havyng, s6. having, i.e. behaviour, 
16.412; Hawyng, 16. 135. 

He, pron. she, 4 a. 7, &c. A. S. 
heOj she. 

He, adv. high, loudlv, 16. 192. 

Hee, adj. high, 16. 109. A.S. 

Heengen, hanged, 15. i. 148. 

Heened, sh. head, 6. 94 ; dat. s. 
Heuede, 6. 91. A. S. heafod, 
Mceso-Goth. hauhiths, Lat. caput, 
Gk. K«l>a\^. 
Hegh, adj. high, 2. viii. 9 ; 2. ciii. 40; 
superl. Heghest, 2. xvii. 37. A. S. 
hedhf'DM.hoogyG.hoch. SceHeh. 
Heghnes, s6. highness, height, a. 
xviL 88 ; a. cii. ai. 




Heh, adj, high ; an heh » aloud, 4 c. 

16 ; Hei, I a. 164 ; pi. Heie, i a. 

189 ; Heye, i a. 177. See Hegh. 
Heie, euiv. high, i a. 158; Heye, 

1 fl. 458. 

Heigh, adj. high, great, 19. 162. 

See Hegh. 
Heililiche, adv. at a high price, 

15. vii. 300. A. S. hedhlice, 

Heilede, i p. s. pt. hailed, greeted, 

15. V. 83. Cf. Dan. hilse, to 

greet. See Halsit. 
Heindy adj. courteous, 7. a. See 

Hende, adj. 
Heiuol, adj. haughty, i a. 406. 

Apparently a compound from 

O. E. hei, high, and uol, full. 
Hei3, ati;. high, 12. 163; o^^'. or 

adv. high, costly, 15. iii. 49. See 

Hei, Hegh. 
Hel, sb. health; sawel hel^ soul's 

health, 8 b. 66. See Hele, sb. 
Held, pp. poured (out), 1 7. Mar. ii. 

2 2. Icel. hella, O. E. A«/«, to 
pour out. Vulg. effundetur. 

Held, sb. old age, 10. 756. Better 
spelt eld. Cf. Hand. 

Held, held, i a. 106. 

Helde, v. to incline, 3. ciii. 12 ; pr. 
pi. Heldes, 10. 817; pt. s. Helded, 
inclined, bowed, 2. xyii. 27. A.S. 
hyldan, to incline, bend, IceL 
hella, to pour out ; cf. £. to hed 

Hele, sb. health, 10. 757; salva- 
tion, 2. xvii. 7 ; pi. Heles, 2. xvii. 
127; soule hele = soul's salvation, 
15. vi. 22. A. S. hcelu, hdlOt 
health ; cf. Gk. «aA<5<, good, 

Hele, V. to cover, roof, 18 a. 47 ; 
pp. Heled, hidden, covered over, 
20. 207. A. S. hdlan, Lat. celare, 
to hide, con-ceal ; cf. Gk. KoXtd, 

Hele, V. to cure, 16. 92 ; pr. s. 
Heles, heals, cures, 2. cii. 6. A.S. 
hdlan, to make hale, make 

Hellng, sb. lalvatioii, a. zziiL 12. 

A. S. haling, healing. 
Helpen, v. to help, 4 c. 9 ; /f. s. 

Halpe, q. v. 
Hell>e, sh. salvation (lit health), 9. 


Hem, pron. them, 4 c. 8. A.S. 

heofUf dat pi. of hi, they. 
Hend, 56. pi. hands, 2. viiL 18 ; 2. 
xvii. 67 ; Hende, 2. xvH. 57 ; 2. 
ciii. 57. 
Hende, aJv. at band, dose, near, 

12. 278. 
Hende, adj. courteous, 3. 17 ; la. 
106, 348; benign, il c. 34; as 
)ye hende = like a courteous man, 
courteously, i a. 13. Sw.hamdi§r^ 
dexterous ; whence, polite, cour- 
teous ; cf. E. handy. 
Hendeliohe, adv. courteously, 15. 
iii. 30; Hendely, 15. v. 83. Seie 
Hendy, adj. gracious, 4 a. 9 ; 

Hendi, 4 a. 45. See Hende* 
Hennas, adv. hence, 12. 329. 
Hente, pi. s. seized, i 6. 80 ; 15. 
V. 5 ; snatched, 5. 5619 ; Heat, 
12. 150; caught, 13. 376. A.S. 
hentan, to hunt after, seize. 
Heo, pron. she, I a. 247 ; i 6. 13 ; 

15. iii. 114. A.S. heo. 
Heo, pron. pi. they, 15. iii. 137, 

A. S. hi, hig, pi. of he. 
Her, adv. here; her ri^t^just here, 
just there, i.e. at one time, at 
another, I b, 7. A. S. her, G. 
Her, sb. hair, 4 a. 13 ; ao. 138. 

A. S. har. 
Herbergage, sb, lodging, 19. 147. 
A F. form, from O. H. G. ; cf. 
A. S. here-beorgan, to lodge, here- 
berga, a restingi^ace, E. harbour.. 
Herbergeri, tb. lodging, shelter, 

7. 164. See above. 
Herbiuore, adv. heretofore, i a. 

Herd, ^/ s. heard, a. xvii. 17; 5. 
5897 ; Herde, a. xviL 106. 



Here, pron. of them ; here non s 
not one of them, i 6. 6 ; used as 
pron.poss. their, i b. 6; 5. 5583. 
A. S. hira, gen. pi. of he. 

Here, sb. a hair, hair-shirt, 15. v. 
48. See Her. 

Here, sb. army, host, 13. 409. 
A.S. here, an army, G. and Du. 
heer. Hence, £. harbour, har- 
binger, harry, 

Heremyte, 56. hermit, 14 b. 35. 
Lat. heremita, from G. ip^fw, a 

Heren, v. to hear, 3. i ; pt. s. 
Herde, 2. xvii. 106. See Herd. 

Heried, p/. s, harried, despoiled, 
II tf. 34. A. S. here, an army, 
herian, herigan, to act as an 
army, to ravage, harry ; cf. O. E. 
the harrowing of hell = the spolia- 
tion of hell. Christ was said to 
harrow hell when, after His cru- 
cifixion. He delivered thence the 
souls of the righteous, who had 
died and had been held captive by 
Satan since the beginning of the 

Herk, v. to hark, 5. 5750. A.S. 
heorcnian, to hearken. 

Heme, sb. S. comer, i a. ao. A. S. 
hirne, a comer. See Huimes. 

Hemes, brains, 11 a. 68. 
Sc. hairns, brains, Sw. hjerna, the 
brain; cf. Lat. cere-brunt, the 
brain, Gk. K&pa, the head. 

Hemes, sb, pi. eagles, 13. 537. 
Properly spelt ernes, from A. S. 
em, earn, an eagle. See Bme. 

Herston, prop, name, i 6. 24. 

Hert, sb. S. hart, i a. 389; 12. 215; 
pi. Hertes, harts, stags, 2. xvii.»87 ; 
2. ciii. 40. A. S. heart, Du. hert, 
G. hirsch. 

Herte, sb. S. heart, i a. 36 ; Hert, 
2. xiv. 5 ; 5. 5824. A. S. heorte, 
Du. hart, G. herz. 

Heniest, 56. S. harvest, i a. 55, 
59. A. S. hctrfest, harvest, autumn; 
G. herbsL 

Her7e)>, pr. pi. praise, 9. 171. 

A. S. herian, to praise. 
Heryinge, sb. praise, 9. 305 ; pL 

Heryinges, 9. 132. See above. 
Heat, (idj. highest, 3. 176. A.S. 

hehst, superl. of hedh, high. Cf. 

nest, for nighest. 
Heste, sb. bidding, 15. iii. 108; 

command, 19. 382 ; pi. Hestes, 

commands, 13. 341 ; 19. 284. 

A. S. hds, a command, hdtan, to 

Het, pt. s. was named, i er. 133, 

300 ; I 6. 24. See Hatte. 
Het, pt. s. ordered, i a. 509. See 

next word. 
Hete, pr. s. i p. promise, 19. 334; 

pt. 8. Het, ordered, i a. 509. A.$. 

hdtan, to command, promise. 
Hete, subj. pr. s. heat, 6. 28. 
Heterly, adv. quickly, hastily, 13. 

380. Icel. heitr, hot ; A. S. htktci, 

hot, furious ; A. S. hdtu, Sw. « 

hetta, heat ; A.S. hdt, Sw. het, 

S.e\>,pr. s. has, 6. 104; 9. 109. 
Hethen, adj. heathen, 19. 378. 
Hethen, adv. hence, 10. 509. Icel. 

he^an, hence. 
Hethlng, sb. scorn, 7. 168. Icel. 

halSa, to scoff at; Sw. hdda, to 

Hette, pp. named, 15. iii. 105. See 

Hetterly, adv. violently, angrily, 

12.150. See Heterly. 
Hen, sb. hue, colour, 4 a, 13. A.S. 

Heue, V. to heave, lift, 12. 348. 

A. S. hebban, Cf. haue from A. S. 

Heued, sb. head, J a. 126 ; 2. xvii. 

no; 10. 675 ; pi. Heuiddes, 11 6. 

72. See Heeued. 
"Kenede, had, 4 c. 11. 
Heuene, sb. heaven, 1 b. 17; gen. 

sing. 6. 3 ; ^/. Heuenes, 2. viii. 9. 

A.S. heofon. 
Heuened, pt. s. raised, exalted, 13* 

D d 2 



506. A. S. hafenian, to elevate. 

See Heue. 
Heueneriche. See Heuenryke. 
Heuenryke, sb, the kingdom of 

heaven, heaven, 10. 1898 ; gen. 

Heueneriche, 15 pr, 27. A, S. 

heofonrice, from heofon^ heaven, 

and ricBf a kingdom. 
Heuidles, adj. headless, 11 a. 100. 
Heute^hete, subj. pr. s. heat, 6. 

Hew, sb. appearance, 5. 5884; dot. 

Hewe, 19. 137. See Hen. 
Hey, sb. grass, 17. Mar. vi. 39. 

Moeso-Goth. hawit E. hay. 
Heye, adv. aloud, 3. 204. See 

Heyer, adj. eomp. higher, 8 a. 108. 
Heyne, sb. a proper name, 15. v. 

91. Cf. G. Hans, 
Heyt, sh. height, 8 a. ill. See 

He3e, adj. pi. high, 9. 140. See 

He3lyolie, adv. highly, chiefly, 9. 

15; in a great degree, 9. 35. 

See Heihliohe. 
HejJTe, sb. height, 13. 317; Heyt, 

8 a. 1 1 1. A. S. hed^Ot he^. 
Hi, sb. haste, 7. 179. See Hye. 
Hi, pron. they, i 6. 5 ; 6. 66 ; ace. 

them, 6. 69. A. S. nom. and ace. 

pi. hi. Jug. 
Hioht, I p, s. pr. promise, assure, 

16. 156. A. S. hdtan, to bid, 

Hid, pt. s. it hid = hid itself, 7. 66. 
Hiden, sb. pi. hides (of land), i a. 

353. A. S. hfd, Lzt. cutis. 
Hider, cuiv. hither, 4 c. 46. 
Hiderward, adv. hitherward, i a. 

Hie ; in phr. in hie — in haste, 8 6. 

17. Common in Northumbrian. 
See Hye. 

Hield, pL s. held, ao. 154. See 

Hier, adv. here, 20. 60. See Her. 
Hiere, pr. pi. hear, 20. 306. A. S. 

hjran, hdran, Du. hooren, O. 

Hiewh, pt. s. hewed, cut up, 20. 

246. A. S. hedfvan, pt. t. ic he6w. 
Hight, pp. named, called, 7. 17. 

See Hatte. 
Hiht, pt. s. was named, 8 b, 119. 

See Hatte. 
Hihte, pt. s. commanded, 15. i. 17; 

bade, 15. v. 120; Hiht, promised, 

8 a. 204 ; pt. pi. Hight, promised, 

7. 154. A.S. hatan, to promise, 

Hii, S. they, i a. 6, 7, 116. 

See Hi. 
Hile, V. to cover, 2. ciii. 20 ; pr, s. 

2 p. Hiles, coverest, 2. ciii. 6. See 

Hiling, sb. covering, 2. ciii. 13. 

See above. 
Him-sulf, pron. himself, I a. 136. 
Hine,, servants, 2. cii. 50; 

2. ciii. 10. See Hyne. 
Hinehede, sb. service, 2. ciii. 30. 

See Hyne. 
Hingand, pres.part. hanging, 7. 

Hire, poss. pron. her, i a, 24. 
Hires, hers, 19. 227. 
Hire-selue, pron. herself, 3. 144. 
His, pron, pi, them, 9. 183 ; Hise, 

9. 10. 
His«is, ^. s, 6. I, 7. 
His, pron. its, 6. 41 ; 12. 20. A. S. 

his, masc. and neut. gen. of he, 
Hise» pron. pi. them, 9. 10. 
Hisse = his, /vo». 2. cii. 2. 
Hit, pron. neut, s, S. it, I a. 8, 88. 

A. S. hit, neut. of he. 
Hit, used as a gen. its, 13. 264, 956. 
Hittej, pr. s, reaches (it, i. e. the 

ark), 13. 479. 
Hi3e]), pr. s, rpfl. hies, hurries him- 
self, 15. vii. 307 ; pt. s, Hi3ede, 

hastened, I 6. 92 ; came near to, 

15. vii. 287. A.S. higan, to hie, 

Du. hijgen, to pant. See Hye. 
Hijt, I p. s. pr. I have for a name, 

am named, 12. 70. See Hatte. 



Hi3t=ihit, pron, it, 6. 13, 20, 146. 
Hijt, pt. s. S. promised, i a. 58. See 

Ho, pron. who, lb, 77 ; 15. iii. 

60; whosoever, 12. 187. (Not 

used as a simple relative). Mceso- 

Goth. hwas, A. S. Au'a, Lat. ^uts, 

Gk. Tw. 
"ROfpron. she, 13. 475. A.S. Afio. 
Ho-bestez, «6. pi. she -beasts, 

females, 13. 337. A.S. heo, she. 

See above. 
Hobleden, pt. pi. hobbled, limped, 

15. i. 113. Cf. Du. hobbelen, to 

jolt about, to stammer, from 

hobbel, a knob ; cf. £. hub, hob. 
Hoc, sb. hook, 4 c. 9. A. S. hdc. 
Hod, sb. hood, 15. vii. 256. A.S. 

Hoggis, sb. pi, swine, 17. Mar. 

V. 12. 
Hoi, adj. whole, sound, i a. 413 ; 

on hoi hert = one whole heart, 

unanimously, 12. 163. A. S. Ao/, 

E. hale, Gk. feo\6$. 
Holde, adj. faithful, i a. 418. A.S. 

hold, faithful, friendly, true, from 

healdan, to hold ; cf. E. hold to, 
Holde, V. to hold, i a. 401 ; pr. pi. 

Holdej>, hold, 1 a. 8; Hulde, 

held, I a. 6 ; subj. pt. s. Hulde, 

should keep, la. 17; pp. Holde, 

beholden, indebted, 12. 317. See 

Hole-foted, adj. web-footed (lit. 

whole-footed), 13. 538. 
Holly, adv. wholly, 12. 246. 
Horn, sb. home, i a. 370 ; adv. 

home, 3. 192. A.S. ham, G. 

heim, Gk. Kotfjios, a village; cf. 

Lat. ciuitas. 
Horn, pron. dat. pi. to them, i a, 

34 ; ace. pi. Horn, themselves, I a. 

92, 96. See Hem. 
Homber, the Humber, i a. 323. 
Hond, sb. S. hand, i a. 41, 63 ; pi, 

Honden, 1 a. 116; 6. 121 ; 15. 

vii. 295 ; on honde^in hand, 19. 

348. A. S. hand. See Hend. 

Hondred, sb, hundred, x a. 320. 

Hongen, v. to hang, be hanged^ 
15. ii. 170; pt.s. Hongede, hung, 
hanged (in transitive sense), 15. i. 
66. A. S. hangian, to hang 
down, hon, to suspend. 

Honger, sb, hunger, i a. 444. 

Hontet>, sb. hunting, i a. 387. 
A. S. huntafS, hunto"^, a hunting r 
hunta^'fcer, a hunting expedition.* 

Honur, v. to honour, 7. 60. 

Honur, sb. F. honour, 6. 87. 

Hoole, adj. whole, hale, sound, 1 7. 
Mar. V. 15. See Hoi. 

Hopand, pres, part, hoping, 2. 
xvii. 82. 

Hor, poss. pron. their, I a. 34, 36 ; 
gen. pi. of them ; hor no^er = 
neither of them, I a. 1 74. 

Hord, sb. hoard, treasure, 9. 14. 
A. S. hord, heord, wealth, hyrdan, 
to guard ; cf. £. herd, Lat. custos, 

Hordom, sb. whoredom, i a. 189. 

Hors, sb. pi. horses, 18 a. 108. 
A. S. hors, a neut. sb. of which 
the pi. form likewise is hors. 

Horwed, adj. unclean one, 13. 335. 
A. S. hdru, dirt, pollution ; cf. E. 

Hose, whoso, whoever, 15. i. 86. 

Hoseli, v. to housel, administer the 
sacrament; let hom hoseli ~ caused 
themselves to be houselled, i a. 97. 
A. S. hiisel, an offering, the sacra- 
ment, Moeso-Goth. hunsl, a sacri- 
fice ; comp. Sansk. kan, to kill. 

Hote, cuh, hotly, ardently, 19. 

Hote,, command, 15. ii. 

Hou, adv. how, i a. 103, 105. 

Houen, pp. heaved, 13. 413. See 

Houez, ^r.s. hovers, 13. 458; pi, 

Houej>, hover about, 15 pr. 84; 

pt. pi. Houed, waited about, 1 1 a. 

83. W. hojio, hqfian, to hover, 

HoiireSf 56. pi. the ' hours,' or ser- 



vices for particular times of the 

day, 15. i. 157. 
H0U8, sb. house (in astrology), 19. 

304. A * house ' is a twelfth part 

of the celestial sphere, bounded by 

great circles passing through the 

N. and S. points of the horizon. 
Hous-leder, sb, master of the 

house, 2. ciii. 39. The Vulg. has 

domus dux. 
Houues,, hoods, 1$ pr, 84. 

A. S. hUfe, a headdress, mitre. 
Hozterye, sb, huckstery, retail 

dealing, 15. v. 141. G. hbkert a 

hawker, a huckster, from the same 

root as G. wucher, Du. woeker, 

O. £. oker, usury, and Lat. aueere, 
Hu, conj. how, 7. 297. A. S. hu. 
Huanne, cuiv. when, 9. 39. A. S. 

Huannes, adv. whence, 9. 34. 

A. S. hwofum, whence. 
Hudinge, sb, hiding, concealment, 

1 h. 53. 
Hue, pron, she, 46. 31, 35. See 

"ELwo,, they, 3. 84; 4 c. 35. 

See Hi. 
Huer, adv. where, 9. 38. A. S. 

"Sxiere, pron, their, 4 c. 10, 21, 25. 

A. S. heora, of them. 
Huerxnyde, wherewith, 9. 118. 

A. S. hwcer, where, and mid, with. 
Hiierte, sb, hearty 3. 73. See 

Huet, pron, rel. what, 9. 22. 
Huimes, comers, 15. ii. 209. 

A. S. hime, a corner, hiding-place, 

Gaelic ceam; £. comer; cf. £. 

Aom. See Heme. 
Hul, sb, hill, I a. 146 ; 18 a. 119 ; 

pi, Hulles, 15^.5. A.S. Ay//; 

cf. Lat. celsus, lofty. 
Huldy pt. s, held, esteemed, i a, 

258 ; kept, I a. 370. 
Huld, //. 5. held, 1 a. 232 ; i 6. 13. 

See Halde. 
Hiilde, V. to flay, i a, 287. A. S. 

behyldan, to skin; cf. Sw. At^ 

Hules, pr. s. covers up, 12. 97. 

Cf. E. ^//, shell of a pea ; and 

see Hele, Hile. 
Humblesse, sb, F. humility, 19. 

Hundereth, num. a hundred, 11 a, 

Huo, proM. inter, who, 9. ii. See 

Hupte, pt. s. jumped about, lit. 

hopped, I b. 83. A.S. hoppiatt, 

to leap, dance ; the notion of re- 
stricting it to one leg seems to be 

Hurde, pi, s. heard, i a. 9, 31. 
Hure, sb. hire, wages, i 6. 64 ; 4 c. 

25 ; 15. vi. 40 ; reward, 15. iii. 64 ; 

Huire, 15. vi. 42. A. S. Ajfr, hire. 
Hurkled, pt, s. rested, 13. 406. 

The original meaning is to squa^ 

crouch, as in Du. hurken, to 

squat; cf. O. E. rouke, to squat; 

prov. E. hurkle, to shrug up the 

Hurlande, pres. part, hurling, 

rushing, 13. 413. 
Hume, sb. S. comer, i a. 30. See 

Heme, Huimes. 
Hurrok, sb. an oar, 13. 419. Prov. 

£. orrock, an oar; orruck'holes, 

oar-drawing holes, rowlocks, ml- 

locks, from oar, and Dan. rykke, 

to draw. 
Hurte, sb. S. heart, i b, 66, 68. 

See Herte. 
Husbandis, sb. gen, sing^ husband- 

man*s, small rarmer's, 16. 15 1. 

Icel. hus-b6ndi, master of a house ; 

bondi (Dan. bonde, a peasant) is for 

bHandi, dwelling, from dweU. 
Hu70lie» /ro». which, what, 9. 3; 

dat. pi. Huychen, 9. 48. (Of 

governs a dative.) 
Huyter, adj. whiter, 9. 154. A. S. 

Hu3, sb. hue, colour, 18 a. 13 ; Hu, 

18. See Heu. 



Hwed, pp. hued, tinted, 13. 1045. 

See Heu. 
Hy, pron. they, 6. 99 ; 9. 45. See 

Hy, pron. I, 3. 149. 
Hydiis, adj. hideous, 10. 2227. F. 

hideuXf from O. F. hide, hisde, 

terror; cf. Sw. hissnad, shivering, 

Hye, sb. haste; in hye= quickly, 

19. 209 ; in hy, 16. 6. 
Hye, V. to haste ; hire hye, to make 

haste (lit. to hasten herself), 20. 

169. A.S. higarif to hasten, Dan. 

hige, Du. hijgen, to pant ; cf. Lat. 

eituSf Gk. Kivvfuu. 
Hyghte, pt. s. was named, 5. 5789. 

See Hatte. 
Hyht, pp. promised, 4 b. 29. See 

Hyne, pron. ace. him, 6. 73* A. S. 

hine, ace. of he. 
Hyne, s6. servant, i S/>r. 39; vi.42. 

A.S. Aina, a domestic, whence E. 

Hynges, pr. pi. hang, 10. 675 ; 

pt. s. Hyng, hung, 20. 256. 
Hyt, pron. it, 5. 5581. See Hit. 
Hyjes, pr. pi. hie, hasten, 13. 538 ; Hy3ed, hied, hastened, 13. 

392. .See Hi3eK Hye. 
Hy3e, high (places), heights, 

13- 39^- 
Hyjt, pr. s. is called, 18 a. 60 ; 

pt. s. Hyjt, had for a name, was 

named, 13. 299. See Hatte. 

* I. J. 

The prefix I- or Y- is some- 
times prefixed to all parts of a verb, 
but most commonly to infinitives or 
past participles. It is the A. S. ge-, 
G. and Du. ge-, Moeso-Goth. ga-, 
a particle of obscure origin. 

The letter J is hardly ever found 
in early MSS. A capital / is used 
instead ; hence langelers is to be 
read JangeUrs, dec. 

langelers, sb. pi. tattlers, story- 
tellers, 15 pr. 35. O. Ft. jangler, 
to jest, from a Teutonic root; 
cf. Du. janken, to howl. 

langland, pres. part, jangling, 
chattering, 5. 5593. See above. 

lapede, pt. s. befooled, cheated, 
15. i. 65. See lapes. 

lapers, sb. pi. jesters, 15 pr. 35. 
See below. 

lapes, jests, tricks, 11 6. 15; 
lapez, 13. 272. F. japper, to 
yelp ; E. gabbe, to lie, deceive, 
gabble, from Gael, gob, mouth. 

largoun, sb. jargon, confused 
speech, 20. 277. O.F. jargonner, 
to cackle; cf. A.S. cearcian, to 
chatter, O. E. chirh^ E. creak. 

launys, sb. jaundice, 10. 700. F. 
jaunisse, {romjaune, yellow, Lat. 

Tbe^pp. been, i a. i ; Ibeo, i 6. 91. 

I-blesset, pp. blessed, i.e. holy, 15 

pr. 75- 
Ibore, pp. born, i 6, 2 ; 6. 109 ; 

borne, carried, 15. v. 89. 
IbToke, pp. broken, i a. 28, 41. 
I-brouht, /ip. brought, 15. iii. 2. 
Ibro3t, pp. brought, i a. 140, 340. 
Ibuired, pp. buried, 1 a. 521. 
Ich, pron. S. I, i a. 26; 6. I18. 

A.S. iV, G. ich, Du. iJt, Svf.jag, 

Dan. jeg, Icel. ek, Lat. ego, Sans^. 

Iohabbe = ich habbe, I have, 4 a. 9. 
Ichani«=ich am, I am, 4 a. 8, 37 ; 

lohaue — ich haue, I have, 4 b. 28. 

loholle >E ich woUe, I will, i a. 8, 

471, 472 ; IchchoUe, i a. 474. 
Iohot=ich wot, I know, 4 a. 10 ; 

4 d. 23. 
loimlle » Ich wulle, I will, 4 a. 19 ; 

4 c. 48; 15. iii. 5. 
IcleTpet, pp. called, 15. iii. 109. 
loluped, pp. called, i a. 270. 
loome, pp. come, i a. 75 ; 1 b. i, 
loopet, pp. dressed in a cope, 15. 

iii. 36. 



I-oristnid, pp. christened, 6. 71; 

Icristned, 6. 97, ili. 
Icrommet, pp. crammed, 15 pr, 

41. A. S. crammian, to stuff. 
Idelnisse, sb. S. idleness, i b. 62. 
Ido, pp. done, made, i a, 22 ; 

finished, ended, i a. 332 ; (of a 

battle) fought, i a. 194. 
Idoluen, pp. delved, dug, 15. vi. 

36. A. S. del/an, to dig ; pp. 

I'don, pp. done, caused, made, 15. 

V. 78. 
Idyket, pp. ditched, 15. vi. 56. 

A. S. dician, to make a dike, 
leauntez, giants, 13. 272. 

F. geanty Lat. ace. gigantem, 

from Gk. ylyat^ from same root 

as yiyvofiai, to be born. 
If eure, pp. fared, gone, 15. v. 5. 
Ifri3et, pp. fried, 1 5. vii. 298. 
Ifiild, pp. filled, I a. 158. 
Igain, adv. again, back, 8 b. 170. 
Igain, prep, against, 8 6. 68. 
Igainea, prep, against, 8 a. 158. 
Igain-sawe, sb. gainsaying, contra- 
diction, denial, 8 a. 1 78. 
Igiatned, pp. lodged, 6. 140. 
Igranted, />/>. granted, I a. 451. 
Igurd, pp. girt, i a. 1 10. A. S. 

girdan, to gird ; cf. E. giriht 

Iliaspet, pp. hasped, clasped, 

fastened, 15. i. 171. A. S. haps, 

hcespe^ a hasp. 
IhestL, Jesus, i a. 469. 
Hiolde, pp. holden, considered to 

be, 15. i. 82. 
Th.ote»pp. called, named, 15. i. 61. 

See Hatte. 
Ihiire, V. to hear, i a. 2 ; pp. Ihurd, 

I a. 4. 
Ihuret, pp. hired, paid with wages, 

15. vii. 300. See Hure. 
Ikest, pp. cast, 6. 90, 92. Sw. 

kasta, to throw. 
Iknowe, />/. known, 15. iii. 34. 
naste, pt. s. lasted, i a, 163. 
He, sb. isle, 19. 545 ; pi. lies, 14 a. 

95. F. Ue, O.F. isle. It. isola, 

Lat. insula. 
neaue, sh. leave, 6. 81. A. S. 
ge-ledfa^ assent, belief, from 

leaf, license, permission ; cf. G. 
g'lauben, to believe, erlauben, to 

Ilei3en, pp. lien, lain, been laid, 

15. V. 65. A. S. licgan, to lie, 
pp. legen, 
Ileue, V. to believe, 15. v. 112. 

A. S. lyfan, to believe. See 

Biknet, pp. likened, 15. i. 89. 

Cf. Sw. likna, to compare, liken. 
Ilijt, pp. lighted, 16. 20. 
Ilk, adj. each, every, 7. 38 ; 10. 

437 ; same, 7. 14; ]>at ilk, that 

same, 12. 281. A. S. <bIc, each, 
nka, adj. every, 2. viii. 6 ; a. ciii. 

55. See below. 
Ilkan, pron. each one, 1. dii. 35 ; 

8 a. 106. A.S. <bIc, each, an, one. 
like, adj. same, 6. 120; very, 9. 

108; het ilke=the same, 9. 15. 

A. S. ylc, same ; Sc. Uh. 
Home, adv. frequently, i a. 319, 

440. A. S. gelSme, often, 
n-tomed, adj. froward, perverse, 

2. xvii. 72. (Lit. ill-turned.) 
Il-tomest, pr. s. 2 p. art perverted, 

2. xvii. 72. Vulg. perverieris. 

See above. 
I-maket, pp. made, 15. pr. 14. 
Ixnange, prep, among, 8 a. 187. 
Imaunget, pp. eaten, 15. ^ii. 245. 

F. manger, to eat. 
Imid, prep, in the midst of, amid, 

7* 355* O.E. in middes, amidst; 

the prefix I- asm. 
In, prep, on, 7. 33. 
Income, v. to enter, 2. xxiii. 18, 

24 ; pr. s. Incomes, comes in, 2. 

xiv. 3. 
Ine, sb. pi. eyes, lie. 79. A. S, 

edgan^ eyes, pi. of e^e. 
Ine, prep, in, 6. 13, 15; amongst, 

9. 234. (Better in.) 
Infortunat, adj. unlucky, 19. 302. 



In-fere, adv. together, 13. 399; 
19. 328. A. S. m, in, and gefera, 
a comrade, from fceran, to journey, 
go. See Pere, sb. 

Inguoynge, sb. entrance, ingoing, 
admittance, 9. 33. 

Inmongez, prep, amongst, 13. 

Inne, prep, in, 6. 16, 38. (Better 

Inne, adv. or prep, in (almost 
equal to therein), 1 a. 453 ; used 
after an infin. I a. 20. A. S. 
innan, adv. within, innan, prep, 
within. The O. E. inne ( = with- 
in) is disyllabic; see 19. 518. 

Ixinoghe, adv. enough, 13. 297* 
A. S. genoh. 

In-obedyent, adj, disobedient, 13. 

Inome, pp. taken, i a. 76 ; taken 

away, i a. 129; Inomen, 15. iii. 

I. A. S. nimaUf G. nekmen, to 

take. See Nixne. 

Inou, adv. enough, i a. 203 ; Inov, 
12. 100. A. S. genoh. 

Inouer, adv. over and above, 2. 
viii. 22. An imitation of the 
word insuper in the Vulgate. 

Inouwe, adj. pi. sufficient, enough, 
15. iii. 24. A. S. genoh, sufficient. 

InpoBsible, adj. impossible, 14 e. 

In-Bprano, pt. s. sprang into, enter- 
ed into, 1 3. 408. 

In-till, prep, into, 16. 3 ; in, 16. 71. 
Sw. intillf till, unto. 

Inwardlie, adv. closely, intimately, 
earnestly, 8 a. 255. 

Inwyt, sb. indwelling wit or con- 
sciousness, conscience, 9. 13. 
A. S. inwit, inward sense, con- 

lolef, adj. happy, handsome, 13. 
300. O. F. ;o/«/. It. giulivo, from 
Icel.;V;/, Sw.>/, O.E.yule\ Christ- 
mas time. 

lone, Seynt, St John, 5. 5575. 

I-ordeyned, pp. ordained, i 6. 56. 

lomay, sb. journey, 11 a. 40 ; 

pi. lornes, 7* 366. F. journeet 

from Lat. diurnus, daily, dies, a 

loye, sb. F. joy, i b. 30, 33. Lat. 

loyst, adj. lodged, 13. 434. O. F. 

gister, to provide with a lodging ; 

North £. joist, to agist or lodge 

cattle. See Gesten. 
Ipli^t, pp. plighted, 1 a. 23. Ob- 
serve the omission of hadde, just 

as hatte is sometimes dropped in 

Mod. High German. 
Ipotaynes, sb. pi. hippopotami, 14 

c. 1 14. 
Irael, Israel, 2. cii. 14. 
Irohones, sb. pi. urchins, hedge- 
. hogs, 2. ciii. 42. F. kdrisson, 

Lat. ericivs, eres, a hedgehog. 
Ire, /ron. B Hire, her, 1 a. 201. 
Iredy, adj. ready, i a. 362. A. S. 

gerdd, ready, G. gerade, direct. 
Is, put for His, his, i a. 14; 

ZBfpron.fem. ace, it, I a. 455. Is 

is used as a fem. ace. and as pi. 

pron. by Southern writers. 
Ise, V. to see, i a. 125, 174; pt. s. 

Isei, I a. 502 ; subj. pr. s. Ise, i 

a, 128. A.S.gesedn, to see; pt. 

t. ic gesedh. 
Ised, pp. said, la. 131 ; 6. 62. 
Iseo, V. S. to see, 1 6. 86 ; pp. Ise^e, 

seen, 1 5. v. 4. See Ise. 
Iset, pp. set, I a. 457. 
I8ej>, pr. pi. 2 p. see, i a. 260 ; pt. s, 

Isey, saw, la. 144 ; Isei, i a. 161 ; 

pt. pi. Iseye, I a. 495. See Ise, 

Iseye, subj. pt. pi. should see, i a, 

47. See above. 
Isousteined, pp. maintained, i a. . 

432 ; Isusteined, I a. 374. 
IspoTised, pp. married, I a. 295, 

Isse, is, pr. s. 2. xxiii. 25 ; 2. cii. 

I ; 2. ciii. 83. (Miswritten.) 
laaotOt pp. shot, i a. 160, 3S4. 



lsu.oTe,pp. swom, i a. 28. 

It, pron.; pese it ben «■ these are 
they, 17. Mar. iv. 18. 

It, pron, = itself, 7. 44. 

Itermynet, pp. determined, or per- 
haps heard out, 15. i. 95. 

Ih©3f pi' s. throve, 16. 38. A. S. 
]>e6nf to thrive ; pt. t. ic ]>edk or 
ic ge]>edh, pp. fmngen or ge]>ogen, 
Cf. G. gedeiken, to thrive. 

Itri3ed, />^. tried, 15. i. 83; Itriaet, 
15. i. 124. 

Itumd, pp. turned, i a. 285. 

luel, sb. evil, harm, 2. xiv. 7. 

luen, gen. pi. of Jews, 7. 49. 

luge, sb. F. judge, 5. 5639. 

lugement, sb. F. judgment, 5. 

lompred, sb. mourning, 13. 491. 

A.S. geomor^ sad, G. jammer^ 

mourning; where -«rf=0. E. hed 

-Pi. S. Aarf. Cf. E. Godi'head, 

Iu8, s6. juice, 20. 294. Lat. ius, 

IitBtise, sb. judge, 8 a. 146 ; 19. 
665. See Tyrwhitt's Glossary. 

luuente, sb. Youth (the god of 
youth), 20. 211. 

I-wa7ted,/>^. watched after, taken 
heed of, 15. vi. 37. 

Iwis, adv. certainly, I a. 52, 67. 
Du. gewisy adj. certain, and adv. 
certainly ; A. S. getois, adj. sure, 

Iwite, V. to know, 15. vi. 44. A. S. 
gewitan, to understand, tuiianf to 
wit, know. 

Iwoned, pp. wont, i a. 426. A. S. 
geumnian, to dwell in, to be used 
to; E. wont is contracted from 
woned; E. wonted is a form in 
which the pp. ending is redupli- 

Iwonne, pp. won, i a. 35, 329. 

I-WTi])en, pp. wreathed, 15. vi. 9. 
A. S. wrifSan, to wreathe, pp. 
wri^en or gewrifSen, 

l3ete, pp. eaten, i a. 74; Ijeten, 
15. vii. 251. A.S. ge-eten^ eaten. 
In the South of England, the 

people say, *I have a-yeat an 

Ijiue, pp. given, i a. 83. 
I30lde, />/>. restored, i a. 107. A. S. 

gUdan, to pay, yi^/t/. 

Kaohereles, s&. ^7. catchpolls, 
bailifis, 9. 18. Low Lat. cache- 
rellus, which Ducange explains as 
' baillivus inferioris ordinis apad 
Anglos, idem forte quod cace- 

Kalle, V, to bid, invite, 5. 5877. 
A. S. ceallian^ Icel. kalla, to call. 

Kan, pr. s. 2 p. canst. 5. 5735. 

Eare, sb. anxiety, 1 2. 288. 

Earftil, adj. anxious, soriy, 12. 

Eas, sb. accident, chance, hap, 5. 

5787» 5875. F. cas, Lat. casus. 
East, pt. s. considered, 5. 5683. 
Eateyl, sb. chattels, goods, 5. 5747. 

O. F. catel. Low Lat. captale, 

capitale, goods, property, from 

Eayred, pt. s. returned, 12. 373. 

A.S. cerran, cirran, to turn, G. 

hehren, to return; cf. Lat. gero. 

Hence E. chare^ a turn of work, 

charing, work done by the job, 

and churn, 
Eayser, sb, emperor, 11 a, 13. Lat. 

Eaytefes, sb. pi. caitifEs, wretches, 

8 a. 226. O.F. caitif, F. chiHf, 

from Lat. captivus. 
Eechyn, sb. kitchin, 5. 5913. 
EeiBOB, sb. pi. keys, 15. vi. 13. 
Eele, V. to cool, abate, 8 a. 359. 

A. S. c^lan, to cool. 
Een, kine, cows, 12. 6. 
Eende, pt. s. shewed (me) the 

way, 15. vi. 30. See Eenneh. 
Eende, sb. nature, 6. 23, 41, 48 ; 

pi. Kendes, 9. 181. See Eynde. 
Eende, adj. natural, in its natural 

state, 6. 13, 44. See Eynde. 



Kendeliohe, adv, natnrally, 6. 27, 

Kenedride, prop, name, i b, 24. 

Kenne, sb. kin, 6. 102. See Kin. 

Kennej), ^. $. teaches, 15. i. 130 ; 
pt. s. refl, Kennede him, lit. in- 
structed himself, was learned, 15. 
ii. 202 ; pp. Kenned, taught, 12. 
343. O. E. Ittniun, to make to 
know; A. S. cennan, to produce, 
adduce, vouch the truth, from 
eunnan, to know. See Kende, 
pt. s. 

Kepe, V, to mark, obserye, 13. 
292 ; Kepen hems govern them- 
selves, 15. i. 92 ; pr, s. Kepez, 
regards, 13. 508; pr.pL Kepes, 
catch, 8 6. 33 ; Kepe, regard, 15. 
i. 8 ; Kepe)) jeme, take care, 6. 
88 ; pt. 8. Keped, caught, seized, 
116. 96. A. S. eSpanf to catch, 

Kepe, sb. heed, 6. 119. See above. 

Kest, pt. s. kissed, 12. 63. A. S. 
eyssem^ to kiss. 

Keste, V, to cast, 9. 25 ; pt. pi. 
Kesten, 13. 951 ; Kest, 16. 446. 
subj. pt. 8. Keste, 6. 39 ; pp. Kest, 
13. 414. Sw. kasta, Dan. kasie, 
to throw. 

Kete, adj. bold, keen, 12. 330. See 

Keueringe, sb. recovery, i a. 176. 
(Lit. covering.) 

Kin, sb. generation, 7. 29. A.S. 
cyn^ kin, race. 

Kinde, d>. natural shape, 12. 107. 
A. S. cynd, nature. 

Kindely, adv. naturally, by na- 
tural relationship, 12. iii. See 

Kinedom, sb. kingdom, i a, 103, 
172; reign, i a. 347. Not iing + 
donij but kine + dom ; where kine 
»A. S. cyne, royal. Kingdom 
was a new compound, formed at a 
later stage of the language. 

Kingrike, sb. kingdom, 7. 88, 90. 
A.S. cyne-rice, a kingdom, from 

cyne, adj. kingly, and rice, rule. 

See above. 
Kipte, pt. 8. received, took, i b. 64. 

See Kepe. 
Elirc, sb. church; hali kirc—holy 

church, 8 5. 31 ; Kirke, temple, 

2. xvii. 17. 
Kiste, sb. chest, 20. 34. A. S. 

m/, ciste^ a chest, coffer. 
Kithe, V. to shew, disclose, 8 a. 

195 ; Kith, 7. 262 ; pr. s. subj. 

Kithe, may shew, 19. 636. A. S. 

cjl^an^ to make to know. 
Kithing, sb. knowledge, 7. 280. 

A.S. cj^ungt knowledge. See 

Kitte, pt. 8. cut, 19. 600. W. 

cwtf a tail, ewta, bobtailed, short, 

cwtau, to curtail, to shorten. 
KleMng, sb. clothing, 2. ciii. 4. 

A. S. cldiS, a cloth. 
Knaing, s6. acquaintance (lit. 

knowing), 7. 373. 
Knappes, sb. pi. knops, knobs, 15. 

vii. 257. A. S. encep, a knob, 

button, nob; prov. £. knap, a 

round hill. 
KnaiiB, sb. menial servant, 5. 5881 ; 
■ 15. V. 96; 19. 474; pi. boys, 

apprentices, 15 pr. 104. A.S. 

cndpa, end/a, a son, boy, youth ; 

cf. G. kneckt, kind; and £. kin. 
Knauleohynge, sb. acknowledg- 
ing, recognition, 9. 176. 
Knawe, v. to know, 2. cii. 35; 

pr. s, Knawes, 2. cii. 28; pp. 

Knawen, 13. 297; Knawjm with, 

acquainted with, 16. 146. A.S. 

endwan, Lat. {g)noscere, Gk. 71- 

Kne, sb. knee, 3. 223; leyd vnder 

knesput under foot, put aside, 

forgotten. A. S. eneow, Lat. genu, 

Gk. y6vv. 
Knely, v. to kneel, i a. 284. A. S. 

cneowian, Dan. kndle. 
KneU3, ^/.s. knew, 15. ii. 202. 
Knif, sb. S. knife, i a. 112 ; Knyf, 

19. 601. 



Kni^t, sb, knight, I a. i6i ; pi. 
Kni3tes, I a. 32, 56. A. S. cnihtf a 
boy, servant ; G. knecht^ a servant. 

Knowes, 2 p, s. pr. knowest, 12. 
366 ; Knowestow « knowest thou, 
19. 367 ; Knowe|>, imp. pi. know 
ye ; knoweJ> of « acknowledge, 
give (me) thanks for, 15. i. 177. 

KnowleclLinge, pres. part, ac- 
knowledging, confessing, 17. Mar. 
1.5. {Knowlecke for acknowledge 
is invariably used.) 

Knowlych, 's6. knowledge, 5. 
5786, 5890. The second syl- 
lable answers to the A. S. -lac, Sw. 
4ek, meaning a gift or sport, used 
in the composition of abstract 
nouns. It appears again in £. 

Knowyng, sb. knowledge, 5. 5898; 
Knowynge, recognition; for know- 
yngc of as to prevent recognition 
by, 15. ii. 206. A. S. cndwung, 
sb. a knowing. 

Knyttest, 2 p. joinest, 19. 307. 

Koles, sb. pi. S. coals, 2. xvii. 25, 
36. A. S. c6l. 

KoUed, pt. s. hugged, embraced, 
12.69. O. F. aco/«r, to embrace, 
from col, Lat. collum, the neck. 

Koured, pt. s. cowered, bent down, 
12. 47. W. cturian, to squat, to 

Kouthe, pp. known, 2. cii. 13. 
A. S. ctt0, known ; pp. of cunnan, 
to know. 

Eowherde-wif, sb, wife of a cow- 
herd, 12. 171. 

"Kud^pp. known (to-be), 12. no; 
also used as an adj. known; hence, 
notable, famous, 12. 51. Another 
form of Kouthe. 

Kudde, pt. s. displayed, 12. 231. 
A. S. cyiSan, to cause to know, 
make known, shew, teach. 

Kueade, sb. evil, 9. 59. Du. 
huade, evil. See Queade. 

Eun, 56. kin, kindred, 12. iiQ;l5.i. 
166; dat. Kunne, I a. 242. See Kin. 

Kunde, sb. kind, sort, iSa. 5; 
nature, 18 a. 31 ; natural right, 
I a. 308. A. S. cynd, gecynd, 

Kunde, adj. natural, i a, 234 ; 
native, I a. 258; fitted by birth, 
having a natural right, i a. 42 a. 
See above. 

Eunesnien, 56. pi. kinsmen, i a. 
I23t 130. A. S. cynnes man, man 
of kin. 

Kunnes, gen. sing, of kind ; eny 
kunnes 3,Iftus = gifts of any kind, 
15. ii. 175. A. S. cynnes, gen. of 
cyn, kin, kind. It always pre- 
cedes the sb. upon which it de- 

KuJ>beB, sb. pi. manners, habits, 
12. 331. Cf. A.S. eyfS, acquaint- 
ance, friendship. 

Kuuere, v. attain, 12. 128. O.E. 
keuer, to attain ; also used in the 
' same sense as mod. £. cover. 

Kuynde, adj. natural ; kuynde wit, 
natural wit, common sense, 15. i. 
53 i kuynde knowynge, conscience, 
15. i. 130. See Kunde. 

Kuyndeliohe, adv. intimately (lit. 
kindly), 15. vi. 29. 

Kyd, pt. s. shewed (itself). 7* 44; 
pp. Kyd, shewn, 12. 321. A. S. 
c^^an, to make known. 

Eyn, sb. fd. kine, cows, 12. 244. 
A. S. cu, a cow, pi. cy, cows. 
North. £. kye, cows; kine is a 
double plural, formed from kye. 

Kynde, sb. nature, 13. 266; natu- 
ral power, 10. 767 ; Kynd, lo. 
505. A. S. cynd, gecynd, nature. 

Kynde, adj. natural, by kinship, I a. 

Kyndely, iadv. S. in his usual 
manner, lit naturally, 12. 14. 

Kyngene, gen. pi. of kings, 15. i. 
103. The termination is from 
A.S. gen. pi. termination -ena; 
as in wit-ena gemdt, assembly of 
wise men. 

Kyrtyl, sb. kirtle, kind of coat. 



mantle, 5. 5706, 571 2. A. S. 

eyrtelf a vest, a petticoat; Dan. 

hiortel. It means properly a pet- 
ticoat with a body, but the use of 

it varied. 
Kyst, sh. chest, ark, 13. 346; Kyste, 

13. 449. See Kiste. 
Kyth., sh. country, 7. 1 74 ; fH, 

Kythez, countries, regions, 13. 

414. A. S. rj^, a country, 

KyBn, kine, 14 c. 132. See 

Kyxiy Ken. 


Iiaeohing, sh, taking, receiving, 

1 5. i. loi. A. S. laccan, geloBccan, 

to seize ; whence, £. latehf clutch, 
IiaokeK pr. s. is wanting, 3. iii. 

Du. lak, defect. 
JjAd, pt.s. led, 4^. 23 ; Ladde, 186. 

61; pp. Lad, 46. I ; 19. 646. Siee 

Iiaft, pp. left, 30. 230. See 

Iiahynde, pres. part, laughing, 3. 

192. See Iiauliwe. 
Ijaitand, pres. part, seeking, 2. 

xziii. 14. Icel. letta^ to seek. 
Iiake-ryftes, 56. pi. chines, gullies, 

13- 536. 
Ijakes,^. 5. blames, 10. 797. Du. 

laken, to blame, lak, fault ; A. S. 

Udhan, to blame; cf. £. lack. 
Iianunasse, sh. lit. loaf-mass, a 

name given to August I ; 15. vii. 

Iiand, pp. lent, 3. 186. See 

Iiang, adv. long, 2. xvii. 31 ; 2. 

xxiii. 20 ; hou lang am I «■ as long 

as I exist, 2. ciii. 80. A. S. lang 

or long. 
Iianges, belong, 12. 331. 

Usually spelt longes. Cf. Du. 

bdangeUf to concern, belong, con- 
cern, interest. 
Iiangmode, adj. long-suffering. 

patient, 2. cii. 16. A. S. lang- 

mddj patient, from mod, mind, 

courage, mood. 
Iianse, pr. pi. leap forth, 13. 966 ; 

pt. s. Lansed, leapt, jumped, 

quaked, 13. 957. Fr. lancer, to 

dart, launch, 
Iiantez, 2 p. s. pr. lentest^ gavest, 

13. 348. Seeliene. 
I<ap> P^- s. leapt, 16. 453. 
Iiare, sh. lore, teaching, 2. xvii. 93, 

94. A. S. Idr, lore. 
Large, sh. F. size, 13. 314. 
Iiarge, adj. F. plentiful, 6. 78. 

Lat. largus, 
Largeliche, adv. liberally, i a. 34, 

Iiaser, sh. leisure, opportunity, 16. 

424. F. loisir, from Lat. licere. 
Lasned, pt. s. lessened, became 

less, 13. 438. 
Iiasse, adj, less, i a, 463. A. S. 


Iiate, imp, s. let, 5. 5905. See 

Iiete. , 
Iiate, sh. manner, gesture, demean- 
our, 16. 127. Icel. Iceti, voice, 

Iiatere, adv. later, more slowly, 

less diligently, 15. i. 173. 
Iiates, />r. s. lets, 10. 1277. 
^ath, adj. loath, unpleasant, 2. xvii. 

21 ; Lathe, loathsome, 8 h. 223. 

A. S. lafS, sb. evil, adj. bad. 
Iiatsoxn, adj. loath, 10. 793. A.S. 

wlatsomy loathsome, loath. A. S. 

wlatian, to loathe. 
Iiauande, pres. part, pouring forth 

water, 13. 366. A.S. lafian, to 

sprinkle with water. 
Iiauer, adj. lower, 8 a. 115. 
Iiauerd, sb. Lord, 2. viii. i, 25 ; 2. 

xiv. 10; 8fr. 152; gen. Lauerdes, 

2. cii. 37. A. S. hldford, Icel. 

Idvar^r, a lord. The supposed 

derivation is from hid/, a loaf, and 

weard, a keeper. 
Iiauerding, sh, lording (dim. of 

lord), 7. 391. 



Iiauerdflchipe, sb, lordship, domin- 
ion, 2. cii. 53. 
Iiftuerook, A. lark, 30. 274. A.S. 

lawerc, Du. leeuwrih, 
Iiauhwe, i p. s. pr, laugh, 15. v. 

93. A. S. hlihan, Du. lagchen, G. 

Iiaunipe» sh, a lamp, 15. i. 163. 
Iiau^ten, pt. pi. took ; lau^en leue 

at, took leave of, 15. iii. 26. Pt. 

t. of Lacche. See Iiaoohing. 
Iifty, pt. s. lay, suited, lb. 4. 
Iia7,s6. law, religion; hence, fidelity, 

46. 27 ; religious belief, 19. 376, 

572. Prob. from O.F. lei, F. lot, 

law, rather than from the cognate 

A. S. lagu, law. 
Iiayff, sb. what is left, the rest, 16. 

24. A. S. Idf, a remainder ; Sc. 

the lave. 
Iiayked, pt. s. refl. amused him- 
self, played about, 12. 31. See 

Iiftykes, sb. pi. sports, games, 1 1 a. 

64; Laykez, pleasures, 13. 274. 

Sw. leh, a game ; A. S. Idc, game; 

E. lark. 
Iiayth., €uij. loath ; layth thine me, 

it seems loath to me, I dislike, 

8 6. 161. See Iiath. 
Iiftjinge, pres. part, laughing, i b. 

72. See Iiauhwe. 
Iiebardez, sb. pi. leopards, 13. 


Leche, sb. physician, 17. Mar. ii. 
17; pi. Leches, physicians, i a. 
494; 15. ii. 199. A. S. Icece^ 
Moeso-Goth. leheis, a physician. 

Iieohe-crafty sb. knowledge of 
medicine, 15. vii. 24I. See 

Iieoherie, sb. fornication, i a. 185. 
O. F. lecherie, gluttony, debauch- 
ery, from lecher, to lick ; cf. Du. 
lekkeTt dainty. 

Iieohes, pr. s. heals, 8 b, 234. 
Mceeso-Goth. leikinon, to heal. 

Iiede, V. to lead, 5. 5937 ; to con- 
trol, 5. 5648; to govern, 19. 

434 ; to carry, convey, I a. 371 ; 

pr,8» Lede]), controls, sways, 15. 

iii. 154 ; pt. s. Ladde, led, I a. 

479; Lede, brought, 2. xiv. 9. 

A. S. Idkdan, to guide, lad, a way ; 

Icel. Ui^, a track. 
Lede, sb. the people, 6. 68 ; pi, 

Ledes, people, 12. 195; Ledez, 

nations, 13. 256. In 13. 261 we 

should perhaps read Ledez, as in 

1. 256. A. S. leddy a man ; ledde, 

G. leute, people. 
Iieden, sb. language, speech, 18 a. 

58. A. S. leden, Latin; also a 

language. It seems a mere cor- 
ruption oi Latin. 
Iieed, sb. lead, 18 a. 50. Du. 7oo<f. 
Iieef, imp. s. believe, 15. i. 36. 

See Iieue. 
Iieeful, adj. (leave-full), allowable, 

1 7. Mar. ii. 26 ; Leeuefiil, 24. 

A. S. leafful, from leaf, leave, 

permission. Also spelt leffuL 
IieefEtd, adj. (leave-full), allowable, 

permissible, 17. Mar. vi. 18. See 

Ijeelly, adv. leally, truly, 15. i. 76. 

See Iiele. 
Iieendis, loins, 17. Mar. i. 6. 

A. S. lendenu, the loins. 
Iiees, adj. false, 4 c. 45. A. S. leas, 

false, loose; whence £. leasing, 

Iieet, pt. s. let, i. e. caused ; leet 

make, caused to be made, 14 c. 

97. See Iiete. 
Iieeue, imp. s. dismiss (lit. leave), 

17. Mar. vi. 36. See Iieue. 
Iieeuefal. See Ijeefal. 
IieeueK believe, 15^.69. 

See Iieue. 
Iief, V. to leave, forsake, 8 a. 171. 

See Iieue. 
Iiefdi, sb. lady, 8 a. 219; Lefdye, 

8 a. 252. A. S. hlc^dige, led. 

Iiefe, adj. dear, beloved, 5. 5744. 

A. S. ledft dear ; cf. Lat. lulit. 
Iiefte, pt, s, dismissed, 17. Mar. 



vi. 45; remained, 18 b, 5a; Left, 
J I a. 38. 
Iiegge, V, to lay, stake, 15. vii. 

Iieide, pt. s. laid, i b. 78. 

Iiele, adj. leal, loyal,' 8 fr. 35 ; Lei, 
true, 13. 425; Lele, true, genuine, 
II fl. 37. O.F. leelf loial, loyal, 
from loif law; from Lat. ace. 

Iielliche, adv. truly, 12. 117; 
Lelly, verily, 12. 95 ; Lelye, 
truly, 8 6. 209. See above. 

Iiely, sb. lily, 11 fr. 91. 

Iiexne, sb. S. gleam, light, 7. 63 ; 
gen. Lemes, 8 a. 215. A. S. 
ledma^ £. gleam. 

lien, imp, 5. lend, 8 6. 163. Sec 

I^ndt pp. lent, 3. 180. See Iione. 

Iiend, pt. pi. went, came, 1 1 a. 31 ; 
pp. Lended, arrived, 8 6. 252. 
A. S. gelandian, to land, arrive, 
Dan. lande, to land. 

Iiendey sb. pi. loins, i a, 409. 
A. S. lendenu, loins. But the 
E. loin is from O.F. logne, F. 
longe, from Low Lat. lungus, 
Lat. lumbus; whence also Sc. 
lunyie, loin. 

Itene, pr. s. imp. 3 p. may he 
grant, lend, or give, 12. 327 ; 
imp. s. Len, lend, S b. 163 ; pp. 
Lbnd, lent, 3. 180. A. S. lihan^ 
to lend, give, /<^, a loan. It 
must not be confused with Leue. 

Iienge, v. to linger, tarry, 15. i. 185; 
to remain, 13. 1023; pt. pi, 
Lenged, dwelt, 13. 960 ; remained, 
13. 412. A. S. langicm, to lengthen, 
lengian, to prolong. 

Iienger, adv. comp. longer, 5. 5715; 
19. 521; Lengere, lb. 33. 

Iiengest, adj, superl. longest, 13. 

Iiengore, adj. comp. longer, 15. v. 
124; Lenger, 19. 262. 

Iient, pp. given, granted, bestowed, 
I3« 256; lent from = given away 

from, 4 a. II. A. S. Idnan, to 

lend, give. See Iiene. 
Iienten, 56. spring, 4 d. 1, A. S. 

lencten, spring ; whence £. Lent. 
Iien}>e, sb. S. length, 13. 314. 
Iieod, sb. tenement, holding, farm, 

15. vi. 38. Other MSS. lordship. 

Cf. G. lassgvt, an estate subject 

to a ground rent ; connected with 

£. leet in couri-^eet, and lease. 
JjBod, sb. man, 15. vi. 6; Leode, 

people, 4 e. 44. A. S. leod, G. 

leute, folks. See Lede, sb. 
Leof, adj. lief, dear, 15. i. 35. 
Iieoxne, s6. limb, body, 15. v. 81. 

A. S. leome, a limb. 
Leon, sb. lion, 7. 264. Lat. ace. 

Iieonede, i p. s. pt. leaned, reclined, 

15 pr. 9. 
Iieop, pi. s. leapt, ran, 15. ii. 191. 

Cf G. lavfen, to run ; A. S. 

hledpan, to run, leap, pt. t. ie 

kleop. See Iiepen. 
IieoT, sb. face, complexion, 15. i. 3. 

A. S. kleor^ jaw, cheek, face. 
Leome, v. S. to learn, 3. 26 ; pi.pL 

Leornden, discovered, 15/ii. 199. 
Iieomyng, sb. teaching, instruction, 

lesson, 15. i. 173. 
Iieosen, v. to lose, 15. iii. 131. 
Iieosinge, sb. losing, loss, 15. v. 

93. A. S. losing J loss. 
Leouest, adj. liefest, dearest, 15. 

iii. 6. See Iiefe. 
Leoiin, sb. lion, 19. 475. 
Iiepen, v. to run (lit. to leap), 15. 

ii. 207 ; pt. 5. Leop, ran, 15. ii. 

191 ;, Lep, leapt, 8 6. 181. 

See Leop. 
Lepre, sb. leprosy, 17. Mar. i. 42. 

Vulg. lepra. 
Lepte, pt. s, danced, 17. Mar. vi. 

22. See Leop. 
Lerde, pt. s. taught, 12. 341. See 

Lere, vb. 
Lere, sb. countenance, features, 12. 

227. A.S. Meor. See Leor. 
Lere, v. (i) to teach, 2. zvii. 94 ; 



pr. s, I p. Lcrc, 15. iii. 61 ; pr. s. 

2 p. Leres, teachest, 2. xvii. 89 ; 

imp. s. Lere, teach, 15. vii. 241 ; 

imp, pi. LcreJ>, teach; lerej> hit 

|>is = teach it to these, 15. i. 125 ; 

also (2) Lere, to learn, 12. 119; 

19. 181 ; 2^. s.^. Leres, learnest, 

5. 5672 ; pt. s. Lerede, learnt, 15. 

i. 109. A. S. Iceran, G. lehren, 

to teach ; A. S. leomian, G. lemen, 

to learn ; but Du. leeren has both 

meanings, and so has pro7. £. 

Iiemen, v. to learn, 3. 2. See 

lies, imp. s. loose, deliver, 4 b. 12. 

A. S. lysattf to loosen, release. 
Iiese, sb. pasture, 1 a. 378, 381 ; 

12. 175. A. S. IdsUf prov. E. 

leasowe^ a pasture. 
Iiese, V. to lose, 20. 89; pr. s. 

Lese>, loses, 3. 45 ; i p. s. pr. 

subj. I may lose, 19. 225; v. 

active, to destroy, 17 a* iii- 4 

(where the Vulg. has perdere), 

A. S. leosan, to lose, Moeso-Goth. 

fra-liusan, to lose, 
Iieser, sb. deliverer, 2. xvii. 4, 121. 

See lies. 
Iiesewynge, pres. part, feeding, 

pasturing, 17. Mar. v. il. A.S. 

Icesu, a pasture, leasowe; whence 

Iceswian, to pasture, feed. See 

Iiese, sb. 
Lesnesse, sb. remission, 9. 244. 

A. S. lysarif to loosen. 
IiOBS, sb. pi. lies, lying, 16. 419. 
Iiessi, V. to become less, 9. 1 30. 
Iiessingey sb. diminution, 9. 175. 
Iiest, pr. s. loses, 6. 41. A. S. 

leosatij to lose ; pr. s. he lyst. 
Iieste, adj. least, 6. 75 ; 10. 469. 
IieBte^ V. to last, endure, 4 6. 30 ; 
lest on lif » last alive, remain alive, 
16. 65. A. S. l<kstan, to last. 
Iiesten, vb. to listen to, 12. 31 ; 

pt. s. Lestned, listened, 5. 5897. 
Xiesyng, sb. lying, 16. 77. A. S. 

leasungf a leasing, lie. See Lees. 

Iiet, sb. hindrance, delay, 20. 215; 
resistance, 16. 172. A. S. letlan, 
to hinder. 

Iiet» caused ; as in let bringe an er})e 
= caused to be brought into earth, 
caused to be buried, la. 197; 
let cronny = caused to be crowned, 
I a. 225; let enquiri = caused to 
be inquired into, i a. 352 ; let 
gadery= caused to be gathered, 
I a. 478; let ofsende = caused to 
be sent for, i a. 32 ; let somony 
SB caused to be summoned, i a. 
416. See below. 

Iiete, V. to cease, 4 6. 20 ; to de- 
sist, 5. 5722 ; to forsake, 19. 325 ; 
to forego, 15. V. 142 ; pr. s. Let, 
leaves ; let of = leaves off, ceases, 
9. 223; pt. 5, Let, caused; let 
make = caused to be made, 20. 23; Let, I a. 97 ; Lete, lb. 26; 
left, I a. 336. A.S. la tan, Du. 
laten, G. lassen. 

Leti^, pr. s. lets, 15. i. 178. 

Ijethe» V. to grow calm, 8 6. 16 ; 
pres. sing. subj. alleviate, lessen, 
8 6. 81. A. S. li^ian, to mitigate. 

Lette, V. to hinder, stop, i a. 481 ; 
to keep back, 15. iii. 33; pr. s. 
Lette]7, makes difficulties, 15. iii. 
15^ t pi' pl' Lett, stopped, ii a. 
64. A.S. lettan, Du. letten, to 

Iiettere, sb. preventer, hinderer; 15. 
i. 67. See above. 

Iieue ; has many senses in O. E. as 
{i)vb. to live, (2) vb. to remain, 
(3) vb. to leave, (4) vb. to allow, 
(5) vb. to believe, (6) sh. leave, 
(7) adj. dear. Leue (4) must be 
carefully distinguished from lene, 
to lend, with which it is some- 
times confused by editors of MSS. 

Iieue, v. to live, 10. 492. A.S. 
lybban, to live, G. leben, Du. 

Leue, imp, pi. 1 p. let ns leave, 

5. 5945- * 
Xieiie, v. to remain ; pt. pi, Lenede, 



remained, I a. 332, 514. Du. 

h-lijven, G. b-leihen^ to remain; 

cf. A. S. l<kfanj to leave. 
Iieue, subj. pr. s. allow, grant, 3. 

10; 15. V. 263. A. S. l^fan, to 

allow, G. erlavben, to permit, Du. 

verlof^ leave, permission. Leue 

and Lene (written alike) may be 

distinguished by observing that 

leue ( = permit) generally governs 

a clause, but lene («=lend, give) 

takes an ace. case. 
Iioue, I p. s. pr. believe, 9. 236 ; 

imp. s. Leue, 46. 27; imp. pi. 

Leues, 1 1 a. 1 1 7 ; to leue nam y 

nout lees = I am not to be be- 
lieved to be false, 4 c. 45. A. S. 

lea/an^ to believe, Du. gelooven^ 

G. g4auben, 
Iieue, sb. leave, 15 pr. 49 ; iii. 26. 

A. S. ledf^ leave, permission, Du. 

Iieue, adj, S. lief, dear, 12. 170; 

12.341, A. S. 2^4^, dear ; cf. E. 

lief^ love. 
Ijeued, pp. furnished with leaves, 

in full leaf, 12. 22. 
Iieuede. See Ijeue, to remain. 
Iieuedi, sb. S. lady, 1 a. 485 ; 4 a, 

27; Lcuedy, 46. II ; Lefdi, 8 a, 

219. A. S. hlcefdige^ Icel. lafdi. 
Xieuening, sb. lightning, 2. xvii. 35, 

40. Sw. Ijvnga^ to lighten ; Icel. 

logi, flame, logo, to burn ; Dan. 

lyn, lightning. 
Iieuere, adj. comp. dearer, i a, 

529 ; rather to be chosen, 20. 

66; Leuer, rather, 8 a, 150. See 

i«eue, adj. 
Ijeuere, adv. more dearly, 15. i. 131. 
Iieues, believe ye, 116. 73. 
Iieues, pr. pL leave, 10. 1240. 
Iieueste, adj liefest, dearest, 15. i. 

180. See above. 
Iiewed, adj. ignorant, 19. 315 ; 

^5- >• 173; useless, 15. i. 163; 

lewede o|) = an oath taken in 

ignorance. iSb.ii. A. S. Icewede, 

belonging to the laity. 


Iiewednesse, sb. ignorance, 15. iii. 

33. See above. 
Leyd, pp, laid, 3. 223; 5. 5665; 

pt. pi. laid, 5. 5667 ; forth leyden 

= displayed, 19. 213. 
Iieysclie, sb. leash, cord* for hold- 
ing in dogs, 16. 414. 
Lliest, pr. s. listens, 9. 164 ; pr. pi. 

LhesteJ>, listen, 9. 173. A. S. 

hlistan^ to lis' en. 
Iiibardes, sb. pi. leopards, 10. 

Libbe, v. to live, i a. 500 ; 1 p. s, 

pr. Libbe, 4 a. 5. A. S. lybban. 
Licam, sb. body, 1$ pr, 30; i. 35. 

See Ijikam. 
Ijicli, adj. like, similar, 20. 25, 

273. A. S. /ir, G. g-leich. 
Iiioht, adj. light-armed, 16. 112. 
liicour, sb, F. liquor, liquid, 6. 1 4, 

32, 43- 
Iiieges, sb. pi. subjects, 19. 240. 
Ijif, sb. a living person, a man, 

creature, 20. 25. The same 

curious use of the word occurs 

in Piers the Plowman. 
Iiifd, I p. s. pt. lived, 8 a. 253 ; pr. 

pi. Lifes, II a, 118. See Iiibbe, 

liiffand, pres. part, living, 16. 100. 
Iiift, sb. air, 8 a. 142 ; sky, 7. I13 ; 

Lifte, air, i b, 88. A.S. lyft, 

G. /«/?, Du. hicht^ air; hence 

£. aloft = on loft^ in the air. 
Iiift, adj. left, 18 a. 188. 
Ligge, V. to lie, 10. 475 ; Lig, to 

lie down, II c. 87 ; pr. s. Ligges, 

dwells, 12. 166; pr. pi. Ligges, 

continue, 8 a. 161^; lie, ii a. 99. 

A. S. licgant Du. liggen, G. liegen. 
Lighed, pt. pi. lied, 2. xvii. 113. 

A. S. ledgan^ Du. and G. leugen, 

O. E. lig, to tell lies. 
tiight, V. to alight, 7. 231. 
Iiight, imp. 5. enlighten, 2. xvii. 

76 ; pr. s» 2 p. Lightes, 2. xvii. 

Iiili)>, pr, s. lies, tells lies, 15. iii, 





lAhtf pp. alighted, settled, 46. 2 a. 
Iiikam, sb, face, 2. xvii. 107; 2. 

ciii. 33* 6q (where the Vulg. has 

faciem) ; Licam, body, 15 pr. 30. 

A. S. Hchama, a body ; from lie, 

body, and hama^ a covering. 
liike, V. to rejoice, delight, 2. ciit. 

82 ; pr. 8. impers. LikeJ>, pleases, 

15 pr. 57 ; pt. s. impers. Liked, it 

pleased, 12. 28; pr. pi. Likes 

ille = are displeased, 4 d. 24. A. S. 

llcian^ to be pleased with, to 

Iiikerous, adj. lecherous, 15 pr. 

30 ; dainty, 15. vii. 253. Cf. O. F. 

lescher, to lick ; Du. lekker, 

Iiiknes, sb. likeness, image, 7. 47. 

A. S. licnes. 
Lilie, sb. lily, 4 </. 17. See Iiely. 
liist, pr. s. impers. it pleases ; God 

list = it pleases God, 19. 477; 

hym list = it pleases him, 19. 521 ; 

pt. s. hir liste = it pleased her, 

20. 133. 
Iiiste, ib. craft, 6. 137. See below. 
Listely, adv slily, 12. 25. A.S. 

listlice, artfully, from list^ slyness. 
Itistenes, imp. pi. listen ye, 12. 

Iiite, adj. as sb, a little, 19. 352. 

A. S. lyt, little. 
Iiitel, adj. S. little, 2. viii. 15. A. S. 

Iiiteled, pt. s. 2 p. diminishedst, 

2. viii. 15. See above, 
liith, sb. limb, 10. 1917. A.S. 

laSt G. g-lied, a limb, joint ; 

hence liihe^ lithesome^ lissome, 

flexible, pliant. 
lii)>9 pr. s, lies, i a. 466. See 

Iiither, adj. wicked, bad, 2. xiv. 9. 

A.S. ly^er, bad. 
Iiiue, sb. life, 2. xvii. 126. 
IjiBt, V. to lighten, amuse, 12. 10. 
Iii3t, sb. pi, lights, I 6. 5, 6. 
Iji3te, adv. easily, 6. 53. . 
Iji3tere, adv. comp. lighter, i. e. 

eaner, 17. Mar. u. 9; adj. cwnp. 
Ii3ttere, more nimble, J 2. 154. 

T^U\*» pr. s. lies, 15.1.115. See lAp. 

Iiijtinge, sb. lighming, i a. 440. 

Iiijtliolie, adv. lightly, easily, i a. 
a.sS, 412. 

Ijlak, sb. lake, water ; put for pi. 
lakes, 13. 438. 

Iiobbekeling, sb. a large fish, 8 b. 
48. O. E. lobt lumpish, and 
keling, a large cod. 

Lobres, sb. pi. lubbers, 15^. 52. 
Cf. Du. lobbeSf a booby. 

Iiodez-mon, sb, pilot, 15. 424. 
Cf. lode-stone, lode'Star, from 
O. E. lede, to lead, draw. 

Iiodlych, adj. loathsome, 13. 274. 
A. S. IdiSlie, from /atS, evil, and 
lie, like; cf. Du. leed, G. leid^ 
wrong, harm. 

Iiof, sb. S. praise, 2. viii. 6. A. S. 
16/, Du. lo/, G. lob, praise. 

Iiofe, V. to praise, 7. 244. A. S. 
I6jian, to praise. See above. 

Iiofbe; on lo//e = z\oh, on high, 
15. i. 88 ; 19. 277. See Iiift, sb. 

IiOghe, sb. low place, deep, abyss, 
13. 366. Du. laag, low. [Or 
else it is a lake, Sc. loeh, A.S. 

Iioh, pt. s. laughed, smiled, 4 a. 15. 
See Iiaohwe. 

Iiok, sb. lock, fastening of a door, 
15. i. 178. 

Iioke, V. to look after, find out, 15. 
vii. 303 ; to guard, keep, 2. xvii. 
64; to have regard, pay heed, 
'3- 3^3* pf"' ^' Loke^, decides, 
15. ii. 17a ; pt. s. Loked, looked, 
5. 5613 ; Lokede, examined, 
I a. 494 ; imp. s. Loke, look, see, 
I a. 127 ; pr, s. subj. Loke, may 
protect, 15. i. 185. A.S. Idctan, 
to look ; cf. Gk. KeT^aativ, 

Xjokinge, sb. S. decision, i a. 86, 90. 

Ijoky, V. to look after, guard, 9. 20. 
See Loke. 

Ijokynge, sb. watchfulness, protec- 
tion, 9. I. See Iioke. 



Iiomb, sb. lamb, 15. vi. 43; pi. 
Lorn be, I a. 286. A. S. lamb, pi. 

Iioxne, (i) sb. tool, 4 c. 29; pi. 
Lomen, tools, 4 e. 15 ; Lomes, 
4 c. 21 ; a/so (2) a vessel of any 
kind, the ark, 13. 314,412. A.S. 
iJma, utensils, geldmOf furniture ; 
£. loom. 

Iiond, sb. S. land, country, i a. 3, 
II, 27; dat, Londe, 6. 54. A.S. 

Iione, sb. loan, anything lent, 3. 
192. A.S. IcBftf a loan, Du. 

IiOnes, sb. pi. lanes, 15. ii. 192. 
Du. laarif a lane ; W. llan, a 
cleared space ; cf £. lawn. 

XiOnge, prep, along of, on account 
of, 9. 100; is long on )>e = de- 
pends on thee, 4 b. 10. Here 
longe = Hong, along of; A. S. ge- 
langt owing to, gelingan, to 
happen. Chaucer has long on, on 
account of; Cant. Tales, ed. T)rr- 
whitt, 1. 16390. Shakespeare has 
long of, Cymb. v. 5. 271. 

Iionge, adv. long, i a, 126. 

Iionges, pr. pi. belong, 12. 360; Longen, belong, 20. 229; 
pr. s. Longe]^, belongs 6. 24 ; pt. s. 
Longed, suited, belonged, 12. 73* 
Cf. G. gelangen, to attain. 

IiOBginge, sb. longing, 4 a. 28; 
Longyng, 4 6. I. A. S. langian, 
to lengthen ; also, to craye, long 

Iioouys, sb. pi. loaves, 17. Mar. 
ii. 26. 

Xjopen, pp. run off, gone away, 
1 5 pr. 94. A. S. hleapan, to run, 
leap, pt. t. ic hleop. 

IjOTdslilpen, v. to rule over, 17. 
Ps. 102. 19. Vulg. dominabitur, 

liordynges, sfr. //. lordlings. little 
lords, a contemptuous expression, 
15. iii. 26. It is often used for 
our modern sirs, without any con* 
tempt being implied. 

Iiore, sb. teaching, instruction, 3, 

65 ; learning, i 6. 34 ; pi. Lor«s. 

3. 39. A. S. Idr, lore. 
liore, pp. lost, 5. 5700, 5901. See 

Iiorked, pt. s. lurked, slunk, 12. 
• 25. W. llercian, to lurk about, 

loiter ; cf. E. lurch, lurcher. 
JaOTTl,PP. lost, 10. 547; II 6. 93; 

16. 44. A. S. ledsan, to lose, pp. 

Iiossoxu, adj. lovesome, lovely, 4 a, 

1 5 ; 4 rf. 1 7. A.S. lufsum, lovely. 
Lostes, sb. pi. lusts, 9. 26. 
liosyng, sb. perdition, 10. 1031. 

A. S. los, losing, destruction. 
IjoJ>, adj. loath, unpleasant, 3. 196 ; 

hateful, 5. 5758; loath, unwil- 
ling, 15 pr. 52. A.S. Id^, evil. 
IiOJ'H, adj. loathsome, wretched, 

12. 50. 
Iiouand, pres. *part. praising, i% 

xvii. 9. See Iioued. 
Itoue, V. to love, 2. xvii. i. A.S. 

Iioue, sb. 6. 92. Apparently an 

error for halue, i. e. part. Thus 

an other loue — on another half, 

i. e. on any other part. 
IiOued, ^/. s. praised, 13. 497 ; pt. 

pi. praised, 7. 332. A.S. Idfian, 

G. loben. 
Iiouedayes, sb. pi. lovedays, 15. 

iii. 154. See the note. 
Ijouelokest, adj. superl, loveliest, 

15. i. no. A.S. luflieest. 
Iiouelonginge, sb. love-longing, 

4 a. 5 ; Loue-longyng, 5. 5^66. 
Iiouerd, sb. lord, i a. 173; i b, 

2 ; gen. Louerdes, I 6. 15. See 

Iiouli, adj. low, poor, 15. v. 135. 
Iiourede, pt. s. lowered, looked 

sour, 15. V. 66. Du. loeren, to 

peer, leer ; cf. Sc. glowre. 
IiOute, V. to bow, 5, 5834; to 

bend down, 20. 146; Lout, to 

bend, lie. 97 ; pt. s. Loutede, 

made obeisance, 15. iii. ill; 




bowed low, 15. iii. 37* ^- ^* 

hlutan, to bow ; O. £. underlout, 

a subject, North £. lout, to bow. 
Iiovyng, 56. praising, praise, 16. 

90. See Loued. 
IfOwkande, pres. part. locking, 

closing up, 13.441. A. S. /ocan, 

lucan, to lock, fasten. 
L03, sb. low place, deep ; or, lake, 

13. 441; Lo5e, 13. 1031, See 

IiO^en, pt, pi. laughed, 13. 495. 

See IiaulLwe. 
Iiuo, Saint Luke, I a. 191. 
Iiud, sb. voice, 4 a. 4 ; on hyre 

ludsin her own voice, according 

to her peculiar song. O. H. G. 

Idt, adj. loud, sb. voice ; of. Du. 

luid, loud, and phr. naar luid 

van, according to the tenor of, 

G. lout, sound. 
Itud, sb. person,' la. 211. See 

Iieod, a man. 
Ijudes, sb, pi, tenements, holdings, 

12. 77. See Iieod, a tenement. 
Iiuef, adj. dear, 3. 37 ; agreeable, 

pleasant, 3. 154. A. S. liof, dear ; 

see Zjetie. 
Iiuf, adj. as sb, dear (one), love, 

lover, 13. 401. 
Iiix&eden, sb. good-will, 8 a. 191. 

A. S. luf-r€Bdan, love, good- 

tiufb, adj. left (hand), 15. iii. 56. 
IiUged, pt. s, tossed about, was 

pulled (or lugged) about, 13. 443. 

Sw. lugga, to pull by the hair, 

from lugg, a forelock. 
IiTxllede, pt. 8. flapped about, lit. 

lolled. 15. v. no. The O.E. 

loller meant a man who lolled 

about, a loafer, idle vagabond; 

afterwards confused (probably 

intentionally) with Lollard, a 

word of less certain origin. 
IiTunpen, pp, happened, befallen, 

1 3. 424. A. S. limpan, to happen. 
Xiurkand, pres, part, lurking, 16. 


Ijurkingr, s5. hiding-f lace, 2. xviL 
31. See Iiorked, 

Ijiimeb» imp. 2 pi. learn, 3. 15. 

Iiust, sb. pleasure, 19. 188. A.S. 
lust, desire, pleasure. 

Iiuste, pf, s. impers. it pleased 
(them), i^pr. 37. 

liUte, adv. little, i a, 184, 219; 
wel lute = very little, i a. 446. 
A. S. lyt, little. 

Luted, pt. pi. bowed down, 7. 240. 
A. S. hlutan, to bow, do obeisance. 

Iiutel, adj. little, i a. 382 ; 3. 65; 
4 a. 3 ; adv. 3. 206. A. S. lytel. 

Iiuther, adj. ill-tempered, 15. v. 
98; Lu]>er, wicked, i a. 118. 
A. S. ly^er, bad ; Sw. lyte, a de- 
fect, fault, stain. See Iiither. 

Ijuyte, adj. little, 15. ii. 163. See 

Lybbe, imp. pi. i p, let us live, 
9. 85. See Iiibbe. 

Iiyche, adj. like, 5. 5888. See 

Ijyf, sb. leaf, small piece of instruc- 
tion, short lesson, 15. vii. 241. 

Lyf, sb. {for Luf ?), favour ; he my 
lyfys on = he is in my favour; or, he 
is for my life, 3. 152. See the note. 

Iiyfand, pres. part, living, 10. 535. 

Lyfes, pr. pi, live, 8 a. 227. See 

Lyflode, sb. leading of one's life, 
manner of life, 15 pr. 30; sus- 
tenance, 15. i. 18. From O.E. 
lode, a leading. Now corrupted 
into livelihood. 

Iiyfb, adj. left, 186. 137. 

Iiyftande, pres. part, lifting about, 
shifting, 13. 443. 

Iiyfte, sb. the air, sky, 10. 1444; 
13. 366; See Lift. 

Lygge, subj, lie, 18 a. 126. 
See Ligge. 

Lyht, sb, S. light, 4 rf. 25 ; adj, 
light, 4 c. 33. A. S. leoht, a light 
leoht, adj. light. 

Lyht, pp, lighted, 4 a. 12. See 



Iiykame> sb. body, bodily frame, 

12. 227. See Ijikaxxi. 
Iiykede, pt. s. pleased, 3. 104. See 

Iiykejj, pr. s. impers. it is pleasing, 

9. 164. 
Iiykkest, adj. likest, 13. 261. 
Ijykyng, sh, pleasure, 13. 239; 

satisfaction, 18 a. 73. A. S. 

licungt will, pleasure. 
Lykynge, adj. favourable, 18 6. 

43. See Iiike. 
Lylie-whyt, lily white, 4 6. 31. 
Iiym, sb. lime, 18 a. 45. A. S. lim. 
Iiym, sb. limb, 10. 191 2; pi. 

Lymes, 19. 461. 
Iiynages, lineages, i.e. tribes, 

14 <^' 33. 
Iiyoun, sb. lion, 2. ciii. 47. 

liype, sb. a leap, 3. 250; J)at y 

telle an euel lype = l count that 

as an ill leap. A. S. hlyp^ a leap, 

Du. looPt a leap, course, race. 
Ijyste, sb. list or edge of a piece of 

cloth, 15. V. 124. A.S. list. 
Iiyte* adj. as sb. a little, 9. 1 1. See 

Iiyuen, v. to live, 4 a. 19. See 

Iiyues, sb. pi. lives, 6. 109. 
Lyje, V. to lie, tell lies, 15. v. 117; 

Lyjen, 15. pr. 49. See Iiighed. 
Iiy^ere, sb. a liar, 15. i. 36; ii. 

191 ; pi. Ly^ers, liars, 15. vii. 

260. See above. 
Ijyjejj, pr. s. lies (to), deceives, 15. 

i. 67. See Lighed. 
Lyjt, sb. light, 5- 5727- 
Lyjt, V. to alight, 13.476; pi. s, 

alighted, fell, 13. 235. A.S. 

lihtan, to alight, descend. 


Ma, adj. more, 2. viii. il ; 1 6. 484; 
moreover (as a mere expletive to 
get a rime, 2. xvii. 87; cii. 48, 
53; ciii. 40). A.S. md, more. 

Ma, V. to make, 16. 63 ; pr. s. 

Mais, makes, 16. 435. Sc. ma„ 
to make ; cf. Sc. /a, to take. 

Maoolom, Malcolm, i a. 241, 250. 

Mad, sb. a mad person, 5. 5642. 
This is not a solitary instance of 
the word mad as a sb. 

Mahoun, i.e. Mahomet, 19. 224. 

Mais. See Ma, vb. 

Maistri, sb. mastery, grand show, 
11 c. 41 ; victory, ll a. 113; 
Maistrie, ascendancy, I a. 108. 

Maisters, sb. pi. F. masters, i a. 
7; Maistres, chief men, 19. 141. 

Maistresse, sb. mistress, 20. 210. 

Mak, V. to make, 7. 28; Makye, 
I a. 390; pres. pt. Makand, lo. 
503. A.S. macian; pt. t. ic 
tnacode. pp. macod. 

Make, sb. companion, mate, hus- 
band, 13. 248; 4 a. 18; spouse, 
4 °- ?>9'* P^' Makes, 4 d. 20; 
Makez, 13.331. A.S. maca^ a 
mate, match ; Dan. mage. 

Makestow, for makest thou, 19. 

Makye, v. to make, i a. 390 ; pt. s, 

Makede, i 6. 33 ; pt. pi. Makked, 

made, II c. 41; pp. Maked, 3. 

187. See Mak. 

Makyere, sb. maker, writer, author, 
9. 224. 

Male, sb. bag, 3. 96. O. F. male^ 
O. H. G. malaha^ a bag; hence 
F. mailUt E. mail-hz-g. 

Malkyn, sb. (proper name) Malkin, 
i.e. Mary-kin, dimin. of Mary; 
lised in the sense o/z common wo- 
man, a kitchen-wench, 15. i. 158. 

Man, 2 p. pi. pr. must, 16. 137. 
Icel. ek mun^ I must. 

Manas, sb. F. menace, threatening, 
5. 5772 ; 18 6. 8. 

Manasside, pt. s, menaced, threat- 
ened, 17. Mar. iii. I2. 

Mande]>, pr. s. (?) sends forth, 4 d. 
16, 25. O. F. mander, to com- 
mand, instruct by message. 

Mane, sb. moan, complaint, 11 a. 
108. A.S. mdnan, to moan. 



Manere, ab. F. manner, i a. 8; 
I 6. 9 ; kind, i a. 69 ; 6. 67 ; on 
sic maneir = in such a way, 16. 
220; pi. Maners, 5. 5946. 0/is 
often omitted after it; as in no 
maner goodj 20.69; a manerlatyn, 
19.519; onmaner sourif 18 a. 194. 

Manhed, 56. manhood, 12. 197; 
Manheid, valour, 16. 223. 

Slanly, adv. boldly, 12. 207. 

Slanne, men's, i a. 441. 

ManqueUere, 56. roankiller, exe- 
cutioner, i*j. Mar. vi. 27> A.S. 
cwellan^ to qvdl^ kill, 

Manyon, /or many one, 20. 239. 

Slanywhat, many things, 5. 5589. 

Hararach, i.e. Ararat, 13. 4^7. 

Marohantz, merchants, 19. 

2/Carohaimdye, s6. merchandise, 
traffic, 5. 5794; Marchaundie, 
i$.pr.6o. Yioia "LzX. mercafuSy 

Marchethy/r.s. borders; march eth 
to, borders upon, 14 c. 65. A. S. 
meare, a mark, boundary, border- 

Marcolues, Marcolf's, 3. 3. 

Slare, adj. greater, 2. ciii. 59, 67 ; 
10. 191 8. See Ma, adj. 

Marewe, sb. morning, 4 e. 4. See 

Margery.perles, sb. pi. pearls, 
18 a. 13. A reduplicated word, 
since Gk. fMpyapirtjM is a pearl. 

Slarrok, i. e. Morocco, 19. 465. 

Mas, pr. s, makes, 10. 702. See 
Ma, vb. 

Mase, sb. maze, confusion, 13. 395 ; 
a confused medley of people, 15. 
i. 6; bewilderment, 15. iii. 155. 

Mased, Z*^. bewildered, 19. 526. 

Mast, adj. greatest (lit. most), 7. 
97; Maste, II 6. 7. A.S. mast, 

Matere, d>. matter, subject, 19. 
322; Matiere, 20. 127. 

Materie, sb. F. material, stuff, 6. 9. 

Matlieu* Matthew, 4c. i. 55. 

Maugree, in spite of, 14 e. 70; 
Maugre, 15. ii. 177. F. mal gre, 
ill will. 

Maundemens, s6. pi. command- 
ments, 17. Fs. 102. 18. O. F. 
mander, to command ; Lat. man- 

Maiimet, sb, idol, 7. 378. O. F. 
mahumet, from the name Maho- 
met. Often confused with O. E. 
mammet, a doll. 

Mauxnettrie, sb. idolatry, 19. 236 ; 
Maumentri, objects of idolatry, 
7. 3^8. See above. 

Mawgre, sb. ill-will, vengeance, 13. 
250. See Maugree. 

May, pr. s, i p. can, 5. 5925 ; pr. s. 
May, I a. 127. A.S. magan, to 
be able, pr. t. ic mdg. 

May, 66. maiden, 4a. 32. AS. 
m€Bg, Sw. mOf a maiden ; cf. G. 
magd, E. maid, Moeso-Goth. 
magus, a boy, magaths, a girl; 
W. macwy, a boy, magu, to breed, 
rear ; Sansk. maka, great. 

May, sb. person (lit. man), 8 a. 
173. A.S. nuECg, mecg, a man. 

Mayne, 56. F. household, company, 
9. 7; .Mayny, 13. 514. O. F. 
mesnee, maisnee; Low Lat. mais- 
nada, a Bimily ; from Lat. minores 
natu, younger sons, dependants, 

Maysterz, masters, 13. 25a. 

Maystrie, sb. mastery; power, 15. 
V. 85 ; full power, 15. iii. 19; hence 
superiority, greater strength, 14 c. 
108. For the maystrie = for the 
greater excellence; cf. Chaucer, 
Prol. 1. 165. See Maistii. 

Majty, cdj. mighty, 13. 273. 

Me, indef. pron. they, people, i a. 
50, 128; 16. 5; 9. 5; 18 a. 15; 
with pi. vb. I a. 53. Generally 
with a sing, vb., like F. on. It is 
contracted from Men, q. v. 

Mede, %b. mead (the drink), 6. 3 a. 
A. S. meduy W. medd, meddyglyn 
(metheglin), Gk. /i<0v. 

olosharial index. 


ICede, $b. meed, reward, 4 c, 36. 

A. S. m^d; cf. Gk. puaeo$. 
Modes, ^ro^. iiam«» i a. 482. 9ro- 

bably Mantes. 
Medewyues, sb. pi. midwivcs, 6. 

Medwe-grene, adj. green as a 

meadow, 20. 325. 
Meede, sb. meed, reward, bribery, 

15. Hi. I. See Mede. 
Meeles, sb. pi. meals, 3. 98. A. S. 

2/Ceete, sb. measure, height, 18 a. 

I a I. A. S. mete, a measure, 

metan, to mete. 
Meeten, v. to dream, 15 pr. 11. 

A. S. matan, to dream. 
Meine, s6. company, 7. 223. See 

Meined, pp. mingled, 20. 39. 

A. S. meugian^ to mix; O. E. 

mingy to mingle. 
Meires, F. mayors, 15. iii. 67. 
ICeke, V. to humble, 2. xvii. 74; 

to render meek, 15. v. 52; pt. s, 

Meked, humbled, 5. 5827. Da. 

muiky soft. 
Mekly, adv. meekly, 5. 5834. 
Meknes, sb. meekness, 5. 5938. 
Meld, V. to accuse, 8 a. 245. 

A. S. meld, evidence, meldian, to 

tell ; Dan. melde, to announce. 
MeleJ), pr. s. speaks, 15. iii. 100. 

A. S. mdliaHf ma^elian; Icel. 

micela, to speak. 
Mellede, pt. s. mixed, 18 b. 7. 

O. F. meder, F. meler. Low Lat. 

misculare, from Lat. miscere, to 

Mellyng, sb. mingling, 18 a. 161 ; 

fighting, 16. 481. See above. 
Men, indef. pron. they, people, 3. 

158, 168. See Me. 
Mene, v. to intend, to have it so, 

18 b. 137. A.S. m<Bnan, G. 

meinen, to intend. 
Mene, v. to mean ; what is )>is to 

mene»what does this mean, 15 

pr. II. 

Mene, adj. mean; mene while, 

mean time, 19. 546 ; mene whiles, 

mean whiles, 19. 668. 
Mene, adj. pi. mediators, in an 

intermediate position, 15. iii. 67. 

F. moyen, Lat. medius. 
Menes, sb. pi. means, ways, 19. 

Mene)>, pr. s. complains, 4 </. 22. 

A. S. mcenan, to complain, moan. 
Meng, imp. s. mingle, mix, 13. 

337. A. S. mengian, to mix. 
Menne, gen. pi. men's, 18 6. 10, 


Mennesse, sb, communion, fellow- 
ship, 9. 167, 244. A. S. gemikne, 
common, gem<knnes, communion. 
The A. S. ^«= Moeso-Goth. ga, 
as a prefix. 

Mensk, sb. honour, 2. viii. 17; 
Menske, favour, 12. 313; grace, 
13. 522 ; Mensc, favour, 8 6, 79. 
A.S. menniscy human; hence, 
manly, honourable. Cf. Sc. mense, 

Menske, v. to honour, 46. 23. 
See above. 

Menskelye, adv. worthily, reve- 
rently, 8 6. 229. 

Menskful, adj. worshipful, noble, 
12. 232, 242. 

Ment, pt, s. bemoaned, lamented, 
8 a. 263 ; Menyt, 16. 33. See 
Mene, vb. 

Menshe, sb. company, 16. 51 ; 
Men^e, 11 b. ii. See Mayne. 

Meroiede, pt. s. thanked, 15. iii. 
21. F. merely thanks. 

Mere, sb. limit, boundary, 2. ciii. 
19. A. S. mearCy a marlt, a limit ; 
gem<krey a limit, a mere. 

Meres, sb. pi. mares, 2. ciii. 2q. 

Merie, adv. merrily, joyfully, 6. 11. 

Merke, adj. dark, 2. ciii. 52. A.S. 
mirCy Sw. morky obscure, dark. 

Merling, sb, a small fish, 8 b. 47. 
Possibly derived from A. S. mere, 
a mere, and lingy a kind of fish. 

Mershe, sb. F. March, 4 a. i. 



Mersuine, sb. pi. porpoises, sea- 
pigs, 8 fl. 117. A. S. mere-swin, 
sea-swine; cf. F. marsouin^ and 
£. porpoisCy from Lat. porcus, a 
pig, and piscis, a fish. 

Merueyle, sb. F. marvel, wonder, 

5- 5631. 5912, 5929- Fro™ Lat. 

mirahilis^ wonderful. 
Mesaunture, sb. F. misadventure, 

mishap, i a. 388. 
Meschaunce, 56. F. misfortune, 

mischance, i a. 487 ; Meschance, 

evil chance, misfortune, ill luck, 

19.602; sad circumstance, 19.610. 
Meseise, sb. misease, discomfort; 

for meseisCf to prevent discomfort, 

15- i- 34- . 
Message, s5. F. mission, message, 

I a. 82 ; messenger, 13. 454 ; 

19. 333. So too we have O.E. 

prison = z prisoner. Low Lat. 

missaticumt a message, from mt/- 

terCf to send. 
Messager, sb. F. messenger, i a. 

74; pi. Messagers, I a. 13; 15. 

ii. 203. See above. 
Mest, adv. most, chiefly, i a. 38, 

46. See Mast. 
Mestedel, sb. greater part, majority, 

I a. 259. From O.E. mestey 

most, dely part. 
Mesur, sb. measure, moderation, 

10. 1459; Mesure, 15. i. 33. 
Mesurabul, adj. moderate, 1 2. 333. 
Met, V. to mete, measure; gert 

mett caused to be measured, 8 b. 

154. See Meten. 
Mete, sb. S. meat, food, i a. 73. 

(Not used in the restricted modern 

sensp.) Mceso-Goth. ma/s, food, 

mafjan, to eat. 
Mete, adj. meet, fitting, 13, 337. 

A.S. mete, a measure. 
Meten, v. to mete, measure, 15 pr. 

88 ; pr. s. MeteK 18 a. 120 ; 2 p. 

pi. pr. Meten, mete, measure, 15. 

i. 151. A.S. metan^ to measure. 
Mejie, sb. moderation, mildness, 

pity, 13. 247; Meth, 13. 436. 

A. S. nuslSian, to measure, mode- 
rate ; from metan, to mete. 

Me)>elez, adj. immoderate, 13. 273. 
See above. 

Metinge, sb. measure, 9. 55. See 

Meuez, ^. s. moves, 13. 303. 

Mey, pr, s. may, 6. 31, 34. See 

Mey, sb. May ; mey sesoun = season 
of May, 12. 24. 

Meynd, />^. mingled, 20. 223. See 

Meyne, sb. F. household, 12. 184; 
Meyny, 13. 331. See Mayne. 

Meyntene, v. to abet, back up, 
15. ii. 171; pr. pi. Meyntenen, 
abet, support (in an action at 
law), 15. ii. 170. A legal and 
technical term. From Lat. manu 
tenere, to hold by the hand. 

Meystry, sb. mastery, victory, 186. 
95. See Maystrie. 

Mi, pron. my, 1 a. 103. 

Miche, adj. much, 12. 117. 

Mid, prep, with, I a. 5, 10; be- 
twix mid = between among, 2. 
ciii. 22. A. S. mid, G. mit, with. 

Middel, sb. waist, 4 a. 16. 

Mide, adv. wherewith, with, 6. 52. 
(Supplies the place of the prep. 
mid only in certain constructions.) 

Midewinter, sb, Christmas, i a. 

Midouemon, sb. middle of the 

afternoon ; hei midouernon = fiilly 

the middle of the afternoon, I a. 

Midward, sb. middle, 10. 435. 
Midwinter day, 56. Christmas day, 

I a. 226. 
Mightand,/>r«5.^ar/. being mighty, 

2. xxiii. 20; 2. cii. 47. 
Miht, sb. might, 46. 21 ; pi. 

Mightes, powers, 2. xxiii. 26 ; a. 

cii. 49. A. S. miht, 
Miht, pr. s. 2 p. mayst, 3. 1 23. A. S. 

magatit to be able ; whence ic m<Bg, 

I may, l>u might, thou mayest. 



Mihti, for Miht i, might I, i. e. 

might I go, 15. V. 6. 
Mikel, adj. great, 2. ciii. 2, 57. 

A. S. my eel, Lat. magnuSf Gk. 

fiiyaSf Sansk. maha, great. 
Mikel, adv. much, 7. 18; Mikle, 

2. cii. 23. 
Mikeled, />^. magnified, 2. ciii. 53 ; 

pres.part. Mikeland, 2. xvii. 127. 

A. S. mycUan, to make great. 
2/Ciloe, s6. compassion, mercy, i a. 

499. A. S. mf7/s, mercy, milde, 

merciful, mild, 
Milde, adj. mild, meek, i a. 97. 

See above. 
Mildeherted, c^j. merciful, 2. cii. 

15. i6. 
Sliles, 56. pi. either (i) animals, or 

(2) maidens, 4 (/. 20. Cf. W. 

iiu7, an animal, beast, brute ; A. S. 

meowle, a maid, virgin. The 

former suits the context best. 
TJLin, sb. memory, 7. 30. A. S. 

mynaut to remember ; myney 

memory; cf. Lat. metnini. 
Min, poss. pron. mine, i a. 27. 
S/Cined, adj. mindful, 2. cii. 29, 41 ; 

or else pp, being a too close render- 
ing of reeordatus. See below. 
Mines, pr. s. 2 p. rememberest, 2. 

viii. 13. A. S. mynan, to bear in 

mind, intend, mean. 
Ministre, sb. minster, 18 a. 123. 
Mir, sb. myrrh, 7. 130. 
Mirke, adj. dark, 2. zvii. 33. See 

Mirkenes, sb. darkness, 2. xvii. 31 ; 

gen. of darkness, 2. xvii. 76; pi, 

Mirkenesses, 2. ciii. 45. 
Mis, vb. to miss, lose, 11 a. 113. 
Mis-oheuing, 56. mishap, l a. 383. 
Misdo, V. to do amiss, i a. 500; 

pp. Misdo, done amiss, I a. 106. 
Misliked, pt. s. impers. it viras dis- 
pleasing to, lie. 60. 
Misliking, sb, displeasure, 11 c. 

Misseid, pp. slandered, reviled, 

15. V. 51. 

Misaely, adv. wrongly, 12. 207. 

A. S. misseHcj dissimilar, unlike; 

cf Sw. miste^ wrong, false. 
Misaelmasse, sb. Michaelmas, 1 a. 

Mister, sb. heed, 8 6. 92. Sw. mista, 

Dan. nuste, to mtss, to lose. 
Mitte — mid )>e, with the; mitte 

beste = with the best, 6. 37. 
Mix, sb. a vile wretch, 12. 125. 

A. S. meox, O. £. m/x^, muck, 

filth. Similarly, a vile person is 

sometimes called a felihe, lit. a 

filth; Will, of Palerne, 2542. 
Mijte, pt. s. might, could, I a. 91, 

13S; subj. Mi3te, I a. 124. 
Mijthi, adj. mighty, 12. 153. 
Mo, adj. more, i a. 58; 6. 127; 

also more than myself, i. e. others, 

4 c. 22. See Ma. 
Moche, adj. much, 6. 39 ; 5. 5804 ; 

adv. I 6. 46 ; 5. 5687. 
Mochel, adj. mickle, great, 12. 

367. See Mikel. 
Mocht, pt. pi. might, 16. 120. ^ 
Mod, sb. mind,- 3. 255 ; Mode, 

temper, 5. 5840. A.S. mod, 

mind ; Du. moed, G. muth. 
Moder, 56. mother, i a. 200; 6. 

98; gen. Moder, i b. 3. A.S. 

mdder, modor, Du. moeder, G. 

Mody, adj. moody, 4 </. 22. See 

Moeuyng, pres, peart, moving, 19. 


Moght, subj, could, 7. 12. 

Moises, Moses, 2. cii. 13. 

Mold, prop, name, Maud, Matilda, 
I a. 245, 296. 

Molde, sb. mould, earth, 4 6. 2 ; 
the earth, 13. 279; on molde » 
in the world, 15 pr. 64; sb. pi, 
Moldez, dry pieces of ground, 
13. 454. A.S. molde. 

Mom, sb. a sound made with 
closed lips, the least sound pos- 
sible, ifi pr. 89. E. mum; d, 
Gk. ftv; also £. mumble, O.E. 



mutnmyn, to be mate (Prompt. 
. Panr.). 

Mon, sb. man, I a. 134. 
Mono, sb, moon, 2, viii. 11; 9. 

ciii. 43; 4 </. 16. A.S. mdna. 
Mono, pr. s. shall, 3. xiv. 2; 

2p, mayest, 3. 166 ; Icel. ek mun, 

I must. See Man. 
Mon^« s6.N money, i-r «. 35. F, 

monnaie^ Lat. moneta. 
Mone, s6. moan, complaint, 19. 

Monek, sb. monk, i a. 8a; ^. 

Monekes, i a. 264. A. S. munve, 

a monk, Gk. fiovaxo9» solitary, 

from ft6vo$^ alone. 
Moni, adj, many, I a. 3; //. 

Monie, I a. 125. 
Monimon, many (a) man, i a, 

"NLoDion, many (a) one, i a. 357, 

454. (Found in Layamon.) 
Slont, sb. F. mount, 7. 46. 
Montain, sfr. F. mountain, 7. 33; 

Montaine, 7* 40* 
Monyth, $6. month, 13. 493. 
Mony-volde, adj. manifold, i a. 

Mooder, sb. mother, 19. 323. 

Moon, 56. moan, moaning, 13. 373. 

A. S. nuBttan, to moan. 
Mooneb, sb. month, 15. iii. 140. 

A.S. m6nd^t month, mdna, 

moon. See Monyth. 
Moot, pr. s. must (go), 19. 294. 
Mor, sb. a moor; on mor, above 

each moor, 13. 385. 
More, sb. root ; hence, stock, race, 

I a. 248; I 6. I. O. H. G. 

morakOf a root; G. m'dhret a 

carrot ; Sanskrit mu/a, root, is 

probably the same word. 
More, adj. greater, 17. Mar. ii. 21. 
Moreyn, sb. murrain, plague, 18 a, 

175. O. F. marine^ murrain, from 

Lat. Tnori, to die. 
MorewyngOy sb, morning, 17. 

Mar. i. 35. 
Momyng, adj, mourning, 5. 5677. 

Mor])erde, i p. s, pt, subj, would 
have murdered, 15. v. 85. Moeso- 
Goth, maurthrjan, to murder. 

Morwe, sb, morrow, i a, 520. 
A. S. morgm, morning. 

Morwnynge, sb. morning, 15 pr. 5. 

Moskles, sb. pi. muscles (shell- 
fish), 18 a. 12. 

Most, adj. superl. biggest, 13. 354. 

Most, ^. 5. 2 p. must, 3. 72, 164; 
pt. pi. 13. 407. A.S. ic mot, 
pr. t. of which the pt. t. is ic 
mdste. In modem £., must is 
both pr. and pt. tense. 

Moste. See Mot. 

Mot, pr, s. must, I a. 294 ; 6. 83 ; 
pr. pi. Mote, 5. 5668; pt. s. 
Moste, must, i (. 28 ; pt. pi. 
Moste, were obliged, i a. 240; 
pr. s, subj. Mote, may, 3. 34; 
pt. s, subj. Moste, might, i a. 
500; 19. 380. See Most. 

Mote, V. to cite to a law court, to 
summon, 15. i. 150; pr. s. subj. 
Mote, plead, 15. iii. 155. A.S. 
mdtan^ to cite, make to meet, 

Motyf, sb, motive, incitement, or 
suspicion, 19. 628. 

Mountonns, sb. amount, 5. 5770. 

Mourkne, v. to rot, 13. 407. Sw. 
murkna, to rot, murken^ rotten; 
O. £. morkin, a wild beast found 
dead, carrion ; cf. Lat. morior, 

Moumen, v. to mourn, 4 a, 42. 
A. S. muman, 

Montes, pr. s. moults, 10. 781. 
Du. muiten, F, muer^ Lat. mutart, 
Cf. E. mewst place where moult- 
ing falcons were kept. 

Monwen, may, 15. i. 121; 
Mown, 17. Mar. ii. 19; 
subj. Mo we, may, I a. 2. A.S. 
magan^ to be able. 

Moysted, pp. wetted, 14 a. 55. 

MoBO, pr. pi. may, 6. 66 ; 9. 31 ; 
can, 6. 133; subj. pr. s. may be 
able, 6. 69. See Mowe. 

Mo3t = mot, pr. s. must, 6. 13. 

Muohe, adj, S. great, i a. i, 498. 



Muchedel, sb. a great part, i a. 396. 

Hught, pi. s. might, 10. IQ06. 

IflCukel, adj. great, 13. 366. 

Mully sb. mould, dirt, rubbish, 20. 
38. O. E. tnullok, rubbish ; Piatt 
Deutsch mull^ loose earth; Flemish 
mulf dust ; Mceso-Gothic mulda, 
dust, mould. 

Hun, pr. s. must, 11 a. 119. 

Munstrals, sb. pi. minstrels, 1$ pr. 

Munte)>, pr. s. intends, purposes, 

3. 242. A. S. myntan, to propose. 
Hurge]?, ' pr. pi. make mirthful, 

make merry with, 4 d. 20. A. S. 

tnurge, joyful; tnyrgt pleasure; 

myrigj merry. 
Mur^hes, sb. pi. mirths, merry- 
makings, revels, if, pr. 33. 
Mutoiin, sb, a gold coin called a 

•mutton* or sheep, 15. iii. 25. 

See note. 
Mwre, sb. a moor, 16. 108. 
Hyd, prep, with, 3. 175; Myde, 

9. 32. See Mid. 
Myddes, sb. midst, 14 a. 38. 
Mydlerd, sb. the world, 10. 2302. 

A. S. middan-eardt the middle 
region, the world; O. £. middle- 
Myghtfulnes, sb. physical strength, 

10. 754. 

Myht, pr. s. 2 p. mayst, 3. 143. 
See Miht. 

Myke, &b. the crutches of a boat, 
which sustain the main boom or 
mast when lowered, 13. 417. 
Cf. Du. mik^ a prong, &c. 

Mykel, adj. much, 10. 439. 

Mykelhede, 56. greatness, majesty, 
2. viii. 3, 

IflCyldely, adv. mildly, 5. 673t. 

Mynde, sb. remembrance, 5. 5869 ; 
memory, 10. 774; 14 a. 117; 
forgat hir mynde = lost her me- 
mory, 19. 527. 

Mynen, v. to mine, 14 c. 96. 

Uynne, v. to recollect, remember, 
13. 436. See Min, Mines. 

MjmBtrasye, sb. minstrelsy, 15. iii. 

Myriest, adj. merriest, 13. 254. 
Myrk, adj. dark, 10. 1435. Icel. 

myrJcr^ dark, also as sb. darkness. 

See Merke. 
Myrknes, sb. darkness, 10. 7821. 
"M-jTY, adj. serviceable, 13. 417. 
Myschaunce, $6. mischance, 5. 

57S7 ; inadvertent wickedness, 5. 

Mysohief, sb. ill-fortune ; at mys- 

chief=in danger, 16. loi. 
Mysdede, pt. pi. misdid, ill-treated, 

5. 5838. See Misdo. 
Myseise, sb. want of ease, care, 

trouble, 17. Mar. iv. 18. 
Mytise, adv. amiss, 12. 141. A.S. 

mis, wrongly. 
Mysseyd, pi. pi. spake ill, 5. 5842. 
Mysteir, s6. need, 16. 142. See 

My3t, sb. might, 5. 5652, 5863. 
Hy^t, pt.' s. was able, 5. 5889; 

Myjte, could, 5. 5930; subj. 

Myjt, might, 5. 5602. 
MystuoUe, adj. pi. mighty, 9. 302. 

(Lit. might-full.) 


Na war, phr. were it not for, had 
it not been for, 16. 218 ; na kyn 
thyng = in no degree, 16. 413. 

Nabbef), have not, i a. 264; 
pr. s. Nad {put for NaC), has not, 
3. T44 ; pt. 8. Nadde, la. 45 ; 
12. 119; Nade, 3. 224; pt. pi. 
Nadde, I a. 335. A. S. nabban, 
not to have. 

Naght, pron. naught, 5. 5844; 
Naht, 3. 151, A.S. ndht, 

13'aghtertale, sb. night-time, 7. 
222. Ice], ndttar-tdl ; cf.A.S.niht, 
night (G. nacht\ and /a/, number, 

N'aht. See Naght. 

Nai, adv. no, 8 b. 165. 

Nakers, kettle-drums, 11 5« 
80. Of Arabic origin. 



Nakid, adj. uncovered, bare, 17. 
Mar. ii. 4 ; Nakit, naked, i. e. un- 
armed, undefended by body- 
armour, 16. 434. Moeso-Goth. 
nakwathst naked. 

Nam, sh. name, 10. 482. 

Nam, pr. s. i p. am not, 4 e, 45. 
Put for ne am. 

Nam., pt. s. took, 2. xvii. 46; 2. 
xxiii. 9 ; 12. 368 ; took his way, 
went, 5. 5899 (where for a-wey 
we should perhaps read a wey^ 
i. e. a way). See Nime. 

Naman, for no man, 7. 200. 

Namare, adv. no more, 2. cii. 35. 

Nameliche, adv. especially, i a. 
460, 498 ; particularly, 186. 9 ; 
Namely, 5. 5647 ; Namlic, 86. 241. 

Nammo, adj. no more, i a. 508 ; 
Nammore, adv. no more, i a. 500. 
A. S. nd, no, not, and md, more. 

Namore, for no more, 12. 119. 
See above. 

Nan, adj. no, 2. ciii. 58 ; 7. 20 ; 
pron. pi. none, 7. 24. A. S. «««, 
ndttt no one, from ;i«, not, driy one. 

Nart, pr. s. 2 p. art not, 6. 125. 
For ne art. 

Nas {/or ne was), was not, 1027; 
12.278; 19 159; nasbut^was 
no better than, 19. 209. 

Nasche, adj. nesh, soft, 18 a. 45. 
See Nesshede. 

Nat, adv. not, 5. 5693, 5718. 
A. S. ndte^ not. 

Nat {for Ne at), i. c. nor at, 19. 290. 

Nat-for))7, conj, notwithstanding, 
nevertheless, 5. 5885. 

NaJ> {for Ne haj>), hath not, 4 e. 
38; 15. vi. 42. See NabbeK 

Nabeles, adv. none the less, never- 
theless, I a. 369. A. S. nd, not. 

Naj'emo, adv. none the more, I a. 
101. See above. 

Natiuit6, sb. F. Nativity, 7. 11. 

Naue {/or Ne haue), have not, 15. 
i. 157. See Nabbeb. 

Nau3t, not, 6. 24. Used with ne; 
but, at 6. 4;), without ne. 

Naw]>er, eonj. neither, 13. 1028. 
Nayte, v. to employ, 13. 531. See 

Naytly, adv. neatly, 13. 480. 
Na3t, sb. night, 13. 484. 
Na3t, not, Q. 76. 

eTT^ot, I a. 29, &;c. Ne is employed] 
before the verb^ and nojt after it. ^ 

To. 09; 7. 54 ; II 

S. ftg, noL ngf!^ 

Nebsselt, sb. appearance, presence, 
9. 77. Translates Lat. faciem. 
From A. S. neb^ a face, nose, or 
nib. and -sceaft^ £. 'Ship. 

Nedde {for Ne hadde), had not, 
15. V. 4, 121. See Nsbbe)>. 

Node, sb. S. need, i a. 33 ; 6. 70 ; 
Ned (?), 6. 89 ; pi. Nedes, neces- 
sary things, business, 19. 174. 
A. S. nedd^ G. noih. 

Nede, adv. needs, of necessity, by 
compulsion, i a. 28; moste nede 
Bsmust needs be, 20. 2. A. S. 
neddey of necessity. 

Nederes, sb. pi. adders, 8 h. 177. 
A. S. nceddre, an adder. 

Nedes, adu. of necessity, 11 a. 72; 
Nedys, 5. 5668. A. S. neadeSt 
needs, from nedd^ need. 

Nedfol, adj. needful, necessary, 
compulsory, 186. 12. 

Neete, cattle, neat, beeves, 
2. viii. 21. A.S. nedt^ cattle, 
Icel. nautf a homed beast. Ap- 
parently, the radical meaning is 
ignorant; from A. S. ny/ait, i.e. 
ne witan, not to know. 

Nefen, v. to name, 8 a. 177. See 

Ne-for-thi, adv. nevertheless, 7. 
247. See Natforhr. 

NefUr, adv, never, 6. 46. A.Sr 

Neghburgh, sb. neighbour, 2. xiv. 
7, 8, II. A. S. neah'bur, z 
neighbour, from riedh, near, and 
fciir, a dweller, a 6oor. 

Neglien, num. nine, 10. 729. 
A. S. nigon. 

^ ^ 



ITeghes, ^r. s. approaches, comes 
near, 2. ciii. 78. A. S. nedh^ near. 

ITeh, adv. nigh, near, 4 ^ . J 3 ; Nei, 
nigh, I a. 81 ; nearly, 140. A. S. 

IS'eid'wais, adv, of necessity, 16. 


Keigh, adv. nigh, 19. 550. 

Neist, adj, next, nearest (in kin- 
ship), 7. 37; adv. next, 7. 125. 

See Nest. 
Nei) ; m phr, no neij = non ei3, i. e. 

no egg, 12. 83. 
Nekke-boon, sb, neckbone, 19. 

Nel {for Ne wil), I will not, 13. 

513. A. S. nyllan^ Lat. nolle^ to 

be unwilling. 
Nem, pt, s. took, 13. 505 ; imp. pi. 

Neme, take, 6. 1 19. See Nam, 

Nime, Nome. 
Nempnen, v. to name, 15.1. 21 ; 

19. 507; pt, s. Nemned, named, 

12. 368. A. S. nemnan, to name. 
Neode, sb. business, 4 c. 47. See 

Neodes, adv. needs, necessarily, 

18 a. 72. 
Neo3e» adj. nine, i b. 21. 
Ner, adv. never, 3. 224; Nere nojjer, 

neither, 186. 115. 
Nere, pt pi. were not, la. iot ; 

15. iii. 130 ; 19. 547 ; Nere, subj. 

pt, s, should not be, I a. 69; 

6. 46. For ne were. 
Nes, pt. s. was not, 4 c. 30 ; 6. 17. 
Nese, sb. nose, 10. 820. A. S. nas, 

a nose, a ness, 
Nesshede, sb. tenderness, delicate- 

ness, 9. 155. A. S. hruEsCy soft, 

nesh ; cf. nas/y, O. E. nasky. 
Nest, adj. nighest, nearest, 3. 176; 

next, 7. 5 ; nighest to, 10. 676. 

A.S. nedh, nigh, superl. nykst, 

nedhst, nighest, next^ Dan. ncBst. 
Nestland, pres. part, building nests, 

2. ciii. 38. 
TSie\>fpr. s. hath not, 6. 21, 35, 72. 

See Na 

Neuened, pt. s. named, called 

upon, 13. 410. Icel. na/n^ Dan. 

navrif a name. 
Neuere, adv. never, i a, loi ; Neuer 

non, none at all, 18 6. 'ji. 
Neueu, sb. nephew, i a. 386. 
Neuliche, adv. newly, soon, 18 6. 

New, V. to renew, 2. ciii. 74 ; pp. 

Newed, 2. cii. lO. 
Newe, sb. F. nephew, 12. 166. 

See Neueu. 
Nexte, adj. nearest, 1 7. Mar. i. 38 ; 

19. 398. See Nest. 
Neynd, adj. ninth, 8 a. 131. Sw. 

Ne^e, v* to draw nigh, approach to, 

13. 1017; Ne5h, 12. 278; pr, s. 

Ney5he)), 18 a. 33. 
Nicolas day, St. Nicholas day, 

I a. 254. 
Nigramaunoy, 5&. necromancy, 

12. 119. 
Nihtes, adv. at night, 4 a. 25. 

A. S. nihtest at night, from niht, 
Niht-olde, adj. .a night old, a 

little stale, 15. vii. 2qo. 
Nil, imp. s. be unwilling, do not, 

2. cii. 4. A. S. nyllan, to be un- 
willing ; Lat. nolle. 
Nime, v. to take, i a. 391, 528 ; 

pr. pi. Nime)), take, i a. 286. 

A. S. niman, Du. nemen^ G, 

nehmen, to take, seize ; O. £. 

nimt to steal. Hence £. numb, 

benumb, nimble. Palsgrave has 

' / benome, I make lame or take 

away the use of ones lymmes, 

Je perclose.^ See Prompt. Parv. 

p. 358. Cf. Gk. v4fjL€iv. 
Nis {for Ne is), is not, i a, 66, 

6. 52; 12. 377. 
Nite, V. to refuse, 8 b, 86. Icel 

neiia, Sw. neia^ to say nay to 

from Icel. net, Sw. nej, nay, no. 
Niwe, adj. new, i a. 376. A.S. niwe 
Ni5t, sb. night, I a. 93, 94. 
No, not ; no gif = do not give, do 

not take, 8 b, 195. 



No, eonj. nor, 5. 5818; 6. 22. 
Noblesse, sb. F. nobility, worthy 

behaviour, 19. 185, 248. 
Noblete, d>. nobleness, richness, 

18 a. 2. 
Nobleye, sb. F. splendor, grandeur, 

I a. 211,403. 
Nobliohe, adv. nobly, i a. 226, 

No-but, eonj. except, 17. Mar. ii. 

26. Prov. E. nobbut. 
Nocht-for-thi, adv, nevertheless, 

16. 220. 
Noght, pron. naught, 2. xiv. 9. 

A. S. naA/, from ne, not, and 

dht, anything ; we find also A. S. 

ndwhtf from ma, not, and wuht, a 

Noght, adv. not, 2. xiv. 6 ; 7. 4 ; 

Noht, 3. 120; 4 b. 19. 
Noke, sb. a nook, comer, piece, 

bit ; a fer])yng noke « a piece of a 

farthing, 5. 5812. 
Noke; atte noke = a//ffff okey i. e. 

at the oak, 15. v. 115. 
Nolde, pt. s. would not, i a. 89 ; 

9. 4; 15. vii. 290. For ne 

wolde ; but, in fact, it is the pt. t. 

of Nil, q. V. 
Nolle]) {for Ne wollet>), (we) 

desire not, 9. 87. See Nil, Nel. 
Nom, pt. s. took, had, i 6. 14 ; 20. 

181 ; pt. pi. Nome, I a. 3 ; went, 

I a. 145 ; pp. Nome, taken, gone, 

5. 5817. See Nime. 
Nome, sb. name, 13. 297; 15. i. 

71 ; pi. Nomes, 15. i. 21. A.S. 

Nomon, pron. no man, nobody, 

I a. 78; Nbman, 20. 22. 
Non, pron. none, i a. 69 ; not one, 

I 6. 6; None, no, 6. 133; dot, 

sing, fern. None, I a. 30. 
Non, sb. the ninth hour, 4 e. 7. 
Nones ; in phr. for the nones, i. e. 

for the nonce, for the occasion, 

20. 184. {For \>e nones = for 

J>en ones, where }>en is the def. 

art., and ones as once.) 

Nonne, sb. nun, i a. 301, 424. 

A.S. nunne, Dan. nonne. 
Nonnerye, sb. nunnery, 1 a. 272. 
Noreganes, sb. pi. Norwegians, 

18 b. 53. 
Norisobi, v. to nourish, bring up, 

1 6. 26. 

Normandie, Normandy, i a. 32, 

Normans, sb. pi. 1 a. 95. 

NorJ^bomberlond, the district of 
Northumberland, I a. 325. 

Not {for Ne wot), I know not, 
19.242; 12. 320; knows not, 
p. 2S. A. S. na/, I know not, or 
he knows not ; for ne wdt. 

Note, sb. attempt, employment, 
labour, 13. 381. A. S. notian, to 
employ, notu, use, employment. 

Notemuges, sb. pi. nutmegs, 14 c. 

2 7. The ending muge = O. F. 
muguet, musguet, LaL tnuscata, 
from muscuSy musk ; it signifies 
musk-scented. See below. 

Notes, sb. pi. nuts, 14 c. 27. A. S. 
hnutt G. nuss. 

No^eles, adv. none the less, never- 
theless, 5. 5663, 5891. 

Noper, pron, neither, i a. 174, 
523; Nouther, 10.465. 

No[)er . . . ne, conjs. neither . . . nor, 

No-thing, adv. nowise, in no 
respect, 19. 575. 

Non, adv. now, i a. 65 ; nov and 
eft = now and again, repeatedly, 
20. '260. A.S. ntt, now. 

Nouellerie, sb. novelty, 20. 1 29. 

Noiir, adv. nowhere, I a. 328. Put 
for no wer = no wher ; see note. 

Nout, adv. not, 3. 96, 100. 

Nou^wher, adv. nowhere, 15. ii. 

Now^e, flKft;. now, 12. 106; Noufie, 

15. iii. 86. A. S. nu ^a, just 

now, now then. 

Noye^, />r. s. hurts, 18 a, 109. F. 

nuire^ Lat. nocere^ to hurt. Hence 

F. ennuyer, and £. annoy. 


43 ^ 

XToynement ; a noynement «= an 
oynemeat, i.e. an ointment, la. 
136. Cf. NeU. 

Il'o^t, pron. naught; uor no^te^in 
vain, I a. 25; vor nojtssfor 
naught, needlessly, i a. 171 ; al 
nor no^t «= without receiving harm 
themselves, i a. 157; as uor nojt 
»as if needlessly, without much 
resistance, i a. 162. No^ is often 
used to strengthen the ordinary 
negative ne; see i a. 27. 

Ko^t, adv. not, 5. 5661. 

NvL, adv. now, 7. 57. A. S. nu. 

NuX, pr, s. will not, 3. 66; 15. vii. 
265; Nultousswilt thou not, 3. 
35. See Nel, Wil, BTyle. 

Nuly ( = Nul y), I wiU not, 4 b, 
19. See above. 

Kummun, pp. taken, 7. 84. See 

JSlMste, pt. s. knew not. i a. 357; 
I b. 6. Equivalent to ne wuste 
or ne wiste^ wist not. 

Nny, sb. annoyance, 18 a. 123. 
See below. 

Nuye, V. to annoy, 10. 1234. See 

Nwy, sb. annoyance, wrath, 13. 
301. See Nuy. 

Nwyed, pp. annoyed, grieved, 
angered, 13. 306. See Nnye. 

Nye), adv, nigh, 9. 40. 

TSyff for ne yf, except, 13. 424. 

Wygun, sb. niggard, miser, 5. 5578. 
Sw. njugg, niggardly, njvgga, to 
scrape ; cf. Dan. gnidsk, niggardly, 
from gnide^ to rub ; also £. nig- 
gard, niggle. 

Nyht, &b. night, 4 c. 24. See Nijt. 

Nyhtegales, sb. pi, nightingales, 
4 d, 5. Lit. singers by night ; 
from A. S. galan, to sing. 

Nyle, imp. s. be thou unwilling, do 
not, 17. Mar. v. 36. Vulg. noli, 
A. S. nyllan, to be unwilling ; 
whence vnlly-nilly, for wnll he or 
nill he. 

Nyme)>, imp. pi, take ye, 9. 83 ; 

pr. s, Nymmes, takes, 13. 480; 

pr. s. NymJ>, receives, takes in, 

9. 194. See Nixne. 
M'y8 = i8 not, 19. 319. See Nis. 
Nyse, adj. silly, 18 b. 8. O. F. 

rUaiSt foolish.* 
WyBte, pt. s. knew not {put for Ne 

wyste), 19. 384. See Nuste. 
Nywe, adj, new, i a, 173. See 

Ny5t, sb. n!ght, 5. 5745 ; Nyjte, 

I 6. 86. 

O, adj. one, i a. 334; 4 fr. 40; 

one and the same, 23. 24 : )>at o 

=»the one, 20. 34. Contr. from 

O. E. on, one ; A. S. an. 
0,prep. of, 7. 26; of, off; o lijf, 

o Hue = off life, out of hfe; do 

o lijf, or bring o liue=sto kill, 

7- 198; see also 1. 191. 
O, prep, on, in, 14 c. 1 25. Shortened 

from on, not from of. 
Obak, adv. back, 2. xvii. 103. A. S. 

on^btBc, behind, £. aback. 
Obeyshen, pr. pi. obey, 1 7. Mar. 

iv. 41. 
Obout, adv. about, 10. 1275, 1280. 
Obout-ga, v. to go about, revolve, 

lo. 1277. ' 
Ocoean, sb. ocean, 7. 33. 
Occident, sb. West, 19. 297. 
Odde; an oddes=an odd one, a 

single one, 13. 505. 
Of, prep, from, out of, 5. 5675 ; by, 

6. 77 ; out of, 9. 51. A. S. of. 
Of-dret, pp. territied, afraid, 9. 93. 

A. S. of-drckdan, to dread. 
O-ferrum, adv. afar, 11 c. 70, 89 ; 

On-ferrum, afar, 7. 368. 
Offeranda, F. offerings, 7. 38. 
Offerd, pi. pi. offered, presented, 

7. 2, 41 ; pres, part, Offrand, 
offering, 7. 59. 

Of-saw, pt. s, perceived, 12. 49; 
Of-scye, 12. 224 ; Of-scie, 12, 2 73* 
A. S. of'Setn, to see, find. 



Ofsoapie, v. to escape, i a: 495. 
Apparently a hybrid form ; cf. 
A. S. o/t away, and F. echapper, 
to escape ; but the F. verb is of 
Teutonic origin ; cf. E. siip, 

Of-sende, v, to send for, i a. 32 ; 
pt. s. Ofsente, sent for, sent after, 
15. iii. 96. Cf. A. S. of-acsian^ 
to ask for, ask after, seek out. 

Oftsiss, adv. ofttimes, often, 16. 
17. O. E. sUhe^ a time; A.S. 
si^y a path, a time ; Mceso-Goth. 
sinthy a journey, a time. 

Ogaines, prep, against, 2. xiv. 8. 
A. S. ongedrit against. 

Ogainsaghes, contradictions, 

2. xvii. 109. 

Ogaintome, v. to turn again, re- 
turn, 2. xyii. 98. 

Ogaynea, prep, against, .11 a. 94; 
Oganis, 116. 39. See Ogaines. 

Oghne, adj. own, 20. 21. A. S. 
dgen^ own, from dgan, to possess, 
to oum, 

Oht, pron. aught, 3.221. A.S. dkt. 

Ok, sb. oak, 12. 295. A. S. de. 

Okerer, sh. usurer, 8 b, 201 ; 
Okerere, 5. 5576; pi. Okerers, 
5. 5580. See Okir. 

Okering, sb. usury, 8 b. 123; 
Okeryng, 5. 5944. See below. 

Okir, sb. usury, 2. xiv. 13. Icel. 
dkr^ Sw. ockeTf Du. woeker^ G. 
vmcher, usury, increase ; cf. A. S. 
edeatij Lat. augere^ to eke, in- 
crease ; also E. huckster, auction, 

Olepi, adv. simply, only, 6. 83, 
See Onlepi. 

Olt, adj. old, 3. 45. 

On, prep, in, i 6. 13 ; 3. 42 ; on 
dayes^by daytime, daily, 12. 
244 ; cf. on nyhtes, 20. 306 ; 
)>at )>e is on — that is upon thee, 

3. 88; on slepe^ asleep, 16. 192, 
A. S. on, in. 

On, adj. one, i a. 65 ; 6. 1 34 ; >at 
on = the one, i a. 300 ; On time, 
once, 6. 90. A.S. dn^ G. ein, 
Lat. unus. 

Onan, adv. anon, 7. 349. A. S. on 
dn, in one. 

Onde, 56. breath, 20. T49. Icel. 
andi, Sc. aynd, Gk. dy€fiM ; cf. 
Lat. ventus, E. u/m^f. 

Onde, sb. jealousy, envy, i 6. 69 ; 
4 6. 18. A. S. anda, malice, envy, 
andian, to envy. 

Onderstand, imp. 2 p. s. under- 
stand, 6. 66; pp. Onderstonde, 
understood, 9. 18. 

Onderuonge, v, to receive, enter- 
tain, 9. 23 ; pt. pi. Onderuynge, 
they received, 9. 136; imp. fi. 
Onderuonge]?, receive yc, 9. 92. 
A. S. under/on, to take. 

One, adv. S. alone, i a. 24 ; adj. 
alone, 12. 211. See On. 

Ones, adv. once, 12. 195. 

Onespnite, sb. inspiration, a. xvii. 
44. The lit. meaning is spirting 
upon ; it is clearly intended as an 
equivalent to the word insjnra- 
tione in the Vulgate. 

Onfanged, pt, s. received, 2. xvii. 
92. A. S. onfdn, to receive, from 
/dn, to take. The Vulgate has 
suscepit. See Onderuonge. 

Onlepi, adj. onl}', 9. 237. A. S. dn- 
lipig, dnlipig, singular, sole, every. 

Onlofte, adv. aloft, 13. 947. A. S. 
on lyfte, in the air. 

Onlosti, adj. idle (lit. unlusty), 9. 
19. A. S. unlusty wearinef s, lack of 
pleasure, from lust, pleasure, desire. 

Only eh, adv. only, 5. 5764. 

Onnea))e, adv. scarcely, 9. 194. 
A.S. unedfS, difficult, from un, 
not, M'tS, easy. 

On-rounde, adv. around, round 
and round, 13. 423. 

On-sidis-hond, adv. aside, 17. 
Mar. iv. 34. Vulg. seorsum, 
Wyclif also uses oti'sidis-honiUs, 
asydis'hond, and aside^half, 

Onspekinde, pres. part, unspeak- 
able, ineffable (lit. unspeaking), 
9. 108. 

On-]>olyinde, adj, insufferable, in- 



tolerable, 9. 56. (Lit. unsuffering), 

A. S. \>6lian^ to suffer. 
On-to-delinde, pres. part. (lit. un- 

dividing), indivisible, 9. 108. A.S. 

to-ddlan, to divide in two. 
Ony, adj. any, 14 a. 33. 
Onzyginde, pres. part. (lit. unsee- 
ing), invisible, 9. 185. 
Oo» adv, ever, always, continually, 

4 (/. 7. A. S. aa, a, ever, ay«. 
Oon, adj. one, 19. 271; that oon=s 

that one, i. e. the one, 19. 551. 
Oor, sb. ore, 18 a. 43. Dan. aare, 

G. ader^ a vein ; the ore is the 

vein of metal. 
Op, adv. up, 186. I. Du. opf up ; 

G. a«/. 
Ope, prep, upon, 6. 91. See above. 
Open, adj. uncovered, 20. 137. 
Openlio, adj. open, manifest, 8 a. 

Oplondysoh, adj. uplandish, 

countryfied, from the country, 

18 a. 172; Vplondysch, 200. 
Oppenes, imp. pi. open, 2. zxiii. 

15, 21 ; pres. part. Oppenand, 

opening, 2. ciii. 66. A.S. open, 

adj. open, openian, to open. 
Or, adv. even, only, 17. Mar. v. 28. 
Or, prep, before, ere, 15. v. 20. 

A. S. ar, dr, before. 
Or, pron. your, 4 c. 39 ; 15. iii. 63; 

Ore, 3. 300. A. S. eower, of you. 
Ordayny, pr. s. subj. set in order, 

9. 10 ; pt. pi. Ordeinede, ordered, 

arranged, I a. 72 ; Ordeind, ap- 
pointed, 7. 31; Ordaynt, 13. 237. 

Lat. ordinare, from ordo. 
Ordeynour, sb. ordainer, arranger, 

I b. 45. 
Ordinanoe, sb. provision, array, 19. 

Ore, adv. before, formerly, 5. 5859. 

See Or, prep. 
Ore, sb. mercy, i a. 409. A. S. dr, 

grace, favcur, honour ; Du. eer, 

G. ehre^ honour. 
Oreisouns, sb. pi. F. prayers, I b, 

61 ; Orisouus, 19. 596. 


Orf, sb. cattle, i a. 441, 44a. A.S. 
yffe, €Brfe, inheritance, goods, 
cattle, G. erbe, inheritance. 

Or-litel, adj. too little, lo. I459. 
Lit. over-little. 

Orped, adj. valiant, 18 fr. 70. 
* Orpud, audax.' Prompt. Parv. 

Or-quar, adv. otherwhere, else- 
where, 7. 417. But perhaps read 
o-whar = anywhere. 

Oseneye, prop, name, i a. 278. 

Ost, sb. host, army, i a. 98, 137 ; 
18 fl. 105. 

Ostage, sb. hostage, i a. 230, 231. 

0>, sb. S. oath, i a. 15, 22, 41 ; 18 b. 
3. A.S. a«. 

O^er, conj. or, i a. 84, 290; 6. 101 ; 
either, 186. 77. A. S. of$^e, or. 

0])er, adj. second, 15. v. 118 ; )>at 
o)>er = the second time, 6. 105. 
A. S. otSfr, other, second. 

0]>er-whyle, adv. occasionally, 3. 
33 ; Overbuy 1, sometimes, 9. 223 ; 
OJ>erwhile, 15. vi. 40; vii. 242. 

0>re, other things; in phr. and 
o\>Te = et cetera, 9. 212, 213. 

Oueral, adv. everywhere, in all 
quarters, i fl. 372 ; i 6. 6 ; 3. 143. 

OueroomeK pr. pi. subj. they may 
overcome, 9. 50 ; pt. s. Guercom, 
la. 104 ; pp. Ouercome, I a. 
10 1. A. S. (jfereuman, to over- 

Ouerestes, sb. pi. uppermost parts, 
2. ciii. 6. From oferest, a super, 
form from A. S. ofer, over. 

Ouerfare, v. to pass over, 2. xvii. 
78 ; 2. ciii. 60. A. S. ojerfceran, 
to pass over. 

Ouerga, v. to pass over, 2. ciii. 
19; pr. s. Ouerge)), goes over, 
exceeds, 9. 112; pp. Ouergon, 
past, 3. 198. A.S. ofergdn, to 
go over. 

Ouerlop, sb. overleaping, omission, 
8 a. 242. A. S. oJerMyp, a leap- 
ing « ver. 

Ouerlyppes, sb. pi. upper lips, 18 6. 
67. Cf. Chaucer, Prol. 133. 




Ouermastes, sb. pi. summits, tops, 
3. ciii. 27. Lit. overmost, or 
uppermost places. 

Ouer-mykel, adv. overmuch, io. 

Ouer-spradde, pt. s. overspread, 

I a. 480. 
Ouer-tan, />/. overtaken, 7. 17a. 
Ouer-)>wert, adv. across, 13. 316. 

A.S. \>weorh^ G. zwerch^ oblique, 

slanting; Icel. Jn/^/, across, whence 

£. athwart^ thwart. 
Ouertlye, s6. openly, 8 6. 70. F. 

ouvertf open. 
Ouer-waltez, pr. s. overflows, 13. 

370. Cf. A. S. wealtian, to roll. 
Ouet, sb. fruit, 9. 137, 234. A.S. 

d/at, 6/et, fruit. Perhaps we 

should read ine ouet = into fruit, 

in 1. 137- 
Ought, adv. at all, 2. xvii. 105. 
Oule, sb. owl, 20. 305. 
Our, prep, over, 2. cii. 38. 
Our, sb. hour, time, 17. Mar. vi. 

35. Lat. hora. 
Oure, pron. poss. your, 15. i. 53 ; 

15. iii. 64. See Or, pron. 
Ou8, pron. us, 6. 3, 11, 79. A.S. 

us, G. vns. 
Out, interj. away! I 6. •89. Sw. 

hut (interj.), be off! get away! 

Hence £. hoot, to bid to go away. 
Outbere, v. to bear out, take 

away, 2. ciii. 71. 
Out-blaste, pt. s. puifed out, i b. 

81. A.S. blcestan, to puff, blast, 

a blowing. 
Oute-breyde, pt. s. awoke, 5. 

5739. See Braydes. 
Outelede, subj, pr. s. 2 p. mayst 

bring forth, 2. ciii. 31. (Lit. 

had out.) 
Outen, adj. foreign, strange ; used 

as a sb. in gen. pi. 2. xvii. 113, 

114. A.S. ^, ute, out, abroad, 

titan, beyond. 
Outher, conj. either, 10. 494. 
Outsendes, pr. s. 2 p. sendest out, 

a. ciii. 21 ; imp. s, Outsend, a. 

ciii. 73. A. S. iit'Sendau, to send 

Onttake, v. to take out, deliver, 2. 
xvii. 109, 124; pt. s. Outtoke, 
delivered, 2. xvii. 47 ; pp. Out- 
taken, excepted, 19. 277 ; except, 
1 3* 357 > Outtane, delivered, a. 
xvii. 77. 

Ouur, prep, over; ouur al = over 
all, i.e. everywhere, 15. ii. 194. 
Cf. G. uberall. 

Ow, you, 12. 106; 15. i. 
2 ; Ou, 15. i. 52. A. S. e6w, ace. 
from ge, ye. 

Owai, adv. away ; owai do ]>am = 
do away with them, destroy them; 
2. xvii. 108. 

Owen, adj. own, 3. 106, 158; 
Owe, la. 215 ; pi. Oune, 3. 109; 
def. Oune, 3. 197. A.S. dgen, own. 

Ozspring, sb, offspring, generation, 

Oyele, sb. oil, 2. ciii. 33; Oylle, 6. 

144. A.S. <Bl,LsLt. oleum. 
O^ene, adj. own, 9. 186; O^en, 
(his) own, 9. 27. Cf. Lat pro- 
verb suum cuique. A.S. agen, 


Face, V. F. to pass, go ; to pace of 
= to pass from, 19. 205. 

Paid, pp. satisfied, 8 6. 143. See 

Paie, sb, F. pleasure, satisfaction, 
12. 193. See Pay. 

Pak-neelde, sb. pack-needle, 15. 
V. 126. Du. naald, a needle. 
O. £. neeld *^ needle occurs in 
Shakespeare, M. N. D. iii. 2. 204 ; 
cf. Lat. neo, 

Palesye, sb. palsy, 15. v. 61 ; Pale- 
sie, 1 7. Mar. ii. 3 ; Palasie, 4. 

Palfrey, sb. horse, nag, 15. ii. 164. 

Pabners, palmers, 15^. 46. 

Parauntre, adv. peradventure, per- 
haps, I a. 50, 387,492 ; Parauen- 
ture, peradventure, perhaps, 19. 



Farfit, adj. F. perfect, lo. 1289. 

Parissoliens, sb. pi. parishioners, 
15 pr. 79. F. paroissiefit from 
Low Lat. parochia, Gk. vapoi/cia, 
from vdpoiKoa, living near. 

Parlement, sb, F. parliament, I a. 
109, 112. 

Parten,, distribute, 15. 
i. 156; imp. s. Part, give away, 
bestow, 15. iii. 58 ; pi. ParteK 
share, 5. 5940. 

Parteners, sb. pi, partners, 18 a. 

Party, sb. F. side, 5. 5643, 5651 ; 
a party = partially, in some mea- 
sure. 5. 5722; 10. 2334; pi. 
Parties, parts, 14 a. 36; 30. 

Pas, sb. passage, 8 a. 248 ; part of 
a narration, 5. 5696 ; passus, 
canto, 12. 161 ; Pass, a pace, 16. 
203* ; used as pi. Pas, paces, 
movements, 19. 306. F. pas. 

Pases, sb. pi. passes, narrow paths, 
10. 1239. 

Passohet, pp. dashed, 15. v. 16. 
O. E. paskf to dash ; Dan. baske, 
to slap. 

Passe, V. to pass, go away, return, 
12. 270; to surmount, 8 a. iii; 
pr. s. Passe)>, surpasses, 18 a. I ; 
goes beyond, 15. i. 102 ; pr. pi. 
hve, 15. i. 7; Passe]) ouer = sur- 
passes, 20. 284; pres.pari. Pas- 
syiige, surpassing, 1 4 a. 3. F. 

Faiiilyoune, sb. pavilion, tent, 
lib. 63 ; pi. Pauylons, 18 b. 62. 

Fay, sb. satisfaction, 5. 5801 ; 11 a. 
10; Paye, 15. vi. 39. O.F. pate,, from Lzt. pacare, to pacify, 
from pax, peace. 

Paye, v. to satisfy, 15. vii. 297; 
pp. Payd, pleased, 5. 5657 ; 18 o. 
61 ; Payde, supplied, i a. 368. 
See above. 

Payenes, 56. F. (gen. case) pagan's, 
12. 365; pi. Payens, 19. 534. 
See below. 

Payne, sb. pain, penalty, 13. 244. 

Payneme, sb. pagan, 14 c. 42. 
Norman F. paynem, F. paien, Lat, 
paganus, from pagus, a village. 

Feces, sb. pi. cups, small drinking- 
cups, 15. iii. 23. Formerly, a 
drinking-cup was called a pece, 
lit. a piece. * Pece, to drinke in, 
tasse;* Prompt. Parv. (note). 

Fees, sb. F. peace, 4 c. 39. 

Peine, sb. penalty, i a. 419. Lat. 

Peired, pp. injured, 15. v. 76. 
O.E. appaire, paire, to injure, 
from F. pire, worse, Lat. peior. 

Felet, sb. ball, 15. v. 61. Pellets 
were stone balls used as missiles, 
and of course of a pale white 
colour. They were also called 

Pell, sb. fur, dressed skin, 7. 144. 
Lat. pellis, £. fell, skin. 

Pellure, sb. F. costly fur, 12. 53. 
See above. 

Fenaunce, 56. penance, 5. 5829, 

Pencell, sb. pennon, streamer, 1 1 c. 
46. Also called pennoncel; Lat. 
penicillus, a little tail; whence 

E. pencil, orig. a painting-brush. 
Penez, pens, cribs, 12. 323. 

A.S. pyndan, to enclose, impound; 

whence E. pen, pound, pindar, 
Peni-ale, sb. common ale, sold at 

a penny a gallon, 15. v. 134. 
Fennes, sb. pi. quills of a feather, 

14 c. 133. 
Feny, sb. penny, 4 c, 27, 56; pi. 

Pens, pence, 5. 5579. 
Peosen, sb.p}. peas, 15. vii. 285, 

A. S. pise ; O. E. pese (sing, sb.), 

pi. pesen. The modem pea is a 

false form. 
Percel-mel, adv. by retail, in 

parcels at a time, 15. iii. 72. Cf. 

Feroen, v. F. to pierce, 14 c. 98. 
Percyl, sb. parsley, 15. vii. 273, 

F. persil, Gk. •^^rpodiXiVov, 

F f 2 



Fereye* sb. perry, 6. i6. From 

Lat. pyrus, a pear. See Fiiiea. 
Femel, sb. Pernel (proper name, 

shortened from Petronilla),i 5.V. 45. 
Perrey, sb, F. jewellery, 12. 53; 

Perreie, 20. 35. F. pierrerie, 

from pierre, a stone, jewel, Lat 

petra, a stone. 
Pers, Peter, 5. 5576, 5590. 
Fersauit, pt» s. perceived, 16. 44. 
Perte, adj. apert, manifest, obvious, 

15. i. 98. 
Pertelyolie, adv. evidently, 12. 

53; Pertiliche, 12. 291 ; Pertly, 

truly, 12. 180; Pertely, complete 

ly, 12. 156. Shortened from 

apertlicke^ from F. apert, Lat. 

apertuSy open. 
Feryl, sb. F. peril, 6. 99. 
Fes, sb, peace, i o. 370, 374. 
Feseooddes, sb. pi, pea-pods, 15. 

vii. 279. A. S. codd, a bag. See 

Fesiblenesse, sb, calm, 17. Mar. 

iv. 39. 
Peter 1 inter j. by saint Peter 1 15. 

vi. 28. So also in Chaucer. 
Fettes, sb,pl. See Futtes. 
Feyneble, adj. painful, careful, 5. 

5802. F. penible, painful, from 

Feynen, v. refl. to take pains, 14 a. 

60 ; pr, s, Peyneth hir, endea- 
vours, strives, 19. 320. 
Peys, sb. F. weight, 5. 5670. F. 

poidsy Lat. pondus, weight. 
Feysede, pt.s, weighed. 15. v. 131. 

See above. 
Fhelip, Philip, i a, 463. 
FileVe, sb, pillow, 17. Mar. iv. 38. 
Fined, pp. tormented, 8 b, 255. 

See below. \ 

Pines, sb. pi. torments, 8 a. 166. 

A. S. pin, pine, pain. 
Finnede, ip, fastened tightly, 

kept (them) squeezed down, 15. 

V. 127. A.S. pyndan, to confine, 

whence E. pen, pinfold, pindar. 

See Fenez. 

Pixies, sb, pi, pear-trees, 15. v. 16. 

Lat. pyrus, A. S. pirige, a pear- 
Firiwhit, sb, some common kind 

of perry, 15. v. 134. 
Fitaile, sb. footsoldiers, infantry, 

lie. 56. O. F. pietaille, pedaille: 

from Lat. pes. 
Plages, sb, pi, regions, 19. 543. 

Lat. plaga. 
Plate, 56. plate-armour, lie. 46. 
Platte, pt, 5. threw (herself) fiat, 

15- V. 45. F. plat, Svf,platt, fiat. 
Playne, v. to complain, 15. iii. 161 ; 

pr,pl, PlayneJ>, 15 pr, 80. 
Playnt, sb. plant, growing shrub, 

15* i> 137* Badly spelt ; other 

MSS. have plante, plonte, plaunte. 
Fleiden hem., pi. pi, amused them- 
selves, played, 15 pr.- 20. A. S. 

plegan, to play, plega, play. 
Fleignen, pr, pi. F. complain, 20. 

19 ; pres,part. Pleynaud, 10. 799. 
Flenerly, adv, fully, 5. 581 1. Lat 

plenus, full. 
Plentuos, adj, plenteous, fertile, 

abounding in, 18 a. 6, 23. 
Plesanoe, sb. F. pleasure, 19. 149 ; 

delight, 19. 276. 
Fletede, i p, s. pt. plaited, folded 

up, 15. V. 126. 
Fleynand. See Fleignen. 
Pliht, sb. danger, 8 b. 80. A. S. 

pliht, a pledge, danger ; £. plight. 
Fliliten, pr, pi, pledge, plight, 

agree, 15 pr, 46 ; pp. Pliht 

pledged, 15. v. 116. A. S. plikt, 

a pledge. 
Flihtful, adj. dangerous, 8 a. 171, 
Flit, sb. plight state, 20. 295. 
Floh, sb. plough, 3.^14. 
Flou-lond, sb, pi. ploughlands (a 

measure of land), i a. 353. A.S. 

land (a neuter sb.), has land also 

in the plural. 
FlnscbAud, adj. very hot, 15. vii. 

299. chaud, 
Plyht, pp, plighted, 4 6. 38. See 




Poo, sb. poke, bag, pouch, Sb, 156. 

A. S. poccat a bag. 
Poor, sb, F. power, i a. 26 ; forces, 

1 «• 309, 323 ; Poeir, I a. 316. 
Point, sb. in phr. in point == at the 

point, about to (do), 19. 331. 
Poletes, 56.^. pullets, 15. vii. 267. 

F. poulelf from Lat. pullus. 
Pons, sb, pi, pence, 15 pr, 86. See 

Porchas, s5. F. gain, winnings, i a, 

34* 505* What a man wins for 

himself; hence, personal property ; 

lit. purchase. 
Pore, adj. poor, 5. 5582, 5595. 
Porettes, sb, pi, young onions, or 

leeks, 15. vii. 273. O. F. poret, 

F. porreau, 
Pors, sb. purse, 15. v. 110. F. 

bourse^ purse, Gk. ^iptra^ skin. 
Portingale, sb. Portugal, 12. 116. 
Poraeid, pp, provided, la. 150 ; 

pres, part, Porucynde, provident 

of, 9. 75. See Foiirveid. 
Pose, sb, cold in the bead, 1 6. 92. 

Used by Chaucer, C. T. 4150. 

F. pousse, shoot, also, asthma ; 

from F. poussert Lat. pulsare. 
Potte, j>/. s. put, 18 6. 125 ; 

Pot, 186. 31. 
Pouce, sb, pulse, 10. 822. See 

Pouere, adj. poor, i a, 382; 

Pouer, 8 6. 160 ; comp. Pouerore, 

1 a. 294. F. pavvrSy 1.2.1. pauper, 
Pouert, sb. poverty, 5. 5756; 10. 

Poules, St. Paul's, i a. 448. 
Pound, sb. 18 a. 94. Pond and 

pound (for cattle) are both from 

A.S. pyndan, to shut in, pen in. 

See Pinnede. 
Poundmele, adv. by pounds at 

a time, 15. ii. 198. h.^. -tncdum, 

by pieces, dat. pi. of makl^ a por- 
Poure, adj, F. poor, i 6. 63. See 

PouTveid, pp, provided; pourveid 

of = provided with, 20. X95. F. 

pourvoir, Lat. providere. 
Pownd, sb. pi. pound, pounds, 5. 

5 760. AS.pund(ncut. sb^ pi.pund. 
Poyle, sb, Apulia, 12. 150. 
Poynt, sb. small portion ; a poynt, 

a single bit, one mite, 10. 231 1 ; 

at the poynt « conveniently placed, 

14 c. 1 28. 
Prayes, sb. pi, spoils, 186. 50. ♦ 
Preohet (for Preche it), preach it, 

proclaim it, 15. i. 137. Other 

MSS. preche it. 
Prees, sb. press, throng, 19. 677. 
Preieth, F. pray ye, 12. 

164; pr. s, Preith, 20. 122. 
Prentis, sb. apprentice, 15. ii. 190. 
Preostes, sb. pi. priests, i 6. 56. 
Preouen, v. F. to prove, test, 15 

pr, 38 ; pt. s. Preuede, proved, 15. 

V. 13. l,2it. probare, 
Pressour, sb. a press, 15. v. 127, 
Prest, sb. priest, 6. 1 20 ; dat. 

Preste, 6. 77 ; pi, Prestes, 6. 86 ; 

Preostes, I b. 56. 
Prest, adj. ready, 11 c. 25 ; Preste, 

1 a. 59. O. F. prest, F. pret, 

ready ; Lat. prcesto, quick. 
Preste, adj. (contr. from pret-ste\ 

proudest, highest, 9. 139. Ken- 
tish pret = O.E. prut. See Prout. 
Prestely, adv. F. quickly, 12. 291. 

See Prest, adj. 
Presteste, adj. readiest, 15. vi. 41. 

See Prest, adj. 
Preuede. See Preouen. 
Preyd, pt. s. prayed, begged, in- 
vited, 5. 5878. 
Prey ere, sb. a prayer, 5. 5719. 
Price, sb. high esteem, 16. 90; 

Pris, prize, 4 6. 35 ; Prise, victory, 

IX 6. 26. O.F. priSf F. prix, 

Lat. pretium. 
Prikede, ^/. s. spurred, 15. ii. 164. 
Pris, adj. F. precious, valuable, 

excellent, 12. 161. See Price. 
Prisons, sb. pi. prisoners, I a. 513 ; 

15. iii. 132. O. F. prison, a 




Trias, V. to prize; to priss«sto be 

prized, 1 6. 99. See Fris. 
Friuei, adj. privy, prtyate, I 6. 60. 
Priueliohe, adv, secretly, i a. 24. 
Priuitee, sb. secrecy, 19. 548. 
Promysaiotm, sb. promise, 14 a. 2. 
Proper, adj. valiant, 11^. 25. 
Fropertes, peculiarities, 10. 

Brophitide, pt, pi. profited, 17. 

Mar. V. 26. 
Proued, pt. pi. attempted, 1 1 tf. 42. 
Prouendreres, sb. pi, one who 

holds a prebend, 15. iii. 145. 

Lat. prcehenda (from praherey to 

aflPord), a ration, an allowance; 

whence F. provender provendre, 

and E. provender. 
ProiiisourB, sb. pi. provisors, 15. 

iii. 142. See the note. 
Prout, adj. proud, la, 144, 406. 

A. S. priU, proud. 
Prowesse, sb. F. prowess, valour, 

1 a. 104, 117, 128. F. preux, 

valiant, Lat. probus. 
Prude, sb. pride, splendour, 4 6. 35 ; 

Pruide, 15 ^. 23. A. S. pryd. 
Prof, imp. pi, 1 p. let us see, let us 

test, 16. 22. See Preouen. 
Prustes, 56. pi. priests, 18 b. 65. 

See Prest, sb. 
Prate, sb. pride, i a. 185, 402. 

See Prude. 
Pryue, adj. intimate, 5. 5919. See 

Pryuyte, sb. secret matter, 5. 

5751 ; privacy, 5. 5850. See 

Pulte, V. to thrust, i a. 390 ; pt. s. 

Pult, put, 12. 381. W. pwtio, to 

push. In O. E. we often find pult 

written for put. 
Pupel, sb. people, iSb. 38. 
Pupplisohe, V, to publish, make 

public, 14 a. 33. 
Pur oharyte, F. for charity, 5. 

Pur, adj. F. pure ; hence, thorough, 

complete, [a. 174, 181. 

Pur, adv. completely, I a. 390. 

Pure, adj. poor, 10. 509. See 

Purpos, sb. design, i. e. plot of a 
story, 19. 170. 

Puruay, v. to provide for them- 
selves, X 1 6. 33. See Pourueid. 

Purueance, s6. provision, plan. 7. 
179 ; also, provision, supply ; water 
purueance s supply or provision of 
water, 7. 301 ; Purueiance, equip- 
ment, 19. 247; providence, 19. 
483. See Pourveid. 

Puttes, sb. pi. pits, 20. 217; Pettes, 
20. 221. A.S,pyU. 

Puttide, pt, s. put, i.e. led, 17. 
Mar. i. 12. 

Pyk, sb. pike, spiked staff, 15. vi. 
26. A. S. pic, a point, peak. 

Pyn, sb. pain, 10. 1456 ; pi, Pyncs, 
torments, 86. 198 ; Pynen, pains, 
punishments, 9. 62. See below. 

PyneJ>, pr. pi. torment, 9. 69 ; pr. s. 
Pyns, torments, 10. 1928 ; pt. s. 
Pynede, 15. i. 145. A. S. pin, 
pain, pinan, to torment. 

Pynnyng-stoles (rather P3myng- 
stoles), sb. pi. stools of punish- 
ment, 15. iii. 69. O. £. pine, to 
punish. See above. 

Pyns. See Pyne)>. 

Quain, 7. 203 ; either (i) adj. as 
sb. number, multitude, quantity; 
cf. A. S. hwdne, a little, hwene, 
somewhat : Sc. wheen, quheyne, 
quhone, a few, but also used for a 
considerable number, a quantity ; 
whence Sc. wane, O.E. toone, a 
multitude, a Mot*: or (2) whining, 
mourning, lamentation. See the 

Quaintelye, adv. quaintly, i. e. 
cunningly^ knowingly, 8 b. 248. 
O. F. cointe, from Lat. cognitus. 

Quakand, pres.part, quaking, 7. 



Quale, sb, a whale, 8 6. 46 ; pi. 
Qualle, whales, 8 a. 117. A. S. 
kwcelf a whale; cf. walrus, i.e. 
whale-horse, from Du. wal or 
walvischt a whale, and ros, a 

Qnalm, 56. plague, wide-spread and 
fatal disease, I a. 441. A.S. 
cwealntt death, from cwellan, to 
kill, quell ; cf. Sw. qval, pain, 
qvalm, sultriness, from qv'dlja, to 
torment, to render qualmish, 

Quarelle, sb, a crossbow-bolt, 14 c. 
135. F. carreau, a square, carrdt 
square, from Lat. quadrum, qua- 
tuor. Named from its square 

Quareres, sh,pl, quarries, x8a. 44. 

Qnat-als-euer, whatsoever, 8 6. 

Quatkin, of what kind, 8 6. 19. 
Qua)?, said, 186. 17. See Quod. 
Quauende, pres. part, overwhelm- 
ing, causing things to quake, 13. 

324. We also find quaue^to 

quake, as in Piers Plowman, B. 

xviii. 61. 
Quawes, sb. pi, waves, 8 6. 26. 

Quawe= waive, a wave. 
Queade, s6. evil, 9. 231 ; Quede, 

iniquity, 2. xvii. 12 ; an evil man, 

5. 5605. Du. hvaadf evil. 
Queinteliohe, oJv. curiously, 15 

pr. 24. 
Quek, adj. quick, living, 8 a. 138. 

A. S. cwiCt Lat. uiuus. 
Quelle, V. to kill, 13. 324; pr. s, 

Quelles, 12. 179. A.S. cwellan, 

to kill. 
Quen, adv. when, 7. 35 ; 13. 435. 
Quer, conj. whether, 7. 53. Quer 

— wher, a contracted form of 

Querel, sb. F. quarrel, 186. 75, 79. 

Lat. querela, a complaint, queri, 

to complain. 
Quet, sb. wheat, 8 6. 1 50 ; Quete, 

157. A.S. hwdte, wheat. 
Queynte, pt, s. quenched, became 

extinguished, 16. 10. A. S. 

cwencan, to quench. 
Quha, pron. whosoever, 16. 18. 

A. S. hwd. 
Quhethir, adv. whither, 16. 118. 

A. S. hwyder, 
Quhill, conj. imtil, 16. 106. 
Qui, adv, why, 8 a. 223 ; 8 6. 12. 

A. S. hud, 
Quio, adv. quick, alive, living, I a. 

284; Quik, 13. 324; pi, Quike, 

9. 242; 6. 108. A.S. cufic, Lat. 

Quicliohe, adv. quickly, i a, 132, 

Quite, V. to requite, quit, 12. 325 ; 

to satisfy, pay in full, 19. 354. 

F. quitter, to quit; from Lat. quies. 
Quite, adj, white, 8 6. 226. A.S. 

Quod, pt. s. said, 19. 330. A. S. 

eweiSan, to say, pt. t. ic av€E!t$. 
Quointise, 56. stratagem, i a. 141. 

O. F. cointise, from cointe, Lat. 

Quoke, pt. s, quaked, 2. xvii. 19. 

A. S. cweean, pt. t. ewehte; a weak 



Bao, s6. storm, driving vapour, 13. 

433. Prov. E. rack, driving clouds. 
Bad, pt, s. rode, 8 6. 25 ; pt, pi. 

Rade, 7. 53. See Bide. 
Bad, pp. advised, 4 6. 8. (It seems 

here rather to meAti promised, or 

appointed.) A. S. rddan, to advise, 

appoint, reed, counsel. 
Badde, ^/. s. advised, exhorted, 15. 

7* 103 ; pi' pi' 2 p' read, 1 7. Mar. 

ii. 25. 
Badde, adj. afraid, 8 6. 201 ; Rade, 

7. 348; Rad, 8 6. 211. Sw. 

r'ddd, afraid, rddas, to fear. 
Bade, s6. road, 7. 55. A. S. rdd. 
Bade, pt. s. rode, 1 1 c. 47 ; 7. 

53. See Bad. 
Badely, adv. S. readily, quickly, 

12. 41. 



Bage, sh. F. madness, 8 h. i8a. 

From Lat. ace. rabiem. 
Bagexnon, s&. bull, 15 pr, 71. See 

the note. 
Baght, pp. reached, 7. 13; Raht, 

pt. s, subj. should give, 4 c. 34. 

A. S. reccan^ pt. t. ic rehte, reahte. 
Bailed, pp. set in order, set in a 

row, II 6. 83. E. rail; cf. a 

row of railings. See Bayle)>. 
Baiss,^/. s. rose, 16. 414. 
Bap, sb, haste, 3. 256. Du. rap, 

Sw. rapp, brisk, Sw. rappa^ to 

snatch ; Icel. hrapa, to hasten. 
Bapli, adv, quickly, 8 a. 240.' See 

Ba8» sb. race, rush, fast pace, 8 6. 

185. A. S. r<S5 ; cf. £. mil1-rac«. 
Base, V. to race, run quickly, 20. 

264. A. S. rdsan, to rush, race. 
Basse, sb. mound, top, 13. 446. 

Prov. £. raise, a mound, cairn. 
Bathe, adv. quickly, 8 a. 144; 

Ra))e, soon, early, 15. iii. 56. 

A. S. kr<s1S, swift ; E. rather, lit. 

Ba)>er, adj. comp. earlier, former, 

preceding, 186. 55. 
Bathly, adv. quickly, 11 c. 91. 

See Bathe. 
Bauhte, pL s. raught, reached, got, 

15 />r. 72. See Baght. 
Baumpe, v. ramp, seize or scratch 

with the paws, 10. 2225. Sw. 

ram, a paw, rama, to paw ; Ital. 

rampare, to claw, rampa, a claw. 
Baunson, sb. ransom, i a. 361 ; 

Raunsun, price, 5. 5765 ; Raun- 

soun, ransom, 14 a. 45. From 

Lat. ace. redemptionem. 
Baw, sb. row, rank ; riche on raw, 

grand in array, 11 6. 79. A. S. 

rawa, row. 
Bawbe, sb. ruth, mercy, 13. 972. 

A. S. hredw, grief. 
Bayes, sb. pi. striped cloths, 15. v. 

125. F. raie, a stripe, Lat. 

Baykez, pr, s, roams, 13. 465; 

pres, part. Raykande, flowing, 
advancing, 13. 382. Icel. reka, 
to drive. ^ N. Prov. E. rake, to go 
about, roam. 

BayleK pf* ^> sets in order, arrays, 
4 J. 13. Du. regelen, to rule, 
order, from regel, a rule. 

Bayinen, pr, pi. roam about, make 
royal progresses, 15. i. 93. To 
make a progress was esteemed a 
royal duty ; the B-text has riden. 

Bealy, adv. F. royally, 12. 352; 
Realyche, 18 6. 62. 

Beaxne, sb. kingdom, 15. iii. 148. 
F. royaume. See Bewme. 

Bearde, sb. voice, cry, 9. 67. A. S. 
reord. See Bu^d. 

Beaue, v. to deprive, take away, 
rob, 6. 79. A. S. reckon, to spoil, 
red/, a garment, spoil. See Beue. 

Beatune, sb. F, realm, la. 135. 
See Bewme. 

Beboiinde, pt. s. rebounded, went 
about, 13. 42 a. 

Becohe, v. to reck, care, 3. 206 ; 
pr. s. 1 p. Recche, 5. 5763 ; pr. s. 
subj. me ne recche, I may not 
care, i. e. I care not, 3. 203. A.S. 
recan, to reck, rdc, care. 

Becohelees, adj, careless, indiffer- 
ent (lit. reckless), 19. 229. 

Beohe, 56. reek, smoke, 13. 1009. 
A. S. rec, smoke, vapour. 

Beohes, ^. s. recks, cares, 13.465. 
See Beoche. 

Beche)> (other MSS. Richen), 
grow rich, 15. iii. 74. 

Beoles, 56. incense, 7, 127. Reeles 
a= recels = A. S. recels, incense, 
from rican, to reek, smoke. 

Becoinandeth, pr. s. commends, 
19. 278. 

Beoonsyled, pp, recovered. 14 a. 

Beoouerer, sb. saviour, succour, 

refuge, 13. 394. 
Bed, 56. counsel, 3. 7 ; advice, 9. 

74. See Bede. 
Bede, adj. red, i a, 298, 384; 



blood, 19. 356. A. S. read, Gk. 

Hede, s6. S. counsel, advice, i a, 

24; II a. 23; take hire to rede 

— considered as advisable for her- 
self, I a. 133; what ys to redes 

what is advisable to be done, 5. 

5655. A. S. rdd, G. rath, Du. 

Hede, v, to advise, i a. 48 ; to 

harangue, la. 99 ; pr. s. I p. I 

advise, 5. 5793; 8 b, 159; 15. i. 

149^; 2 p. Redes, advisest, 7. 359; 

imp. s. Red, counsel, 4 b. 24. 

A. S. rddattf to read, to advise. 

See above. 
Hedeli, adv. readily, 12. 352 ; 

Rediliche, easily, 15. v. 103. 
Beed, adj. red ; reed of— red with, 

19. 45a. 
Beewere, sb. a ruer, one who 

pities, 17. Ps. cii. 8. A. S. hred- 

wan, to rue. 
Befat, sb. place of refuge, 19. 546. 
Begal, sb. kingly power, regality, 

la. 282. 
Begnes, sb. pi. kingdoms, 19. 181. 

Lat. regnum, 
Begratorie, sb. selling by retail, 

15. iii. 74* F* regrattier, a huck- 
Begratour, sb, retail-dealer, 15. iii. 

81 ; v. 140. See above. 
Beguerdoiui, sb. guerdon, reward, 

recompence, 20. 96. 
Behersen, v, to rehearse, enume- 
rate, 15. i. 22. 
Beins, Rheims {bui perhaps meant 

for Rouen), 1 a. 461, 466. 
Beke» sb. smoke, 2. xvii. 23. See 

Bekiie» v. to reckon, 19. 158 ; ptpl. 

Rekened, reckoned, 5. 5585. A. S. 

recnan, to reckon. 
Beleyt, pt. s. rallied, 16. 51 ; pp. 

Releit, 16. 91. F. rallier, Lat. 

re-adligare, to unite again. 
Belyues, 56. pi. pieces left, leav- 

ingS) fragments, 17. Mar. vi. 43. 

A. S. li/an, to leave, remain 

behind, with Lat. prefix re-. 
Bern, sb, realm, 18 a. 196. See 

Bonded, pp. rent, Sb. 251. 
Beneye, v. to deny, abjure, 19. 376; 

forsake (evil), 6. 18; i p, 

denied, abjured, 19. 340. Lat. 

Bengned, pp, reigned, i.e. con- 
tinued, 13. 328 ;, Rengnez, 

reign ye, i.e. continue, 13. 527; 

cf. 1. 328. But this is doubtful ; 

see the note. 
Benkkes, sb. pi. men, 13. 969. 

A. S. rinc, a soldier, wanior. 
Benne, v. to run, 12. 219. A.S. 

BentoB, sb. pi. rents, revenues, i a. 

262, 292. 
Beparit, pp. (lit. repaired) returned, 

16. 82. 
Bepreved, pp. reproved, 14 b. 

Beprevynges, reproofs, 14 

a. 13. 
Bere, v. to rear, i a. 206, 267 ; 

pt, s. Reride, 17 a. i. 31 ; Rerde, 

I a. 271 ; Rered, lifted itself up, 

13' 423; Rerde, i a. 277; 

pp. Rerid, lifted, reared, 17. Ps. 

xxiii. 7 ; Rered, 9. A. S. hreran, 

to move, raise. 
Bese, sb. haste, 1 1 c. 47. E. race, 

A. S. rcks, a rush. See Bas. 
Bese, V. to rush, 18 b. 119. See 

Besoun, sb, F. reason, 5. 5650; 

Resun, 7. 6. 
Beue, subj. pr. s. deprive, take 

away from, 4 a. 39 ; Reue, 

plunder, take prey, 2. ciii. 47 ; 

pt. pi, Reued, robbed, il a. 122 ;, Reues, spoil, rob, 10. 1239. 

A. S. redfian, to spoil, Lat. rapere, 

Gk. Afntaiuv ; £. bereave. 
Beuel, sb, rule, 8 a. 238 ; Reul, 

Beiiful, adj. pitiful, compassionate. 



5- 5695' 5705 ; Rewfol, 2. cii. 15. 
See Bew))eB. 

Beuliche, adv. S. raefully, i a. 86. 
A. S. hredtulice, moornfally. 

Betune, sb. kingdom, 17. Ps. cii. 19. 
See Bewme. 

Bowed OB of = pities, 2. cii. 25, 
26; (an overdose rendering of 
the Vulgate miseretur) ; pr. s. 
ReweK causes regret, 3. 256 ; 
imp, s. Rewe, pity, 4 6. 7 J Rew, 
4 h. 24. A. S. hredwant to rue. 

Bowled, pt, s. ruled, conducted 
(himself), 13. 294. 

Bewme, 56. kingdom, realm, 17. 
Mar. iii. 24. O.E.reame^reumie, 
reaumet rem^ from O.F. roiaulnu, 
from a Low Lat. form regaUmen, 
from Lat. rego, I rule. 

Bowies, pityings, compas- 
sions, 2. cii. 8. £. rutht from 
A. S. hre6w, pity. 

Beygned,/>^ reigned, 13. 328. 

Bibaudye, sb. ribaldry, sin, i^pr. 

Biche, sb. kingdom, 9. 228. A. S. 

He, G. raVA, Du. rijk, Lat. r«^- 

Bicheliche, adv. richly, i a. 402. 
Bichesses, sb. pi. costly articles, 

15. iii. 24; Richessis, 17 a. iv. 

19. E. riches (F. rickesse) is, 

etymologically, a singular noun ; 

the plural rickesses is here em- 
ployed; for rickesse, see 20. 109. 
Bide, V. S. to ride, 7. 13 ; 

Rides, 7. 55. A.S. ridan, pt. t. 

fc raJ. See Bad. 
Bidlande, pres. part, dripping (as 

out of a sieve), 13. 953. A. S. 

hriddel, a sieve, a riddle. 
Bif, V. to rive, rip, tear, 8 b. 245. 

Icel. hrifa, to snatch. See Biped, 

Bi^, sb. back, II e. 8t. A. S. 

hrycg, E. ridge, Sc. rigg, Gk. 

Bightid, pt. s. corrected, 2. xvii. 93. 
BightwisenoB, sb. righteousness, 

2. xiv. 4; 2. xvii. 56; Right- 

wisnes, 2. xvii. 66, A. S. rihtvns, 

Biht, adv. right, 3. 151; exactly, 

15. ii. 172. 
Bike, sb. kingdom, 2. cii. 44. See 

Biped, pt. s. groped, 8 b. 223. 

Icel. krifa, to snatch, E. rip, rive, 

grip, grope, connected with A. S. 

reafian, to seize, rob, and A.S. 

ripan, to reap, orig. to pluck. 
Biseand, pres. part, rising, 2. xviL 

102 ; Risand, 2. xvii. 123. 
Biuelic, adv. frequently (lit. rifely), 

8 a. 190. Icel. rifr, abundant. 
Bi^t, sb. right, I a. 45 ; RiBte, i a. 

84; pi. Ri^tes, I a. 19. A.S. 

Bi^t, adj. right, i a. 41, 90. 
Bi^t, adv. right, i 6. 7, 71. 
BiBti, V. to set right, 6. 130. 
Bi^tftil, adj. straight, direct, 17. 

Mar. i. 3. Vulg. rectas. 
Bi^tleclie, v. to govern, rule over, 

12. 282. A.S. rihtl^ecan, to 

Bi^tnesso, sb. rightness, justice (a 

cardinal virtue), 9. 26. 
Bi^ttes ; in phr. to ]>e ri^ttes = 

exactly, suitably, 12. 53. Cf. the 

phr. to set to rights. 
Bi^ttes, adv. directly, immediately, 

straightway, 12. 235. See above. 
Bo, 56. peace, quiet, 3. 302. A.S. 

row, Sw. ro, quiet, Dan. ro, G. 

ruhe, rest ; cf. E. un-ru^ly. 
Bo, sb. S. roe, 46. 17; Roo, 4 e. 

50. A. S. rd. 
Bobby, V. to rob, i a. 69. 
Boberd ])e Courtehese, Robert 

Curt-hose, i a. 298, 507, 524. 
Bod, pt. 5. rode, i a. 387. See 

Bode, sb. complexion, 4 6. 32, 4 dL 

13. A. S. rud, red, rudu, redness. 
Bode, sb. rood, cross, i a. 206; 

15- ▼• 145* A.S. r6d\ cf. Lat 



Bode-tre, sh. cross, 3. 9. 

Body, adj, ruddy, 18 a. 13. See 

^ogg, V. to tear in pieces, 10. 

1230. Sc. rug, to tear, Sw. 

rugga, to raise the nap upon 

cloth, make rough, Sw. rugg, 

rough ; cf. E. rugged, 
BoiaUer, adj. more royal, 19. 402. 
Bomeseye, Romsey, i a. 424. 
Bomiandy pres. pari, roaring, a. 

ciit. 47. A. S. hream, a cry, 

hreman, to cry out. 
Bon, pt. s. ran, 15. v. 43. See 

Bonk, adj. rank, bad, 13. 455. 

A. S. ranc, 
Boooh, sb. a rock; pi, Rooches, 

18 a. 95. F. roche. 
Booles, adj. restless, 4 e. 50. See 

Boote, sb. root, an astrological 

term for the epoch of a nativity, 

^9- 314- 
Bote, sb. root, 3. 303 ; 10. 664 ; 

Rot, 10. 676. Sw. roi; cf. Lat. 

Bolder, sb. rudder, 13. 419. A.S. 

rSiSer, a rudder. 
Boj'eron, sb. pi. rothers, heifers, 

18 a. 3. A. S. kryHierj pi. hry^ru, 

a heifer. 
Bo)>nn, sb. rush, 13. 1009. W. 

rhuthr, a rush, assault. 
Botyng, sb. rotting, 18 a. 147. 

A. S. rotung, a rotting, from 

rotian, to rot. 
Bouoht, I p. s. pt. subj. would not 

reck, would not care, 16. 24. See 

Bourne, adj. spacious, 2. ciii. 57 ; 

3. 163. A. S. riim, sb. room, adj. 

spacious ; cf. £. roamf to wander 

Bonn, sb. S. song, lay, 4 a. 44; 

Roune, 4 ^. 2 ; pi. Rounes, mur- 
murs, 4 d. 29. A.S. run, a 

mystery, rune, song, whisper. 
Boizncles, pr. s. wrinkles, becomes 

wrinkled, 10. 773. A.S. ivrin- 
clian, Sw. rynka, G. runzeln, to 
wrinkle. Cf. E. ring, crinkle, 
crank, shrink, from a root signify- 
ing crooked, bent. 

Bonnes. See Bonn. 

Boute, sb, troop, throng, company, 
I «• 73.334; Rout, 16. 31. F. 
route, G. rotte, a rout, throng. 

Boute, V. to assemble in a com- 
pany. 19. 540. 

Bou)>e, 56. pity, 4 5. 8 ; Ronthe, 
19. 529. See Bewpes. 

Boutit, pt. s. snored, 16. 192. 
A. S. hrutan^ to snore, An/'S, 
noise, commotion; Icel. rfta, to 
grunt. . 

Bowt, sb. stroke, blow, 16. 470. 
Cf. G. ruthe, E. rod. 

Bowtande, pres. part, rushing ; or 
else tumultuous, noisy, 13. 354. 
Cf. G. rauschen, to rush, Prov. 
rota, a tumult. See Boutit. 

Bowtes, sb, pi. routs, companies, 
13. 969. See Boute. 

BoBe, rough, 13. 382. A. S. r6h. 

BoBly» adv. roughly ; but probably 
an error for rwly, rueful or rue- 
fully, 13. 433. 

Bude, adj. new {used q/" cloth), 17. 
Mar. ii. 21. 

Bueled, pt. s. rolled, 13. 953. 
Dan. rulle, to roll. 

Bugge, 56. back, i a. 177. A.S. 
hrycgy the back, E. rigg, ridge. 
See Big. 

Burd, sb. cry, noise, 13. 390. A. S. 

Bwez, pr. s. impers. it grieves, 13. 
290. See Bewed. 

Bwly, adv. ruefully, 13. 390. See 

Bydelles, adj. without counsel, 13. 
969. A. S. redeleas, without advice. 

Byge, sb. rain, torrent, 13. 354. 
Icel. hregg, a storm ; A. S. racu, 
rain, a flood ; N. Prov. E. rag ; 
cf. also A. S. hreh, a deluge. 

Byht, adj. right, 4 c. 30, 34. 



Byn, V. to run, lo. 471. 

Bynde, s6. rind, 20. 297. A. S. 

Bys, sb. twig, spray, 4 6. 32. A. S. 

hris, Du. ri/s, G. rm, a twig. 
Bysed, ^/. s. rose, 13. 509. 
Byue, V. to tear, rend, 10. 1230. 

Sw. ryjva, Icel. kri/a, to snatch, 

E. rive, 
By)t now late » just now, only 

lately, 5. 5915. 
By^tez, adv, rightly, exactly, 13. 

By^tuoUe, adj. rightful, just per- 
fect, 9. 215 ; Ry^tfol, 18 a. 140. 
ByBttwisnesse, sb. righteousness, 

17. Ps. xiv. 2. 
By^twys, adj. righteous, 13. 294. 

A. S. rikttuis, of which righteous 

is a corruption. 


Sa, adv, so, 2. xvii. 48 ; 7. 13. 

A. S. swd. 
Saaf, adj. healed, made whole, 17. 

Mar. V. 23 ; Saf, v. 34. Fre- 
quently used for the Lat. saluus. 

See Sauf. 
Sabote, sb. sabbath, 17. Mar. ii. 

27; pi. Sabothis, 23. 
Sao, sb. crime, guilt, 8 6. 136. A. S. 

sacut strife, sacarit to contend. 
Saooles, adj. innocent, guiltless, 7. 

180. See above. 
Sacclesli, adv, guiltlessly, i. e. 

though innocent, 7. 191. 
Saorement, sb. F. sacrament, 6. i. 
Sad, (l) adj. serious, sedate, wise, 

grave, 12. 228. See Sadde. 
Sad, (2), adj. satisfied, 4 6. 5. G. 

satt^ A. S. s<Bdy sated. 
Sadde, adj. pi. discreet, 19. 135. 

W. sad, discreet. 
Sadloker, adj. more soundly, more 

fully, 15. V. 4. See Sad(i). 
Sash, pt. s. saw, 5. 5609, 5643. 
Saghs, 56. pi. saws, sayings, 2. cii. 

48. A. S. sagu, a saying, a saw. 

Saghtel, I p. pr. pi. become recon- 
ciled, 10. 1470. A. S. sdht, peace, 
sahdian, to make peace. 

Sak, sb. sake, 7. 68. 

Sak, sb. guilt, fault, 7. 181. See 

Sakles, adj. innocent, 7. 182. See 

Sal, pr. s. I p. shall, 2. viii. 9; 
Salle, 2. xvii. 6 ; 2 p. Sal (for 
Salt), 2. xvii. 71 ; 3 ^. Sal, 2. 
xiv. l; pr. pi. Sal, 2. ciii. 15; 
Salle, 2. ciii. 14. A.S. ic sceal^ 
I shall 

Said, pi. s. sold, 8 6. 170 ; pp.Sb. 

Sale, pr. s. shall, 1 1 c. 1 5. See SaL 

Salm, 56. psalm, 2. xvii. 126. 

Salxne, v. sing psalms, 2. ciii. 80. 

Salt, pr, s. 2 p. shalt, 2. dii. 71. 

Sal-tou 3= shalt thou, 2. xvii. 74, 
123; Saltou, 2. ciii. 74. 

Samen, adv. together, 2. xvii. 50; 
7. 276; 13. 400. A.S. samod, 
together, G. zusammen, together, 
Moeso-Goth. satnaik, samana, to- 
gether ; from soma, the same. 

Samened, /^. gathered, assembled, 
2. ciii. 49. Cf. G. sammeln, to 
assemble ; see above. 

Saxnmyn, adj. same, 16. 140. 
A. S. sama^ Sw. samma, 

Samned, pp. collected, assembled, 
13. 361. See Samened. 

Samon, sb. salmon, 18 a. 136. 

Sand, sb. sending, gift, 7. 146. See 

Sant, adj. F. holy, 7. 67. 

Sanyt, pt, s. refl. crossed himself, 
blessed himself, 16. 98. O. F. 
seigner^ F. signer, Lat. signare, to 
mark or sign with a cross. 

Sanz, prep, without, 19. 501. F. 
sans, Lat. sine. 

Sar, adv. sorely, 8 b. 8. 

Sare, adj. sore, 10. 772. A.S. sdr. 

Sat, pt. s. sat, I a. 73. 

Sattel, V. to settle, 8 a. 114. 

Sauaoioun, sb. salvation, 19. 283. 



Sauer, v. to give an appetite to, 

15. vii. 249. E. savour, 
Saueth, imp. pi. save ye, 19. 229. 
Sauf, adj. F. safe, or in a state of 

salvation, 2. xvii. 10, 54, 73; 19. 

343; SaufF, 6. 7. Lat. sdluus. 

See Saaf. 
Saufliche, adv. safely, 12. 256. 
Saule, sb. soul, 2. xxiii. 9 ; 2. cii. 

I ; 13. 290. A. S. sdwol, G. sm/^. 
Saundyuer, sb. sandiver, glass- 
gall, 13. 1036. Sandiver or 

glasS'gaU is the scum on fused 

glass ; sandiver is said to be cor- 
rupted from F. sel de verre, salt 

of glass. 
Sauter, sb. psalter, 15. vii. 237. 
Sauyte, sb. safety, 13. 489. 
Saxonlyoh, adv. in Saxon manner, 

18 a. 157. 
Sawel, sb. soul ; sawel hel, the 

health of the soul, salvation, 8 6. 

66. See Saule. 
Sawe, sb. saying, 186. 143; pi. 

Sawes, saws, sayings, 5. 5842. 

See Saghs. 
Say, ^. s. saw, i a. 166; 12. 228; 

17 a. i. 16; Sawh, 20. 126; 

Ss^y^ X 7. Mar. i. 10. See Sagh. 
Sayn, v. to say, 19. 564. 
Sa^tled, pt. 5. settled, 13. 445. 

A. S. sedan, to settle, sed, a seat, 

a settle. 
Sa^tlyng, sb. reconciliation, 13. 

490. See Saghtel. 
Scarslyoh, adv. sparingly, 18 a. 

Soarste, sb. scarcity, 18 6. 29. 
Scene, adj. bright, beautiful, 7. 20. 

A. S. seine, bright, seine, splen- 

d6ur, sheen. 
Sceu, v. to shew, 7. 123. 
Schaft, sb, make, structure, 2. cii. 

28. A. S. scea/i, a creature, 

scapan, to shape, make. 
Sohalke, &b. man, 13. 1029. A. S. 

scealc, a servant, man ; Moeso- 

Goth. shalks, a servant. Hence 

E. marshal, i.e. mare-servant. 

groom, and seneschal, oldest ser- 
vant, from Moeso-Goth. sineigs, 
old, sinista, oldest. 

Sohalstow, shalt thou, 12. 325. 
Generally written shaltow, with- 
out the second 5. See below. 

Sohaltow, shalt thou, 12. 340. 

Soliapp, sb. shape, 14 c. 123. 

Schathe, sb. scath, harm, 8 b, 51. 

SchAuing, sh. shewing, revelation, 
8 a. 180. 

Schaw, V. to shew, 8 6. 132. 

Sohawes, 56. pi. groves, 12. 178. 
Dan. shov, a wood, Sw. shog, 
Icel. shogr; cf. A. S. scua, shade, 
E. sky^ i. e. a cloud. 

Solieawi)>, pr. pi, appear, come to 
sight, 6. 108. A.S. scedwian, 
E. shew. 

Soheep, sb. a shepherd, i$ pr. 2. 
See note. 

Sohel, pr. s. i p. shall, 6. 1 18. 

Schelder, 56. shielder, protector, 
2. xvii. 7. 

Soheltroms, sb. pi. squadrons, bat- 
talions, 18 b. 106. A. S. scyld' 
truma, lit. a troop-shield, hence, 
an armed company; A.S. seyld, 
a shield, truma, a troop; cf. £. 

Sohende, v. to put to shame, 
destroy, 13. 519; to pillage, 15 
P^' 95 J P^' P^' SchendeJ>, hurt, 
^5* i* 39 > PP' Schent, undone, 
15. iii. 130; destroyed, 13. 1029. 
A.S. scendan, to destroy, G. 
schanden, to dishonour. 

Sohene, adj. shining, bright, II 0. 
105. A. S. seine, bright. 

Schepe, sb.jf^. sheep, 2. viii. 21. 

Solier)>, pr. s. sheareth, cuts, 20. 
175. A.S. sciran, to shear. 

Bdhewed, pp. shewn, 2. xvii. 41. 

Sohifb, sb. a shift, sudden motion ; 
at a schift = on a sudden, in a 
moment, 8 a. I4T. 

Sohille, adj. shrill, 12.213; odv, 
shrilly, 12. 37* ^^- schel, shrill; cf. 
Sc. skirl, to cry with a loud voice. 



Schilling, sb.pL shillings, 8 6. 171. 

8ohii>-bord ; on schipbord « on 
board a ship, 8 b, 38. 

Sohippes, sb. pi. ships, 2. ciii. 60. 

Sohire, adj. bright, 2. xvii. 35. 
A. S. scir, bright, sheer; Moeso- 
Goth, skeirs, clear. 

Schlrreues, sb, pi, shire-reeves, 
sheriffs, 1 5. iii. 130. A.S. scir- 
gerd/a, a ^ire-reeve. 

Sohok, pt. s. shook, i 6. 81. 

Scholle, pr. pi. shall, must, 6. 64 ; 
pt. s. Scholde, should, l b. 20; 
6. 71. A.S. ie sceal, I shall, ic 
sceolde, 1 should. 

Schomeliclie, adv. shamefully, 15. 
iii. 45. But other MSS. have 

Sohon, s6. pi. S. shoes, 12. 14; 
Schoon, 17 a. i. 7. A.S. sc6, 
sce6t a shoe, pi. sceds^ sc6s, scedn, 
sc6nt or gescy. 

Soliop, I p. s. pt. put (lit. shaped) ; 
schop me into a schroud = got me 
into a garment, 15 ^. 2 ; pt. s, 
Schop, contrived, 20. 18; Schope, 
created, shaped, 11 a. i ; pt. pi. 
Schopen, shaped, put; schopen 
hem to hermy tes = made them- 
selves hermits, 15 ^r. 54. A.S. 
Fcdpan^ to shape. 

Schoppes, shops, 15. ii. 189. 

Sohore, sb. a score, twenty, 12. 

Schort6, adj. short, 6. 109. 
Sohoty pt. s. intrans. rushed, dashed, 

16. 467. A. S. scedtan, to shoot ; 

o/so, to rush, dash. 
Schowued, pp. shoved, 13. 1029. 

A. S. scufan, to shove. 
Sohraf, pt. s. shrove, S b. 133; 

schraf him at «= shrove himself to. 
Schred, pt. s. 2 p. didst put on (as 

a garment), 2. ciii. 3. The Vulg. 

has induisti. A.S. scrydan, to 

put on, scrud, a garment, a 

Sohrewe, sb. wicked one, i 6. 87, 

90, 91 ; 15. i. 118. Cf. E. shrewj 

Du. schreeutoer, a bawler, brag- 
gart, from schreeuwertf to cry out ; 

cf. also E. screw, a vicious horse. 
Sohrifb, sb. confession, 2. ciii. 3. 

A. S. scrift. 
Sohrippe, sb. scrip, 15. vi. 26. 
Sohroude, sb. garment, 2. ciii. 13 ; 

a rough outer garment, 15 pr. 2. 

A. S. scrud, a garment. 
Sohryue, v. to confess, 2. xvii. 

1 25. A. S. scri/an, to shrive, to 

receive confession. 
Schullen, pr. pi. shall, i.e. shall 

go, 15. i. 121. 
Schut, V. to shoot, 16. 438. 
Sclaundrid, pp. scandalised, of- 
fended, 17. Mar. iv. 17. Vulg. 

Boo, pron. she, 7. 227. 
Scorn, pp. shorn, 7. 337. A.S. 

sciran, to shear; pp. scoren, 
Scort, adj. short, 7. 364. 
Scowkyng, sb. skulking, ambush, 

16. 130. Dan. skulke, to slink; 

Du. schtdlen, to take shelter, 

skulk, lurk; cf. Sw. skyla^ to 

hide, E. shelter, shield. 
Scrippes, 56. pi. scrips, wallets, 7. 

53. Sw. skrdppa, Fr. dcharfe; 

cf. A. S. seeorp, a loose garment, 

sash, E. scarf; 
Scrit, 56. writing, document, i a, 

359. . F. icrit, O. F. e&crit, Lat, 

Scriuen, pp. shriven, 8 b. 253. 
Se, V. to see, 2. viii. 9. A. S. se6n. 
Se, sb. S. sea, i a. 61 ; 6. 36; Se 

halues = sea-coasts, 13. IO39; pi. 

Sees, 2. xxiii. 3. A. S. s<jk, G. see, 

Du. zee. 
Sealt, sb. salt; dat. s. Sealte, 6. 40. 

A. S. sealt. 
Sealte, adj. salt, 6. 36, 38. 
Se-bare, sb. sea-bore, surge, 8 b. 38. 
Se-calues, sb. pi. sea-calves, i.e. 

seals, 18 a. 10. 
Seche, v. S. to seek, i a. 19; 5. 

5896; to visit, i5/>r. 47; pres. 

part, Sechende, 17 6. xxiii. 6; 



imp. fl, Seche)>, seek ye, 3. 300. 

A. S. secan, 
Secre, adj. secret, 15. iii. 141. 
Sede, pt. s. said, 1 a. 37 ; pt. pi. 

Sede, I a. 187; subj. pt. s. Sede, 

I a. 85 ; pp. Sed, 6. 66. 
Sed, 5&. seed, 13. 358. A. S. sdd, 

G. saatt Du. zaa</. 
See, mfp. s. 3 ^. may (God) behold, 

may (God) guard, 19. 156. 
Seg, sb. a man; (dso, a lad, 13. 

226. A. S. secg^ a speaker, a 

man, from seegan, to say. 
Seggen, v. to say, 6. 118. A.S. 

secgan, Du. zeggen^ G. sagen. 
Sei, 2 ^. 5. //. sawest, 12. 276; 

pi. s. Seh, saw, 4 c. 14. 
Seide, pt. s. said, i 6. 73. 
Beidestow, for saidst thou, 12. 

Seie, pp. seen, 12. 264; 20. 102. 
Beien, pr. pi. say, tell, 17. Mar. i. 

Belles, sb. pi. sails, i a. 00. A. S. 

segel, a sail. 
Sein, s6. saint, i a. 57 ; Seint, 

I a. 43. 
Bein, />p. seen, 20. 320. 
Seised, pp. possessed of, 14 a. 58. 
Seifline, sb. F. possession, i a. 

&ei\>, pr. s. says, 3. 218 ; 6. 122. 
SeiB» V. to say, 1 2. 60 ; I p. s. pr. 

Sei^e, I say, 15. i. 182. A. S. 

Sei^, pt. s. saw, 12. 34. See Sel 
Sek, <uij. sick, 20. 334. A. S. se6c. 
Sek, sb. sack, 8 b. 156. A. S. sae, 
' sacCf Lat. saccus^ Du. zdk. 

Sekand, pres. part, seeking, 2. 

xxiii. 13. See Seohe. 
^ Sekes, pr. s. 2 p. seekest, 2. viii. 

14 ; subj. pr. pi. Seke, 2. ciii. 48. 

See Seche. 
Seknesse, sb. S. sickness, i a. 443 ; 

pi. Sekenesses, 2. cii. 6. 
Sekyng, 56. search, 5. 5932. 
** Belouth, sb. wonder, 7* 3^^* ^^ 


Selde, adv, seldom, 3. 192 ; Selden, 

4 6. 5 ; Seldene, 15 pr. 20. A. S. 

seld^ seldan, rarely, G. selten, Du. 

Sale, sb. time, 5. 5781, 5879. 

A. S. salt an opportunity, a good 

Self, adj. very, 6. 129. (Grace self 

= the very grace.) 
Selkouth, adj. strange, marvellous, 

2. viii. 1, 25; Selcouthe, 8 6. 

176; pi. Selcoube, strange, 15. 

vi. 2. It signifies little kncwn; 

from A. S. seld^ seldom, and cti'S, 

known. ' 

Selli, adv. wonderfully, greatly, 

8 b. 201. A. S. sellic^ from seld^ 

seldom, rarely. See Selkouth. 
Seluer, sb. silver, money, 15 pr. 


Sely, adj. blessed, happy, good, 3. 
63, 69; simple, innocent, i a. 
287; 13.490; blessed, 19.6^2. 
A. S. s<Bligf lucky, from salt a 
good opportunity. Note that 
sely came to mean innocent, and 
then silly, miserahle. 

Sexnbeles, pr. s, seems, 8 b, 54. 
F. sembler, Lat. simulare. 

Seinbland, sb. appearance, 10. 
503. Also spelt semblant, sem- 
blance, as in 12. 228 ; 20. 24. 

Semblance, sb. appearance, 20. 24. 

Semble, s6. assembly, 15 pr. 97; 
Semblee, 14 a. 72. F. assembler, 
to assemble ; the root is Lat. 
simul, A. S. sam, together ; cf. Gk. 
&/ia, Sanskr. sam. 

Sembled, pt. s. assembled, 11 a. 


Seme, v. become, or, appear, seem, 

4 ^- 33. 
Semly, adj. seemly, beautiful, 4 d. 

26 ; adj. as sb. comely one, 4 b, 

6; Semliche, seemly, fine, 12. 

49; superl. Semlokest, seemliest, 

fairest, 4 a. 6. 
Sen, conj. since, 11 a. 109; 16. 13. 
Sende, v. S. to send, i a. 18 ; //. s. 



Sende, sent, I a, i^i pi, pi. Send, 

sent, i6. 164; Senten, 19. 136. 

A. S. sendan. 
Sene, pp. seen, 7. 19 ; evident, 3. 82. 
Seneueye, sb. mustard, 17. Mar. 

iv. 31. Lat. sinapi. 
Sent, pr. s. (contr. from sende]>\ 

sends, 15. rii. 311 ; imp. s. Sent, 

send, 4 6. 15. 
Seo, gerund, to see, 4 d. 17; pr, 

pi. I p. Seo]>, see, 15. i. 49. A.S. 

Ser, adj. separate, 13. 336; Sere, 

various, 7. 6 ; different, 8 a. 106 ; 

separate, 10. 761 ; several, 10. 

1250. Icel. sSr, Dan. sar, 

SeriaimB, sb. pi. serjeants, IS pr. 

85 ; Seriauntes, servants, 5. 5873. 

£. Serjeant and servant are one 

Sertes, adv. certainly, 12. 268. 

Lat. certe. 
Semage, sb. F. servitude, thraldom, 

5-5756,5795; 19-368. 

Serui, v. to serve, i b. 63. 

Seruys, sb. F. service, 3. 11. 

Serwe, sb. sorrow, 15. iii. 159. 

Qese, pr, pi. see, 10. 1421. (Mis- 
written for Ses or Sets.) 

Set, pi. s. 2 p. settest, didst set, 
2. ciii. 45. 

Setelgang, sb, setting, 2. ciii. 44. 
A. S. sed, a seat, settle, gang, 
a going ; setlgang, a going to a 
seat, setting. 

Sel>, pr. pi. 2 p. see, i «. 1 79. 

Sel>eii, adv. afterwards, 5. 5740 ; 
Se)}))en, 12. 206. A. S. si\ late, 
sitiSan, afterwards ; cf. G. seit, 
since, seitdem, since then. 

Sel>)»e, eonj. since, 12. 329; l^ pr, 
81. A. S. stlS9a, since. 

Sett, V. to set, watch game, 16. 
404 ; pr. s. Settes, sets ; settez on 
s= lights upon, chooses, 13. 469; 
2 p. Settes, dost set, 2. ciii. 7; 
pi. 8. Sette, I a. 64 ; pres. part, 
Settand, 2. xvii. 88. A. S. $eitan. 

Seue)>e, adj, seventh, i a, 347; 

Seuend, 8 a. 127. A.S. seofoffa^ 

seventh, from seofon, seven. 
Seurtee, sb. surety, 19. 243. 
Sewede, pt. pi. F. followed, 12. 

204. Lat. sequi. 
Sewer, sb, household officer, 18 fr. 

28. In Wace he is called It 

seneschal, « 
Sewyngly, adv. in due sequence, 

in order, 14 c. i. E. sue, F. 

suivre, Lat. sequi, to follow. 
Sexte, adj. ordin. sixth, 8 a. 125. 
Sey, pt. s. saw, i a. 476 ; 19. 605 ; 

SeB. I 6. 34; Seye, 12. 26; 

Seye, 19. 218;^. Seyn, seen, 19. 

172 ; Se^en, seen, 15. iii. 58. A. S. 

seon, to see, pt. t« ic sedh, pp. 

Seyed, pp. passed, 13. 353. Lit. 

swayed; cf. Dan. sveie, to bend, 

svaie, to swing. See Swe. 
Seyn, v. to say, 19. 342. 
Sey|>, pr. s. says, 5. 5576, 
Shal, I p, s, pr, shall, i. e. must go, 

19. 279. 
Shame, v. to feel shame, be 

ashamed, 16. 436. 
Shamlio, adv. shamefully, 8 a. 156. 
Shapen, pp. provided, 19. 249; 

shapen hem = disposed themselves, 

19. 142. 
Sheene, adj. shining, fair, 19. 692. 

See Schene. 
Shenohen, v. to pour out, 3. 159. 

A. S. scencan, to pour out, scene, 

drink ; Sw. skdnk, a bribe, a pre- 
sent, G. sckenke, an alehouse. 
Shome, sb. S. shame, 3. 88. A. S. 

Shote, pp. shot, 3. 85. 
Shrewes, sb, pi. bad people, 3. 

5; wicked men, 5. 5S38. See 

Shiife, V. to shrive, 10. 2372. See 

Shul, pr, pi. shall, 5. 5627 ; Shule, 

3. 42; pt. 5. Shuld, should, 5. 

5608. See Soholle. 



Sigge, V. to say, 6. 69 ; i p,a. pr, 

I say, 15. vi. 39. See Seggen. 
Sih, pt. 5. saw, ?o. 32 ; pi. Sihen, 

20. 109. See Sei, Sy^. 
Sike, pr. s. i p. sigh, 4 c. 51. A. S. 

sican, Du. zuchten, G. seufzen, 
Siker, a^'. sure, certain, i a. 30, 

67; 15.1.121; SMper/. Sikerest, 

safest, 6. 94. Du. z«^^, G. sicker^ 

Lat. securus^ secure. 
Sikernesse, 56. security, 19. 425. 
SHo, for swilc, i. e. such, 8 b. 86. . 
Singuler, adj, alone, 17. Mar. iv. 

Siquar, /or si]> quarstime when, 

7. 375. Perhaps from A. S. SI'S, 

time, and North. £ng. quar^ 

where = when. 
Sire, s6. Lord, 2. xvii. 37. 
Bisours, sh. pi, persons deputed to 

hold assizes, 15. iii. 129. O. F. 

seoir^ to sit, from Lat. sedere; cf. 

F. assises, assizes, sessions. 
Sist, pr. s. 2 p. seest, 3. 40. 
Sit, pr, 5. sitteth, 3. 310. 
Site, sb, grief; with site })am 

soght « visited them with grief, 

brought sonow upon them, lie. 

65. Icel. sut, sorrow, sy/a, to 

Site, pr. s, 1, p, sorrow, grieve, 7. 

299. See above. 
Sith, conj, since, 19. 484. See 

Si)>e, sb. pi, times, x a. 399 ; Si^es, 

times, 12. 103; 15 pr. 109. 

A.S. ii^, time, also, a path ; Mceso- 

Goth. sintk, a journey, a time. 
Sii'eTe, sb, cider, 6. 16. Lat. 

sicera, Gk. trintpa^ strong drink. 
Si)>)>e, adv. afterwards, I b, 79* 

See Seb)>e. 
Sizt, 2 p, s, pr, srest, 15. i. 5. 

A. S. ))i/ sihst, thou seest, from 

s^^n, to see. 
SI3, pt, s, saw, perceived, 17. Mar. 

V. 38. See Sih. 
Skatered, pi, s. scattered, 2, xvii. 

VOL. n. G 

Skele. See SkiUe. 

Skewe, sb. sky, 2. xvii. 34. A. S. 
scua^ a shade, shadow, Sw. sky, 
cloud ; cf. Gk. atcid, a shade. 

Skille, sb. reason, 10. 1423; by 
skille=with reason, rightly, 10. 
682; Skele, reason, 9. 6; pi. 
Skilles, 10. 18 1 8. Icel. skil, sepa- 
ration, skilja, to separate, Dan. 
skiel, a limit, discretion. 

Skowtez, pr, s. pries, looks, 13. 
483. O. F. eseouter, Lat. auscuU 
tare, to listen. 

Skwe, sb. sky, 13. 483. See 

Skyle, sb, reason, 5. 5827. See 

Skylly, adj, dispersing, separat- 
ing (?)» 13- 529. See Skyualde. 
Cf. Dan. sliiUe, to separate. 

Skyrmez, pr. s. skims, glides 
swiftly on whirring wings, 13. 
483. Cf. O. E. sJcir, to graze ; 
which in Macbeth, v. 3, is used 
for scour. 

Skyualde, sb. scufBe, scramble (?), 

13* 5^9' ^^- S^* s^iff^t to push. 
Another explanation is to make a 
skylly skyualde = z purpose de- 
vised ; cf. O. E. skil, reason, and 
O. E. skyfte, to devise, shift. 

Sla, V. to slay, 16. 1 1. A. S. dean, 
G. sehlagen, to smite. 

Slao, adj. slack, weak, 9. 9. A. S. 
sleac, Sw. slak; cf. Lat. laxus. 

Slake, V, slacken, become less 
grievous, 8 6. 60; pr, s, Slake)>, 
burns low, 18 a. 78. 

Slauers, pr. s. slavers, slobbers, 10. 
784. Icel. slefa, saliva. 

Slaw, adj. slow, dull, 10. 793. 
A. S. slaw, slow. 

Sla^t, sb, S. slaughter, i a. 459. 
A.S. slage, slaughter, Du. slag, 
a blow, slagten, to kill. 

Slegh, adj. cunning, skilful, 2. 
viii. 10 ; Sleghe, sly, cunning, 
wise, 10. 812. Sw. slug, sly, 
shrewd, slog, handy, dexterous, 




ddjd, mechiinical 'art; cf. E. 

Sleght, sb. skill, 10.2309. 
Sleie, /»^ slain, la. 379. 
Slope, sb. sleep, 5. 5739; on slepe 

= asleep, 5. 5724. A. S. d<kp, 
Slepyng, sb. sleep, 5. 5725. 
Sleuth, sb. track, scent, slot, 16. 

2 1 . Icel. s/{^, a track ; cf. E. slide ; 

and dowhound (sleuth-hound). 
SleuJ'e, sb. sloth, i a. 185 ; Sleu)|)e, 

15 pr. 45. A.S. slcewiS, sloth, 

slowness, from sldw^ slow. 
Sleuthhund, sb. sleuth-hound, 16. 

20. See Sleuth. 
Sley, adj. prudent, cunning, sly, 

I a. 82; As )>e sleys:like a 

shrewd man; Sle^e, wary, 9. 75. 

See Slegh. 
Sle^be, sb. sleight, prudence, (one 

of the four virtues), 9. 21. 
Slih, adj. sly, i.e. cunning, expe- 
rienced, 20. 31. See Slegh. 
Silk, adj. such, 7. 183. Icel. slikr, 

whence slik and sic; cf. Mceso- 

Goth. swa-leikSf so-like, whence 

snnlk, sic, such, by contraction. 
Slo, subj. pres. s. 2 p. slay, 46. 16 ; 

pt. pi. Slogh, slew, II a. 61. 

A. S. sle6n, to smite. See Slou. 
Slod, />/. 5. slid, 18 b. 46. 
Slonge, pt. pi. slung, i a. 151. 
Sloterd, pp. bespattered, befouled, 

10. 2367. Cf. E. slutch, sludge, 

mud, and slut. 
Slou, pt. s. slew, I a. 1.^4; Slow, 

19. f 64; SI0U5, 18 i. 109; Slovh, 

20 219; Slowe, I a. 152, 

156. See Slo. 
Slouthe, sb. sloth, 19. 530. See 

Slyttyng, adj. piercing, 18 a. 209. 

A. S sli/an, to slit, tear, pierce. 
Sinach, sb. smack, flavour, scent, 

13. 461. A.S. itncec, flavour, 

taste, smaccan, to taste, G. 

schmecJcen, to taste ; Prov. E. 

smouch, a loud kiss, smack of the 


Smaoiiftnde, pres. part, smack- 
ing, smelling, 13. 955. Sec 

Smaoky, v. to taste, to savonr, 
hence, to imagine, perceive, 9. 
220; pr. pi. Smacke)>, taste, 9. 
170; Smacked, relish, under- 
stand, 9. 180. See Sinach. 

Sxnal, ddj. narrow, 4 a. 16. A. S. 
smcel, small, thin, narrow. 

Smart, adj. bitter, 13. 1019. 

'Sinerl, sb. ointment, 7. 131. A.S. 

' smerels, ointment, from smini, 
fat ; cf. E. smear. ^ 

Smerld, pp. anointed, 7. 132. ^e 

Smert, adj. smiart, quick, 10. I464; 
painful, sore, 10. 1 837. 

Smert, adv. smart, quickly; as 
smert = immediately, 5. $706. 

Smerte, v. to smart, 3. 76; subj. 
pr. s. Smerte, 3. 172; it may 
grieve, 15. iii. 161. 

Smolder ande, pres. part, smoul- 
dering, 13. 955. 

Smolte, pt. s. smelt (his way), 13. 

Smot, pt. 5. smote, i a. 133 ; smot 
in anober tale = struck into an- 
other sort of talk, i b. 74. 

^my»>e, sb. smithy, forge, i b. 60, 
70. A. S. smip^e, a fofge, sm/S, 
a smith. 

Snelle, adj. pi. quick, sudden, 
sharp, 8 a. 102 ; biting, 8 b. 213. 
A. S. snell, quick, G. schnell. 

Snibbing, sb. rebuke, 2. xvii. 43 ; 
2. ciii. 15. Dan. snibbe, to scold, 
£. snub ; also Dan. snubbe, to cut 
short, E. snip, nip ; whence snulh 

Snytte, pt. s. cleaned (the nose), 
I b. 85. A. S. snytan, to blow 
the nose, Du. snuiten, to sniflf; 
cf. E. snort, sniff, snuffle, imita- 
tions of nasal sounds ; cf. E. snout. 

So, conj. as, 4 a. 38 ; 4 c. 1 1 ; 

what so = whatsoever, i b. 38. 
Sodeynliche, adv, suddenly, I 6. 



10. F. stntdain, Lat. subitartius, 

Softe, adj. warm, mild, 15 pr, 1 ; 

gentle, 5. 5837. 
Softe, adv. luxuriously, 19. 275. 
Sogat, adv. in such a way, 11 6. 

93. O. E. gate, a way. 
Bohte, pt. 5. sought, -4 c. 4; pi. 

Soght,7. 70. 
Sol^mpnely, adv. with pomp, 19. 

317. Lat. solennis. 
Bomdel, adv. somewhat, i a. I64, 

467 ; 18 a. 176. A. S. sum, some, 

ddlj part, deal. 
Some, adj. pi.; hence, alle And 

some, all and one (modern £. one 

and all), 4 c. 28 ; 19. 263. A 

common phrase. See the note. 
Somony, v. to summon, i a. 416. 
Sbmwat, adv. somewhat, i a. 264. 
Son, <tdv. soon, 4 c. 8; quickly, 

7. 40. See Bone. 
Bon, %h.Y. sound, 12. 39. F. son. 
Bond, sb. sand, 19. 509. 
Sonde, sb. sending, 19. 523 ; mes- 
sage, 4 6. 15; 19. 388; a gift 

sent, 1 2. 64. A. S. sand, a send- 
ing. sfn</aa, to send. 
Sonddr, sunder, 10. 1 2 50. 
Sondezmon, sb. messenger, 13. 

469. See above. 
Bone, sb. son, 2. viii. 14; gen. 

Sone, son's, 6. 60. A. S. sunu, 

gen. suna. 
Bone, adv. S. soon, i a. 64. A. S. 

sona. soon. 
Son^ndayes, sh. pi. Sundays, 15. 

ii. 197. A. S. sunne, sun; the 

gen. case being stinnan. 
Bonne, sb. sun, i 6. 71 ; 4 a. 26; 

5. 5584. A. S. sunne. 
Borewe, sb. sorrbw, 3. 116; pi. 

,3oreghes, 2. xvii. 13. A. S. sorh, 
Bori, adj. sorrowful, sorry, i a. 

474; Sory, 5. 5732. 
Borwe, sb. S. sorrow, i a. i, 190; 

Soru, 8 a. 120; pi. Sorwes, 2. 

xvii. II. 
Boater, sb. sister, i a. 244, 423 ; 


pi. Sostren, i a. 237. A. S. 

Sot, sb. a fool, 3. 82 ; gen. Sottes, 

So]>, adj. true, i a. 50; Soth, 19. 

168. A. S. sJ«, true ; Gk. kreot. 
Bo>e, s6. tooth, truth, 15. iii. 92. 
Sottalik, adv. soothly, verily, how- 
ever, 2. ciii. 69, 82. 
Bothnes, sb. truth, 2. xiv. 5 ; So>- 

nesse, 15. ii. 163. 
Souohes, pr. s. suspects, 10. 788. 

O. F. sQuckier, soucier, to be 

anxious, F. souei, care, Lat. solli- 

Bouerayn, adj. supreme, chief, 19. 

Boufre, sb. F. sulphur, 13. 954. 
Soukand, pres.part. sucking (ones), 

2. viii. 5. A. S. succm, tosuck. 
Soule, sb. gen. ease, soul's ; soule 

bote = soul's good, 3. 300; pi. 

Soulen, souls, I a. 268. A. S. 

sdwh soul. 
Sounyng, sb. sounding, 18 a. 202. 
Bou}7eron, adj. Southern, 18 a. 206. 
Sou]7lianitessire, Hampshire, i a. 

Bowdan, sb. sultan, 19. 177. 
Sowdanesse, sb. sultaness, 19. 358* 
Sowne, sb. F. sound, 12. 210; 

Soun, 18 a. 193. See Son. 
Sownede, ^/. 5. sounded, i^pr. 10. 
Soyn, adv. soon, 16. 3. See 

Bone, adv. 
So5t, pt. s. made its way, 13. 510. 

(Lit. sought.) 
Bpak, pt. s. spoke, 7. 27 ; Spac, 

I 6. 72; pi. Spak, 5. 5589; 

Speke, I b. 9. 
Bpakli, adv. wisely, prudently, 12. 

19. Cf. Sc. spae<mfe, a fortune- 
teller, wise woman. Icel. spakr, 

Sparwesr, sb. pi. sparrows^ 2. ciii. 

38. A. S. spearwa. 
■Bpeche, sb. language, i a, 215; 

6. 67. 
Bpede, v. to succeed, prdHper, 3. 



35; Sped, 7. 175; pr. $. subj, 

Spede, may prosper, 19. 359. 

A. S. spedan, to prosper, spid, 

Spek, sh, speech, 16. 133 ; Speke, 

16. 157. 
Speke, V. to speak, i a. 315 ; ^. s. 

Spekes, speaks, 2. xiv. 5 ; pt. pL 

Speke, la. 316; Speeke, 15. ii. 

301 ; Spekinde, pres. pari, in phr. 

\>e spekinde := whilst thou art 

speaking, 9. 102. A. S. sprican, 

to speak. 
Spelle, sb. a story, narrative, 8 6. 

Spellinge, sh, recital, 30. 341. 

A. S. spellittriy to relate, tell, recite, 

£. spell, 
Spende, pt, pi. spent, i a. 94. 
Speride, pt. s. sparred, barred, 

fastened, 8 b, 184. A. S. sporran^ 

to fasten, Dan. speer, a rafter, a 

spar^ a spear; cf. E. bar. 
Sperling;, sb. a small fish, 8 6. 48. 

Halliwell gives ' Sparling, a 

smelt.' Cf. A. S. sp<sr, small, spare, 
Spicers, 56. pi, spice-sellers (the 

old name f 01 grocers) , 15. ii. 201. 
Spicerye, sb, spicery, spices, 19. 


Spille, V. to be ruined, 3. 35 ; to 
perish, 19. 587 ; i ^. s. pr. Spille, 
I perish, 19. 385. A. S. spillan, 
to destroy, spill; generally transi- 

Spinsters, women who spun, 
15. V. 130. 

Spird, pt. pi, enquired, 7. 73 ; 
Spirs, imp. pi. 103. A. S. spirian, 
to enquire, track ; cf. Du. and £. 
spoor, a track ; Sc. speir, to ask. 

Spousi, V. F. espouse, marry, i a, 
16 ; pt, s. Spousede, I a. 350. 

Spoushod, sb. marriage, i a. 244. 

BpovLted, pp. voided, 19. 487* 

Sprawel, v. to sprawl, 10. 475. 

Sprede, v. to spread, i a. 145. 
Du. spreiden, Dan. sprede, to 
spread, scatter. 

Spreynd, pp. sprinkled, 19. 42 a. 
A. S. springan, Du. sprengen, to 

Sprungen, pp. risen, 2. dii. 49. 

Spume, sb. froth, 30. 396. 

Spiiniande, pres, part, sticking, 
sticky, 13. 1038. Perhaps it 
should be spinnande, with the 
same sense ; or spumandet fuming. 
Pynna/t^s sticky, is found in the 
AUit. Rom. of Alexander, ed. 
Stevenson, p. 143. 

Spumde, pt, s, kicked, stumbled, 
I a. 387. A. S. spuman, to strike 
with the heel, spor, the heeU a 
spur; spomincg, a stumbling- 

Spyllez, />r. s. destroys, 13. 511. 
See Spille. 

Spyrakle, sb. the breath of life, 13. 
408. Lat. spiraculum uitae. Gen. 
vii. 33. 

Spyserez, th,pl. sellers of spices, 
grocers, 13. 1038. See Spicers. 

Squilk, adj. in phr. among squilk 
msamangs quilk, among which, 

7. 25. 
Squyers,, F. squires, 5. 5873. 

O. F. escuyer, a shield-bearer, from 

Lat. scutum, a shield. 
Squyler, sb. dish-washer, scullion, 

5. 5913. A. S. swilian, to wash, 

swill. See Swele. 
Ss, often used for Sh by Southern 

Ssake, v. to shake, 9. 335. 
Ssalt, pr, s, 3 p, shalt, i a, 30. 
Ssame, sb. shame, 1 a. 1 34, 306. 
Ssame, imp, pi. be ashamed, i a, 

Ssoet, pt. s, shot, i. e. darted quickly 

forward, I a, 133. See Scliot. 
Sseswere, sb, a shewer, i.e. a 

mirror, 9. 107. 
Sseawy, v, to shew, 9. i ; pr, pi. 

Sseawe)>, appear, 9. 150. A. S. 

scedwian, to shew. 
Ssede, sh. shade ; in ssede a darkly, 

9. 107. 



Ssedde, p/.s. shed, spilt, i a. 170. 
Ssel, pr. 5. shall, 9. 9. 
Sseld, sb. shield, 9. 83. 
Ssende, v. to put to shame, dis- 
grace, confoand, 1 a, 473. See 

Scepbe* sb. form, shape, appearance, 

9. 158; pi. Ssep)>es, creatures, 9. 

116. A. S. sceaft, a creature. 

scaparit sceppan^ to create. 
Ssetsre, shooters, archers, 

I a. 159. A. S. scytta, a bowman. 

(Perhaps we should read ssetares.) 
Ssete, V. to shoot, i a. 412. A. S. 

Ssip, 56. ship ; pi. Ssipes, i a. 59. 
Ssipuol, sb. shipfuls, I a. 320. 
Ssire, sb. shire, i a. 354. 
Ssolde, ind. pt. pi. should, were to, 

I a. 52 ; in phr. into |>is bataile 

. • . ssolde = were to go into this 

battle ; pi. s. subj. Ssolde, 1 a. 20. 
Ssoldren, sb. pi. shoulders, i a. 

126, 409. A. S. sculder, a 

Ssolle, shall, i a, 126; 9. 

Ssriue, pt. pi. confessed, i a. 96. 

Bsyne]>, pr. pi. shine, 9. 150. 

Stac, pt. s. (of Steke) closed up, 13. 
439. A. S. stician^ to stick ; Du. 
stekertf to stick ; Sc. steek^ to 
fasten ; A.S. sticca^ a stick, a stake. 

Stad, pp. bestead, hardly beset, 16. 
58, 216. 

Stalwortly, adv. sturdily, 116. 50. 

Stalwor)>e, adj. stout, strong, 
sturdy, 5. 5865 ; Stalword, 18 6. 
55. A. S. st<BlweoriS, worth steal- 
ing, E. stalwart. 

8talwor>e8t, adj. superl. strongest, 
bravest, 13. 255. See above. 

Stalworthliede, sb. stalwartness, 
might, 2. xvii. I. 

Btamyn, 56. some part of a ship, 
probably the stem, 13. 486. It 
occurs in the allit. Morte Arthure, 

1. 3658. 
Stano, sb. stagnant pool^ 12. 1018. 

Gaelic stang, a pool ; cf. Lat. 

Stand, pr. s. stands, 2. cii. 23. 
Stane, sb. stone, rock, 2. ciii. 41 ; 

pi. Stanes, 2. ciii. 26. A. S. 

Stane-ded, adj. stone-dead, 16. 

Stangez,. sb. pi. pools, 13. 439. 

Gael, stang^ a pool ; Lat. stag- 
num. See Stano. 
Stant, pr. s. stands, 6. 42 ; 9. 1 19; 

19. 618; 20.74. A.S. standan, 

to stand, pr. s. he stent. 
Stareand, pres. part, staring, 11 a. 

Starf, pt. s. died, 19. 283. See 

Stat, sb. state, condition, i a. 494 ; 

8 a. 197. 
Stapelnes, sb. stability, 2. ciii. 11. 

A. S. stalSol^ a firm foundation', 

sfafSolneSt stability; stcefSig^ firm, 

steady, from standan^ to stand. 
Statues, statutes, 15. vii. 

Staues, staves, sticks, 15 pr, 

Stauez, ^. 5. stows away, 13. 480; 

pp. Staued, stowed, i.^ 353 ; 

Stawed, 13. 360. Du. stuwen, to 

stow, to push. 
Stea^, />/. s. ascended, 9. 241. See 

Stede, sb. place, 2. xxiii. 6 ; 2. cii. 

36 ; pi. Stedes, 2. cii. 53 ; abodes, 

9. 217. A.S. stede, a stead; from 

standan, to stand ; cf. steady^ 

Steenes, vessels or pots of 

stone, 18 a. 46. *Stean, a stone 

jar.* Halliwell. 
Stefhede, sb. (stifHiood), strength, 

9. 10. 
Stegh, V. to ascend, 2. xxiii. 5 ; 

pt. s. Stegh, 2. xvii. 29. See 

Stekez, imp. pi, fasten, 13. 352. 

See Stao. 



Btere, v. to stir, ao. 317. A.S. 

BterOy s6. pilot, hdmsmao, i^ 448. 

A. S. Ue&ra^ one who steers 

s^an, to steer. 
Btereleea, adj. withont a rodder, 

19. 439- 
Btem^ ib. star, 7. 18 ; fl. Stcnics, 

X. Tiii. 11; 8 a. 137; li a. 67. 

A Northern form oi South E. 

ttaire ; cf. Icel. sijama, Sw. 

stjenta, Moeso-Goth. sUurno, G, 

8terrelilit» Mb. starlight, ao. 133. 
fllterren* sb.f^ stars,.9. 151 ; Sterres^ 

19. 192. A. S. steorra, a star, pi. 


Sterte, v. to start, pass away, 19. 

335 J /'•*• Stcrt, caflie quickly, 

7. 288. G. s/i/rz, a stumble, 

sturzen, to dash. 
Sterne, v. to die, 9. 67 ; pe. s. 

Starf, 19. 283. A. S. stfor/an, G. 

sterben, to die, £. starve. 
Bteroingy s6. dying, death, 2. ciL 

7. See above. 
Steuen, sb. voice, 2. xvii. 17; 2. 

cii. 48; 13. 360; command, 13. 

463. A. Sw stefen^ a voice. 
Steuene, Stephen, i a. 272, 304, 

Steven, v. to mount, ascend, 17- 

Ps. xxiii. 3 ; pt. s. Stea^ 9. 241 ; 

Stegh, 2. xvii. 29 ; Stieden, 

arose, 17 a. iv. 7. A. S. stigau, 

G. steigen, to climb ; cf. Gk. <rr€(- 

Xcir ; hence £. stUe, stair, stirrup, 

and Prov. £. stee, a ladder. 

8tif, adj. strong, i a. 409. 

BtifiFuly, a^p. swiftly, fiercely, (lit. 
stiffly), 12. 219. 

Stilies, paths, 2. viii. 24; 
Sties, 2. xvii. 116. A.S. stig, 9 
path, G. stag, a pass ; from A. S. 
stigan, G. steigen, to climb. See 

Btiked, ^r. s. stuck (fast), 19. 509 ; 
pp. sKuckf pierced, stabbed, 19. 


3tiil|» V. to stqp^ leap&off, ia> 159; 

pi. s. Stint, stopped, 12. 61. A. S. 

simian, to be blunt, to be weary ; 

hence £. siumiei. 
Stired, pt. s. stined, 2, xvii. 19; 

Z^. Stired, moved, 2. ziv. 16. See 

StijyDge, /res. pari, dimbing op, 

17. Mar. vi. 33. 
Stockii^, A. pi, stocks, fetters, 17. 

Mar. V. 4. Vulg. eompedSbms. 
8tod0, pi. s. stood, 5. 5605 ; //. 

Stode, I (. 5 ; Stoden, 19. 678. 
StokOy. s&. stock, 3. 107. 
Stoken, pp. fastened in, 13. 360. 

See Stac 
StoAdOy V. to stand, l a. 87 ; 4 c. 

18 : to be vaUd, 6. 49 ; Stoodcn, 

to cost, 15. iii. 49. A. S. standan. 
Stoneyixige, sb. astonishment, 17. 

Mar. V. 43. O.F. csAmumt, £. 

Stonte, pr. s. sUnds, 5. 5887. See 

Stoiinde, th, portion of time, a 

while, I. a, 99; time. 5. 5934; 

12. 159. A. S. stund, G. stunde, 

s^ portion of time, 
Stouped, pt. s. stooped, 5. 5615. 
Stonr, sb. conflict, 10. 1838 ; pi, 

Stowres, attacks, 8 (. 55. O. F. 

estour, from Icel. styrr, a battle. 
Strake,//.^. struck, \6, 153. 
Stroud, sb. stream, 7. 339. Used 

by Gawain Douglas. 
Strang, adj. strong, a. xvii. 48 ; a. 

xxiii. 19; pi. Strange, haird, 8 6. 

StrangeK pr. s, becomes strange, 

20. 277. 
Stratly, adv. closely, 16. ai6. Sec 

Strayny, pr. s. subj. to restrain, 9^ 

10. Lat. stringers. 
Strayte, narrow, 9. 15 a. 

F. etroit, Lat. striclus, drawn 

Strecohe, v. to stretch ; strecche on 

» exert (himself), la. 319. 



SlreitUohd, adv. narrqwly, exactly, 

strictly, i a. 352. See above. 
^txei^ttpt. s. stretched, 17. Mar. i. 

41. A. S. streccan, pt. t. strehte, 

pp. gestreht^ 
Strekand, pres. part, stretching, 

e3(tending, 2. ciii. 5. See above. 
Strem, <&. stream, ±d. 21; pL 

Stremes, rivers, 2. xxiii. 4. A. S. 

Strend, tb. generation, 2. xxiii. 15. 

A. S. strfnd^ stock, race, str^nan, 

to beget ; cf. £ng. strain. 
Strengere, adj.comp. stronger, 17. 

Mar. i. 7. 
&treng]fe, sb. S. strength, i a. IQ4; 

force, compulsion, la. 22. 
8trengh)>ed, pt. s. strengthened, 2. 

cii. 22 ; pp. 2. xvii. 50. 
Strenkle, v. to sprinkle abi:oad, 

scatter, 13. 307. Cf. A. S. 

stredan, stregdan, to scatter. 
Strenthe, sb. force, 8 6. 21. 
8treyt, adj. strait, narrow, 14 ff. 

77 ; Streyte, adv. closely, 14 c. 104. 

See Strayte. 
Strife, pr. pi. ip. strive, 10. 1470. 
Starilpe^, pr. s. flows, 4 </. 21. A. S. 

strtcan, to go, to continue a 

course : cf. G. streichetif to p^ss 

over, E. stroke^ streak. 
Btronge, pi. adj. severe, 1 a. 5. 
Stroy, V. to destroy, 11 a. 48; 

Strye, 13. 307; Stroies, 

Sb. 49 ; pt. s. Stryede, 13. 375 ; 

Stryed, 13. 1018. Lat. struere. 
Study sb. stead, resting-place, 13. 

"389; pi. Studes, I a. 373. See 

Btiuid, s6. time, short time, mo- 
ment, 7. 383. See Stounde. 
Sturioun, sb. a sturgeon, 8 b. 47. 

A. S. styriga, a porpoise, Sw. 

Sturne, adj. stern, i a. 29, 406. 
Bturnhede, sb. sternness^ severity, 

I a. 280. 
Sty, sb. a path, way, 12. 212. Se^ 


Styfesty adj. stifest, strongest, 13. 

*' 255. 

Styh., pt. s, ascended, mounted, 20. 

165. See Steven. 
Styinge, pres.' part, mounting, as- 
cending, 17. Mar. i. ib; iii. 13. 

See Steven. 
Stykede, pt. s. pierced, 18 b. 124 ,* 

pp. Ystyked, 127. 
Styiite/ V. to end ; or pr. s. subj. 

may cease, 19. 413. See Stint. 
Sjtynting, sb. a stop, i^. 40. See 

Sty^tez, an ojbvious error of the 

scribe for Styntes, pr. s. ceases, 

13* 359- ^^ Stint. 
Btyje, pr. pi. climb up ; prob. for 

ste^e, i. e. climbed up, 13. 389; 

pr. s. Sty5eJ>, mounts, 17 a. iv. 32. 

See Steven. 
Sua, adv. so, 7. 20; Sua )>at, so 

that, 7. 38. A. S. swd, so. 
Suanis, swains, 7. 224. See 

Suank, pt. pi. laboured, toiled, 7. 

41. A. S. swincan, to toil. 
Sucoinis, sb. amber, iSa. 36. Lat. 

Sue, imp. s. follow, 17. Mar. ii. 14; Sueden, 17. Mar. i. 18. F. 

suivret Lat. sequi, 
Suei]]^ sb. swain, man, i a. 133. 

A. S. swan, a servant;, Dan. svend, 

a journeyman, servant. 
Suerd, sb. S. sword, i a. 84, ^o, 

no; pi. Suerdes, i a. i^.'j. A. S. 

sweord, swerd, G. sckwert, 
Buete, adj. sweet, 4 d. 5. A. S. 

Su^sant, adj. sufficient, 19. 243. 
Suger, sb. sugar, 15. v. 100. 
jguich, pron. such, 6. 27* A. S. 

swilcy Moeso-Goth. swa-ieiks, lit. 

so-like. See Blik. 
^uik, sb. deceit ; ful of syik, full of 

treachery, 7. 87. A. S. ^tuican, 

to deceive, 
^uikedoxxi, sb. treachery, i a, 121. 

A. S. suAcdom^ treacl^ery. 



Suikelhede, sb, S. treachery, i a, 

9. A. S. swicolf false. 
Sidlk, adj. such, 7. 27. See Suioh. 
Siii)>e, adv. \tiy^ i a. 407. A. S. 

svAtie^ very, stc^IO, strong. 
Suld, pt. s. should, 7. 19; 

Suld, 7. 49. 
Sulf, ac//. self; <2?/'. Sulue, same, 

I a- 350. 
Sullen, V. to sell, 15. ii. 189. A.S. 

Sullers, sellers, tradesmen, 

15. iii.-79. 
Suluer, sb. silver, i a. 456. A. S. 

Sumdel, sb. some deal, some part, 

in some measure, 15. iii. 83. 
Sume, sb. either sum, quantity; 

sume quain = sum of number, i. e. 

number; or sume=suem = swem, 

i. e. grief, 7. 203. See the note. 
Sumpnours, summoners or 

somners (officers who cite delin- 
quents before an ecclesiastical 

court), 15. iii. 129. Lat. sum^ 

Sun, sb. son, 7. 36. A. S. sunu, 
Sunne, sb. sin, 4 c. 54; 15. v. 142; 

pi. Sunnes, sins, I a. 277. A. S. syn. 
Sunne, sb, sun, 2. ciii. 44, 49. See 

Suor, 'pt. 5/ I p. swore, 1 a. 26 ; 

3 p. Suor, I a. 468 ; pt. pi. Suore, 

I a, 41 7> A. S. swerian^ to swear, 

pt. t. ic swdr. See Swere. 
Suote, adj. sweet, 20. 173. See 

Suete. Cf. Du. zoet^ sweet. 
Supplement, sb, new piece, patch, 

17. Mar. ii. 21. 
Surrye, prop, name, Syria, 19. 134. 
Surryen, ctdj. Syrian, 19. 153. 
Susteini, v. F. to maintain, up> 

hold, I a. 31, 403; Susteene, 19. 

160; pt.s. Susteinede, i a. 314. 
Suth, sh. sooth, truth, 11 a. 71. 

See So^. 
Su)')>e, adv. afterwards, 1 a. 5, 6, 

35; Su))))e ))at, conj. since, I a. 

183. See Set>>e. 

Suun, sb. swoon, 7. 346. A.S. 

swindan^ to languish. 
Suwep, follow, lf,pr. 45; 

pp. Suwed, 15. vi. 34. See Sue. 
Suybe, adv. very, i 6. 7 ; 4 c. 1 7. 

See Sui)>e. 
Swa, adv. S. so, 2. viii. 12; 2. 

xvii. 40 ; 10. 509. A. S. stud. 
Swal, pt. s. swelled, 3. 143. A. S. 

swellan, pt. t. ic swedl. 
S'ware, adj. square, 13. 319. 
Sware, pt. s. swore, 2. xxiii. 10. 
Swe, pr. pi. sway ; rather read 

sweyed, swayed, 13. 956. 

Dan. svaie^ to sway, sveie^ to 

Sweande, ^r«s. /ar/. swaying, 13. 

420. See above. 
Sweigh, sb. sway, motion, 19. 296. 

Du. zwaai^ a turn. See S'we. 
Swele, V. to wash, 5. 5828. A. S. 

swilian^ to swill, wash. 
Swelt, V, destroy, cause to perish, 

13- 332. Cf. A. S. sweltan, to 

die, perish. 
S'were, v. to swear, 5. 5629 ; pr. s. 

Sweres, 2. xiv. 11. A. S. swerian. 
Sweuene, sb. a dream, 1$ pr. 11. 

A. S. swefetit a dream, Lat. som- 

mum ; cf. Sanskr. svapna, sleep. 
Sweuenyng, sb. dream, 5. 5726. 
Swikedam, sb. deceit, 2. xxiii. 10. 

See Suikedom. 
Swikeldome, sb. treachery, deceit, 

2. xiv. 6. See above. 
Swith, adv. very, 2. ciii. 2 ; as 

swi)>e s= as quickly as possible, 1 2. 

108. See Sui)>e. 
S'won, sb. S. swan, 4 a. 31. 
Swonken, pt. pi, worked ; toiled 

(to get), l^pr.2l. A. S. swinean, 

to labour. See Swynke. 
S'wopen, V. to sweep, cleanse, 15. 

V. 102. Cf. £. swab; Sw. sopa^ 

to sweep. 
Swo^ve, sb, swoon; on swowe=id 

a swoon, 12. 87. See Suun. 
Swych, adj. such, 5. 5626, 5632. 

See Suicdi. 



Swynk, th. toil, lo. 755. 
Swynke, v. to toil, 15 />r. 53. A.S. 

swincan. See Swonken. 
Swyre, s&. S. neck, 4 a. 31. A.S. 

stueorat swira, neck. 
Swy))e, adv, very, 5. 5577. See 

Bygge, V. to say, 18 6. 32. See 

Sykerlych, adv. securely, 18 a. 39. 

See Siker. 
Sykemes, sb, security, 5. 5766. 
Sylle, V. to sell, 18 a. 52. See 

Symented, pp. cemented, 14 c. 

Byn, conj. since, 5. 5646, 5648; 

prep, after, 19. 365. Contr. from 

Si))))en or Se]7)>en. See Se)>en. 
Syne, adv. afterwards, 16. 74. See 

above. Cf. O. E. thyne, thence. 
Synoghe, sb. sinew, 10. 19 17. 

A. S. sinu. G. sehne. 
Bythen, adv. afterwards, 10. 731 ; 

SyJ>>en, 5. 5863. See Se)>en. 
Sythes, sb. pi. times, 10. 1273. 

See Si)>e. 
Syttyn, pp. sat, 16. 407. 
Sya, pt. s. saw, 17 a. vi. 34 ; pL 

Syjen, 17 a. vi. 33. See Sih, 

Sei, SeiB. 
SyBt, sb. sight, 5. 5864, 5890. 


Ts, V. to take, 7. 182. So. ta. 
Taa, sb, toe, 10. 19 10; pi, Tas, 

toes, 10. 683; Taes, 778. A.S. 

/a, Lat. digitus^ Gk. daKTv\o$. 
Tabart, sb. tabard, a short coat, 

with loose sleeves, or sometimes 

without sleeves, 15. v. iii. Often 

worn by heralds. W. /a6ar, Low 

Lat. tabamis, 
Tades, sb. pi. toads, 8 b. 178. 

A. S. tdde^ a toad. 
Taile, sb. tail, i. e. train of followers, 

I a. 119. 
TaiUouTS,, tailors, 15^. 100. 

Take, v, to deliver, yield up, 1 a, 
89 ; to betake, 5. 5829 ; to pre- 
sent, 15. i. 54; Take, 
I hand over, 5. 5754; P-P' Take, 
taken, 12. 133; Take)>, 
20.72. A. S. /acan, to take. Ob- 
serve that O. E. take frequently «= 
give. See Tok. 

Taken, sb, token, 7. 134 ; pi, 
Takens, 10. 814. A.S. tdcertf 
a sign, Mceso-Goth. tailens, Du. 
teeken^ G.zeichen; cf. Gk.bfiKvvfu, 

Takened, pp. betokened, 8 b. 24. 
A. S. tdcnian^ Moeso-Goth. tcUkn' 
jan, to betoken, shew. 

Takeninge, 56. a betokening, 
token, sign, 8 a. 99 ; Takning, 
8 a. 181. A. S. tdcnung. 

Tale, sb. account ; holde no tale = 
make no account, 15. i. 9 ; of 
water ne)> hit tale = it holds no 
account as water, it is not con- 
sidered as water, 6. 21; also, talk, 
I b. 74. A.S. /a/, a reckoning, 
a tale ; G. zahU ^ number. 

Tale, V. to tell, relate, 12. 160; 
pp. Talde, accounted, 10. 436. 
A. S. talmn^ to compute, relate ; 
tellan^ to tell, to number. 

Tamenden, v. to amend, 19. 462. 

Tan, pp. taken, 8 6. 227; Tane, 
10. 2364. Cf. Ta.' 

Tanoyen {for to anoycn), v. to 
annoy, to injure, 19. 492. 

Taper, sb, a taper, i b. 12; fl, 
Taperes, i b, 18. A. S. taper, a 

Tarettes, sb. pi, ships of heavy 
burden, 11 a. 80. Low Lat. 
tarida, from tara, a weight, bur- 
den, overweight; hence E. tare 
in commerce. 

Targes, sb. pi, round shields, i a, 

Tayl, sb. following, mob, 15. ii. 

160. See Taile. 

Taylefer, i a, 133. (The meau^ 

ing of the name is cut-iron; F. 

tailler, to cut,/<fr, iron.) 


qiqss4R^4k ^^^^^ 

Te, tp (b^ore infin.\ 6. 79; adu. 
too, 6. 74. Cf. O. Fries, /o, te, 
ti, to. 

T^oIl, imp. s. teach; tech to = re- 
commend to, 15. i. 81. AjS. 
tdcafif to teach, shew, direct. 

Teolies, sb,pl. marJ^s, signs, 13. 
1049. F. tache, a mark. 

Teeme, 56. theme, short discoursi^ 
tei^t, 15. iii. 86. 

Tei^en, v. to tie, bind, 15. 1. 94. 
A. S. tigan» 

Telde, sb. tent, tabernacle, 2. xiv, 
I ; 2. xvii. 32. A. S. teld, a. tent ; 
E. ////, covering of a cart. 

Telle, V. S. to tell, i a. 8, 9 ; to 
repeat, 6. 84 ; pr. s, Telb, ac- 
counts, I a. 219; Tellus, 
12. 198 ; pt. s. Telld, 8 a. 197. 
A. S. tellan^ to tell, to number. 

Temporal, adj. lasting but for a 
short time, 17. Mar. iv. 17. 

Tempred, p>p, tuned, 3. 81. Lat. 

Tend, adj. tenth, 8 a. 133. Dan. 
tiende^ Sw. tionde. 

Tende, v. to set fire to, light, i a. 
472 ; pi- pi' Tende, lighted, i b. 
16. A. S. tendatiy ty/ndan^ Dan. 
t€ende^ to set fire to; cf. % Hnder. 

Tene, sb. anger, 13. 283, See 

Tent, sb. heed, 5. 5917. Cf. E« 
altendre, to attend to. 

Teone, sb. S. injury, harm, 3. 88 ; 
Tene, 3. 1 73. A. S. teSnaf re- 
proach, harm, (ynan, to vex. 

Teone)?, pr. s. injures, 15. iii. 119. 
See above. 

Teome)>9 pr. pi. turn, 18 a. 126. 

Teoskesburi, Tewkesbury, i a. 2 78. 

Teme, sb. tarn, lake, 13. 1041. 
]^el. (/orn, a small lake. 

Te-tealte, pp. put in jeopardy, in 
danger of being null and void, 6. 
42. A. S. /0-, prefix, and tealtian^ 
to ////, shake, to be in danger. 

pa, pron. pi. those, they, 2. xvii. 
61 ; those, them, 2. xvii. 39, 49; 

paa, those, 7. a ; l?jp, ^cy, 7. a 1 
flip/. )3aim, tjiem, 2. xirii. ai ; (icfi. 
pam, them, 7, 54. A. S. [>a, pf. 
nom.; )>am, pi. 4at. of «p^ sfp, 

J3ah, cp»/. though, 3. 7-5 ; 4 b. i^* 

A. S. [>tfaA, though. 
pair, poss. prqn. tljei^ 7. 39, 55. 

A. S. IxBra, of them. 
pair,/or the air, 29. 167. 
pam, paim. See pa. 
pam-8elue» pron^ themselves, 7. 3a. 
pan, art. ace. sing, mflse. the, i a. 

464; 13. 91 ; pane, '9. 41 ; dot. 

pi. pan, those things, 9. 46. A- S. 

s«, 5^0, )><s/, def. art. and deni. 

pron. ; whence the ace. sing. masc. 

>one, ^csr^ef and th^ dat. pi. )>am, 

^aja, flJv. then, 5. 5591 ; 7. 38 ; 

panne, 20. 329 ; conj. than, l a. 

50f A. S. \)onnet \xenne. 
panene, adv. thence, i a. 420; 

panne, i a. 474:* A. S. 'ponim, 

^hane3, s&. />/. thanes, people, 13. 

44^. A. S. \>enian, G. dienen, to 

serve. See ^earn. 
par, pron. their., 2. ciii, 24, 50 ; 7. 

10; pair, 2. ciii. 72. A. S. Ixsro, 

of them, gen. pi. of se, seo, \<Bt. 
par, (idv. there, 2. ciii. 58 ; 7. 41 ; 

where, 8 a. 1 36 ; where, when, 7. 

209. A. S. _ J)qjr, there, where ; 

the latter signification is very 

pai^e-amani;, adtt. at various times^ 

a. xvii. 47. 
parQ-ogayne, t^re-agai^st, against 

it, 1 1 a. 36. 
parfbre, adv. iat it, 5. 5766; 

J>arfpr = therefore, 5. 5855; par- 
fore, therefore, 2. cii. 18. 
par-in, adv. therein, 2. ^xiii. 2. 
Tkarr^y, /or the array, 19. 393. 
par-to, adv. thereto, to that, 5. 

par-wid, adv. therewith (?), 2, xvii. 

130; parwith, 5. 5713. 



^Hji, /CQff. fi, those, a. di. 40.; 1^ 
ciii. 18. A. S. has, pi. nom. and 
ace. of M, this. 

Thassexnblee, /or the assemblee, 
i. e. the assembly, 19. 403. 

X^B^i art. nertt. the, i a< 3, 11 ; 6. 
48 (the nouns lond and water 
being neuter) ; i 6. 8 (Jolc being 
neuter) ; |>at on — the one, 6. 134 ; 
l>at o)>er = the second, the other, 
^* 136; l>atsthat which, I a, 
106; 7. 70 ! >'^<' 'f ^/ac6 q/" 
wat=what, I b. 75. A.S. >«/, 
Du. datt G. das, 

pat, con;, so that, 7. 24, 31. 

pMow, for that thou, 12. 285. 

paj, con;, though, 6. 30. A. S. 

paries, con;, though-less, i. e. never- 
theless, 9. 17; panics yefy unless, 
9. 19. 

pa5t=]>a5, con;, though, 6. 25, 

pe, pron, thee, 6. 59, 125 ; pei, 6. 
122 ; thou thyself, 9. 178. 

pede. See peode. 

pedjT,adv. thither, 5. 5910; peder, 
1 1 a. 77. A. S. jiider. 

pei, pron. thee, 6. 122. See pe. 

pei, conj, though, i a. 451. See. 

peU70lie,^^n. such, 9. i. A. S, 
\>yliic, \>ylc, , 

pemperour, put for l>e emperour^ 
the emperor, 12. 212 ; j'l^n. 
Themperoures, the emperor's, 1.9. 


pen, art. aee, s. m. the, i a. 61, 
145, 210 (the A.S.ifteg, a wgy, 
being masculine); (ku, s. new/. 
(eie being neuter), I a. 160. In 
the first case, i>en ■=>A.S. \>one; in 
the last \>en = \>an = A. S. |>am, 
dat. s. neut. governed by \>oru» 

penoha, v. to think, 9. 133 (to 
make sense, we must read — no 
man ne may uoUyche )>enche) ; 
I p. s. pr, penk, I think, 13. 304; 
subj. pr, s, penche, 3. 140 ; imp. 

pl, pench«» I a, 117. A.S. 

^encan. See pofi^ht. 
Thende.,/or the ende^ i. e. the end, 

19. 423. 
pemiQ, adv, then, 3. 67, 143. A. S. 

\>onnet \xBnne. 
ThQnnes, ad'u, thence, 19. 308. 
peode, sb. pl, nations, 3. 28 ; pede, 

3. 29. A. S. \>€6di a nation ; 

Moeso-.Goth.. ]>ivda, a nation, 

peomip» adv, thence, 15. i. 71. 
per, pron. these, 10. 436. See pir. 
per, adv. there, i o. 66 ; where, i b. 

4; 3. 142^; 15. i. 68. S^e par. 
per-i^oute, adv. round it, I a, 

380 ; thereabouts, i a. 71. 
per-afber, atfv. thereafter, 1 b, ^'j; 

accordingly, 15. pr. 23. 
per-an-vnder, i. e. thtre beneath, 

13. 1012. 
Theiibifom, aflv. before then, 19. 

per-bluore, €tdv. therebefore, i a. 

pere, adv, there, i a. 49, iio ; 

where, 5. 5587; 13.9; whither, 

5. 5910; pere as = where that, 

where, i a. 267. See par. 
perf, adj. qnleavened, 15. vii. 269. 

A. S. ]>eo»/, )w/, unleavened, 
perfor, adv. therefore, 5. 5720. 
per-fome, adv. therefore, x. xvii. 

)?er-inne, adv. therein, i a. 383 ; 

6,31. A. S. \>cer-inne, 
perto, adv. thereto, I a, 44, 85 ; 

in addition, i a. 114; pertoe, 6. 

62 ; moreover, 19. 135. 
)?evuQre, adv, therefore, i a. 28, 

383; for it, I a. 451, 452, 
perwe, prep, through, 12. 107. 

A. S. ]>urh, 
J?er-wi3t, therewith, 12. 138. 
pet, art. nom. s. neut. the, i a, 183, 

328 ; pron. that, 6. 63. See pat. 
Tbew, sb. virtue, 1, cii. 47 ; pl,. 

pewes, good manners, virtues, 3. 

4; good conduct, 12. 189, 342; 



manners, 3. 26 ; pewej, manners ; 
his [>ewes = the conduct prescribed 
by Him, 13. 544. A. S. \>ed'w, a 
custom, manner; pi. ^dwaSf 
manners, morals; cf. A. S. ^6n, 
to thrive. 
Thezcellent, put for the excellent, 

19- 150- 
pey, conj. though, I a. 288 ; 18 a. 

105 ; pey3, 18 6. 56. A. S. )vA, 

peyn, s6. {probably) service, turn ; 
wycke |)eyn=sevil turn, 3. 179. 
A. S. fining, a service, |>^nf/n^, 
office, duty ; Wgen, a thane, ser- 
vant; cf. G. dienen, to serve. 

]>ideT, adv. thither, 2. ciii. 60 ; 4 c. 
8 ; 19. 144. A. S. W^fr. 

piderward, adv. thitherward, i b. 

pikke, adj. thick, stout, i a. 407. 

Thilke, ^». that, 19. 190; the 
same, that, 17 Mar. vi. 22. 

]3inif poss. pron. thine, I a. 67, 

Thino, impers. pr. s. it seems, 7. 
Ill; 86. 23; ping|>, seems, 9, 
91. A. S. yincatif to seem, 
appear; m^ Erne's, it seems to 

pir, pron. pi. these, 7. 28, 55 ; 10. 
434 ; per, these, 10. 436 ; Thir, 
those, 8 a. 102 ; 16. 482. Com- 
mon in Scottish. Icel. )>e/r, they 
(masc), JjeBr, they (fem.); from 
sa, sti, ))a/, demons t. pronoun. 

]>irled, pt, s. thrilled, drilled, 
pierced, 13. 952. A. S. \iirlian, 
to pierce ; cf. Lat. terere, Gk. 
rtipttv. See purleden. 

pis, pron. pi. these, i a. 470 ; 4 e, 
28; 7. 10; pise, 6. 107. A.S. 
))tf5, this ; ^/. \>ds, those. 

po, />ro«. j^/. those, them, 4 6. 20 ; 
4 rf. 23 ; 9. 49. A S. jja, pi. of 
art. s€y seo, }p<Bt; also used as dem. 

po, adv. then, i a. 26, 49, 107; 
when, I a, 9, 31, 35; 16. 3. 
A. S. J^a, then, when. 

pof, conj. though, 7. 97. Sec 


pof-que]7er, conj. yet, nevertheless, 
7. 69. A S. \>eah-hw<BfSere, lit. 
though whether, i. e. however. 

Thoght, sb. thought, 2. cii. 29, 51. 
A. S. l^raA/. 

poght, pt. s. thought, 5. 5610 ; pt. 
pi. poghten, 20. 6; impers. poghte, 
it seemed to him, 5. 5636 ; pp. 
poght, thought, 5. 5662. A. S. 
pencan^ to think, pt. t. ic \>6hte; 
\>inean^ to seem, pt. t. j^tiA'^. 

Thoghtfiilest, adj. most thought- 
ful, 7. 32. 

pohte, pt, 8. thought, 4 c. i. See 

polemodness, sb. patience, 5. 
5831 ; 9. 77- A. S. \olem6dnes, 
from \)6lianf to suffer, and rndd, 

polien, V. suffer, 4 a. 41 ; polye, 3. 
248 ; 9. 5 ; pr. s. Tholes, permits, 
8 6. 35 ; suffers, 8 6. 51 ; pr. pi, 
Thol, suffer, 8 6. 55 ; />/. s. polede, 
3. 8 ; imp. s. pole, suffer, 9. 221 ; 
pres. part. Tholand, enduring, 2, 
cii. 12. A. S. ]>6lian, Lzt, tolerare^ 
Gk. TX^vat, to suffer. 

pondiinge, sb. thunder, thundring, 
I a. 440. See below. 

Thoner, 56. thunder, 2. ciii. 16. 
A. S. \>oner, Lat. toni/ru. 

Thonered, pt, s. thundered, 3. 
xvii. 37. A. S. ]>unerianf to 
thunder. See above. 

ponke, sb. (thanks), grace, 9. 233 
(cf. Lat. grcUia plena) ; thanks, 
12. 297. A.S. }ponc, favour, thanks. 

ponkes, 56. pi. thoughts, 3. 4. 
A. S. ))anc, ))oiic, thought. 

]>ozike8, pr. s. thanks, 12. 63 ; pi, 
]>onken, 20. 80. 

Thoo, pron. those, 1 7. Mar. i. g. 

pore, adv. there, 5. 5892. See ]iar. 

"pOTJXtprep, through, i a. 160, 180; 
Theru, 7. 43 ; poru alle Jjinge = 
on every account, wholly (a mere 
expletive phrase), la, 198, 322; 



thorn kind =s by nature, by birth, 

8 6. 121. A. S. }purh. 
poru-out, prep, throughout, I a. 

370, 406. 
por^, prep, through, 6. 18. A.S. \)urk, 
)loii8endzi);e, thousand times, 9. 

72. A. S. si^, a time. 
po^te, pC, s. seemed, i a. 63, 274; 

pout, seemed (to him), 12. 291. 

See poght. 
po^te, subj. pt. s. should think, I a. 

15 ; po5te, pt. pi. thought, i a. 

276. See poght. 
pontes, sb, pi. thoughts, 9. 7. 
Thralled, pt. s. put into bondage, 

14 a. 46. A.S. ))r<e/, a slave. 
Thraw, sb. time, space of time, 16. 

34; Thrawe, a moment, 8 6. 198. 

See prowe. 
VT&wen,pp. thrown, bent, turned, 

13. 516. 
Thred, adj. third, 10. 1826. Sec 

preo, adj. three, i 6. 48, 67 ; Thre, 

7. 10. A.S. Jjry* masc. ; \ireo, 

fern, and neut. ; Mceso-Goth. 

threis, neut. thrija; Lat. ires, 

neut. trta. 
prepi sb. contradiction, 13. 350. 

A. S. ]freapian, to chide. 
Threat, v. to thirst, 8 6. 103; 

Threstes, pr. s. impers. 8 b. 106. 
prestelcoo, s&. thrustlecock, 4 </. 7. 

A. S. ]>rostlet a throstle, thrush ; 

G. drosself Lat. turdus. 
Threte, v. to threaten, 2. cii. 18; 

pres. s. prete)j, urges, excites, 

chides, 4 d. 7. A. S. ]>reatian, to 

urge, threaten, chide. 
Thretend, ad/, orc/m. thirteenth, 

8 a. 138. 
prette, thirty, 13. 317. 
prettene, thirteen, 15. v. 128. 
pridde, adj. third, i a. 135. A. S. 

^riddOt third. 
pries, adv. thrice, 6. 86; Thries, 

20. 145. A.S. \>riwa. 
Thrifty, adj. profitable (to the 

buyer), serviceable, 19. 138, 

prinne, adv. therein, 6. 45. 

Thrist, sb. thirst, 2. ciii. 24. 
Moeso-Goth. thaurstei, G. durst , 
Du. dorst, A. S. \>urst. 

Thritteind, adj, thirteenth, 7. i. 
See Tend. 

pritti, adj. thirty, i a. 195, 196. 
A.S. \ritig. 

proliche, adv. vehemently, heart- 
ily, 12. 103 ; proly, quickly, 
1 3* 504 J resolutely, 12. 127. 
A.S. J?ra, vehement, Icel. Jjrdr, 

prongen, pt. pi. thronged, 15. v. 
260. A. S. \>ringan, to press. 

prowe, sb. time ; Jjilke Jjrowe = at 
that time, 20. 25. A. S. ]>rag, 
\>rah, a space of time, a season, 
Gk. Tp6xo$. 

prowen, pp. thrown together, 13, 

prublande, pres. part, crowding, 

pressing, 13. 504. Cf. Lat. 

prydde, adj. third, 5. 5633 ; pryd, 

13. 249. See Thridde. 
pryit, sb. thrift, prosperity, 5. 5625 ; 

fertilising power, 18 a. 25. 
pryuen, pp. thriven, well-grown, 

13. 298. Icel. \>ri/a, to seize 

upon, \>r{fst, \>rlfastf to thrive. 
puderward, adv. thitherward, i a, 

78. See piderward. 
pues, pron. pi. these, 18 &. 18. See 

pulke s ]7ilke, i.e. that, i a. 25, 38, 

46; those things, such things, 15. 

vii, 286. 
punche, subj. pr. s. seem, appear, 

3. 75. See Thine. 
pimder-]7rast, sb. thunder-thrust, 

stroke of thunder, 13. 952. 
purf, prep, through, i b. 15; 

purgh. 5. 5787; Thurgh, 2. ciii. 

56; pur5, by, 13. 236. With 

purff through, cf. O.E. ]po/^ 

though, and O.E, dwerth = A.S. 

dwerg, a dwarf. 
Thurghfare, v. to pass through, 



*• cii' 33* A.S. \>vrh'/aran, to 

pass through. 
)?iirleden, pt. pi. pierced, 15. i. 

148. See )?lrled. 
pvatfpt. s. needed, 5. 5826. A.S. 

Ivflr/", need ; jn/f/an, to need, pt. 

t. ie jforfie ; Icel. ]>ur/a^ pt. t. dt 

\>urfti; Moeso-Goth. \>aurban, pt. 

t. iJe \>aurfta. 
I^urth, prep, through, 12. 295. See 

1?-wong, sh. thong, 17. Mar. i. 7. 

A. S. fnuongt \noang. 
pyef, sb. thief, 9. 4. 
pyester, adj. dark, 9. iii. A.S. 

]>eostery dark, G. diXster^ gloomy. 
l^yesteniesse, sh. darkness, 9. 57. 

A. S. \>eosiemes, darkness. 
]7yiige, sb, d. pi. things, 4 a. 6. 
-pyse, pron. these, 6. 58. See piB, 
pTif sb. thigh, 186. 124. 
Tidde. See Tide, vb. 
Tide, sb. hour, one of the hours, 

i.e. of the devotions so called, 

I a. 282 ; season, 2. ciii. 64. 

A. S. tidf G. z^tV, time, hour; 

hence E. fide. 
Tide, pr. s. subj. befal, betide, 12. 

137; pt. s. Tidde, befel, 12. ig'S. 

A. S. tiddn^ to happen ; Hd^ time. 
Tidinge, sb. tidings, i a. 18. Cf. 

Icel. ti^endi^ sb. pi. tidings, from 

HC, time ; G. zeitungy new?i* from 

teity time. 
Til,^<'/>. to, 2. xiv. 13 ; 2 cii. 12 ; 

badly spelt Tille, 8 a. 203; to- 

Vrards. 12. 233. Sw. /«//, Dan. ft'/. 
Timbrede, pt. pi. subj. would have 

built; /. not so kye^ would not 

have raised such grand houses, 

15. iii. 76. A.S. timbrinttf to 

build, E. timber, building-wood ; cf. 

Lat. domus, Gk. Sifioj. 
Tine, v. to lose, 8 6. i.^o; 12. 299. 

Icel. tyna^ to lose, t^nast, to be 

lost, to perish; whence Sc. tint, 

Tirannye, sh. cruelty, pride, 19. 


Tirant, sb. tyrant, i a. 366. 

Tite, adv. quickly, 10. 19 14. IceL 
HtSr, frequent, neut. tiU (used sis 
adv.), soon. See Ti^t. 

Tithand, sb. tidings, S a. too; 
^, TiJ>andes, tidings, 11 c. 58. 
Icel. ti^endi, news; A.S. Hdan, 
to happen, betide; A.S. tid, G. 
zeit, time ; E. tide. 

Tithing, sb. tidings, news, Story, 
17. Mar. i. 28; pi. Ti)>inges, 12. 
250. See above. 

Titte, sb. pull, tug, 10. 19 15. 
A. S. tihtan, to draw, tighten. 

^ittefr, adv. mote quickly, lO, 
2354. See Tite, and Tijt. 

^iztes, texts, 15. i. 182. 

Ti^ei>,pr. s. tics, 15. iii. 135. 

Tijt, adv. quickly, 12. 133. Com- 
monly spelt ///; cf. Icel. tltt, Sw. 
tidt, soon; connected with A.S. 
Hd, time, E. tide. See Tite. 

Tijtly, adv. quickly, 12.66, 2^5. 
S^e above. 

To, prep, until, 11 6. 6; cohj. till, 
2. xvii. 98; adv. too, 3. 112; 
19. 315 ; tobrode = too far apart, 
too wide, 1 2. 1 1 ; to » up to the 
number of, 17. Mar. v. 13. A.S, 
to, G. 2«, Moeso-Goth. rft/, to. 

To, num. two, 20. 60 ; Tuo, 20. 
61. A.S. twd. 

To; in phr. >e to=J>et o = [>at o, 
the one, 5. 5643 ; so also )>e 
touJ>er=|>et o|>er = |>at o|)er, the 
other, 5. 5651. 

To-, prefix, signifying in twain; 
frequently used to give an inten- 
sive force. It answers to A. S. to-, 
G. zer-, Moeso-Goth. dis-, Lat, 
dis'; and must be carefully dis- 
tinguished from the A. S. prefix 
to-, signifying towards, which is 
the G. ZU-, Moeso-Goth du-, and 
is seidom used. See Toflight. 

To-barAt, //. s. burst in twa'in, 12. 
374. A S. toberstan, G, zer* 
bers'en, to burst in twain. 

Tobteddest. pt, s, 2 p. spreadest 



out, 3. zvH. 95. A. S. t6br<hJan, 

to spread abroad. 
To-broke, />^. broken m pieces, 

I a. 155. A.S. tobrecan, G. 2«-- 

brecherif to break in twain. 
Todele, v. to separate, 9. 21a; 

pr. s, Todele|>, separates, 18 a. 

127; pp. Todeled, divided, 18 a. 

19. A.S. iodckla/if G. zertheilen, 
to part in twain. 

Tddn^^el), pr. pi. draw asunder, 
rend, i a. 287. See To-« ^efix. 
Todreued, pp. troubled, 2. xvii. 

20. A. S. todr^an, to disperse. 
Toflight, sh. refuge, 2. xvii. 3 ; 2. 

ciii. 42. Cf. A. S. tofledn^ to flee 
to. Observe that the prefix Is 
here the ordinary prep, to = 
tottmrds ; see To-, prefix ; and 
cf. G. zuflucht^ a refuge. 

To-fore, adv. before, 6. 63 ; prep, 
15. ill. no; Tofor, prep. 18 ff. 
116; Tofore, 20. 43. A. S. ^o^d- 
ran, before. 

Toft, &h. a rotinded hill, slight 
eminence, 15 pr. 1 4. From 
O. Sw. torn/, originally a cleared 
space ; cf. Sc. toonty empty. 

To-gadere, adv. together, i a. 
116, 297. A.S. togcedere. 

To-gedder8, adv. together, 18 6. 
95. 107 ; To-gydre, 14 c. 43. 

To-lieueiie-ward= towards hea- 
ven, 12. 102. 

Tohewe, pp. hewn in pieces, 19. 
430. A. S. to-hedwan, to hew in 
twain, G. zerhauen. 

Tok, pt. s. gave, 15. iii. 46; 20. 
loi ; Toke, took, 2. xiv. 14 ; 
pt. pi. Toke, took, 7. 71; I a. 
361 ; gave, I a. 231 ; received, 

5- 5594 J pf- P^' ^^J- *oke i>ei 
on = if they barnined, received 
money, 15. iii. 70. See Take. 
Tokkeris, sb. pi. fullers, 15 pr, 
100. Prov. E. tucker, a fuller ; 
tucking-millf a fulling-mill for 
thickening cloth ; W. tew, thick, 
teivkdu, tewychu, to thicken. 

^olbo^he, sb. toll-booth, place 
where tolls are collected, 17. 
Mar. ii. 14. Vulg. ielonium. 

Tolde, pt. s. accounted, i o. 78; 
told, I a. 50; siibj. pt. s. I p. 
should account, 4 b. 39 ; pt. pi, 
accounted, i a. 446 ; Tolden, 
counted, 15. v. 128; pp. Told, 
considered (to be), 20. 307. See 

Toike, sb. a man, 13. 498. Lit. 
one who talJts. Icel. ttUkr^ an 
interpreter, tviha, to interpret. 

Tolle're, sb. usurer, 5. 5816, 5888. 
Cf. A.S. /d/, toll, tolnere, a tax- 

Tologged, pp. lugged in all direc- 
tions, dragged hither and thither, 
pulled about by the ear or hair, 
15. ii. 192. Cf. Sw. lugga, to 
pull by the hair. 

Tome, ib. leisure, 15. ti.^60. Icel. 
tbiUy leisure, tdmr, vacant, Sw. 
torn, Sc. toom^ empty. 

Tonge, sb. tongs, pincers, i b. *j*j. 
79, 85. A. S. tange^ tongs. 

Tonge, sb. tongue, 3. 141, 144. 
Mceso-Goth. tuggo. 

Top-ou^-taill, phr. top over tail, 
head over heels, completely upset, 
. 16. 455. 

To-rent, pr, s. became rent in 
twain, 13. 368. 

Torf, sb. turf, 18 a. 25. Icel. tor/. 

Tormentors, sb. as adj. {in app. 
with dyeules), tormenting, 9. 69. 

Tom, V. F. to turn, return, 7. 154; 
pt. s. Tomed, turned, 20. 145. 

To-rof, pt. s. became riven in 
twain, 13. 964. 

Torres, sb. pi. towers, tower-shaped 
cumuli, 13. 951. A. S. tor, a 
tower, hill-top. 

Tortuous, adj. oblique, 19. 30a. 
See the note. 

To-^ched, pp. parted, 18 6. 67. 
A. S. to-sceddan, to divide. 

Tosprad, pp. spread about, scat- 
tered, I a. 149; spread abroad. 



dishevelled, 30. 138. A.S. /o- 

spradiarit to spread abroad. 
Tother; in phr, the tother = thet 

or that other, the second, 8 a. 

113; the tothirsthat other, the 

other, 16. 186. 
Toun, sb, town, i a, 461, A.S. 

Tonne ; to toune, in its turn, 4 d, 

I. See note. 
To-uore, prep, before, I a. 417; 

To-vore, 18 h. 108. See To- 
Tour, ih. a tower, 15 />r. 14; 

tower, stronghold, 15. i. 54; 

where some MSS. read tutour, i. e. 

guardian. F. tour^ Lat. tttrris, 
Tou)>er. See To, in phr. pe to. 
To-walten, pt. pi. flowed asunder, 

overflowed, 13. 428. A.S. weal" 

tiany to roll, reel, weallan, to 

well, flow. 
To-wswe, V. move or crawl about, 

12. 19. The prefix to- here 

means towards or near an object, 

and waive 's^wag^ move. Cf. So. 

waucJile, to toddle about. 
Trass, sb. trace, 16. 67. 
Trast (for Traist), pr. s. 1 p. trust, 

16. 179. Icel. treysta, to trust, 
traustf trust, traustr^ trusty. 

Trauail, sb. F. toil, i a. 462, 491 ; 

Trawayle, 12. 299; Trauell, 16. 

45. W. trafael, 
Traueilist, 2 p. s. pr. troublest, 

17. Mar. V. 35; pp. Traueilid, 
tormented, 17. Mar. v. 15. Vulg. 
uexas, uexabatur. 

Trawed, pt. pi. trowed, trusted, 

expected, 13. 388. See Trow. 
Traw)>e, sb. truth, 13. 236. A. S. 

treSv/^, truth, troth. 
Trayste, v. to trust, 10. 143 1. See 

Tre, sb. wood (lit. tree), 18 a. 117 ; 

pi. Tren, trees, 18 a. 3. A.S. 

treow, Moeso-Goth, iriu, a tree, 

Gk. fyv$t an oak. 
Treoflinge, pres. part, trifling, i b. 

74. O.F. trufler, to mock at; 

trujle, a gibe, scoff. 
Tresorie, sb. treasury, i a. 360, 

Tresour, sb. F. treasure, i a. 372, 

508 ; 15. i. 54; Tresor, 19. 442. 

Lat. thesaurus, Gk. OriaavpSt, 

from TiOrj/Uf I lay up in store. 
Tretys, sb. treaty, 19. 333. Cf. 

F. traite, from Lat. tractare. 
Treu)>e, s&. fidelity, troth, i a. 23 ; 

4 b. 38. A.S. tre6w1S, troth, 

troth. See Tra^v)>e. 
Trew, adj. true, honest, faithful, 

5. 5800 ; pi: Trewe, 19. 456. A. S. 

treotve, true. 
Trewehede, sb. truth, uprightness, 

1 a. 47. 
Treye, sb. affliction, misery, 3. 173, 

198. A. S. trega, vexation, tribu- 
/r lation, tregian, to vex. "'VV 

I Triacle, sb. a sovereign remedy, 19. \ \ 
Y 479. E. treacle, F. triacle ; from \ \ 
^\ Gk. Orjpiafc^ (piipfjuuea, antidotes I \ 
\S against the bites of animals, from I } 
1 1 $iip, a beast. / / 

ITrioherie, sb. treachery, i a. 31-^ 

15. i. 172; Tricherye, i a. 457. 

Probably from Lat. tradere, Prov. 

trachar, to betray ; see Traitor in 

Triedest, adj. superl. choicest, 15. 

i. 126. ¥. trier, to select; from 

Low Lat. tritare, to triturate, 

from Lat. terere, to rub; cf. £. 

Trinity, sb. the Trinity, 6. 87. 
Trist, sb. tryst, meeting-place, 16. 

Triste, v. to trust; forto triste«= 

to trust, i.e. to be trusted, 20. 

328. See Trast. 
Triwe, adj. true, faithful, I a. 418. 

See Trew. 
Trljede, ^^ tried, 15. i. 183. 
Trijely, adv. excellently, i5/»r. 14. 

Lit. choicely, from F. trier, to 

pick, select. See Triedest. 
Tronen,, thrones, 9. 138. 



Trost, suhj, pr. s. trust, 3. 194. 

See Trast, Triste, Tryste. 
Trouble, adj. troubled, turbid, 20. 

Trouthe, s6. troth, fidelity, 5. 

Tpow, v. to believe, 13. 1049; 16. 

143; 1 p. 5. pr. Trowe, 15- pr. 

34; 19. 288; pr, 8. Trowes, 

believes, 10. 788 ; pr. pi. Trowe, 

suppose, 19. 322 ; me trowe[>, 

people believe, 18 6. 139; Trawed, 

expected, 13. 388. A. S. tredw, 

trust, tredwan, to believe. 
Trcwynfi:, sb. belief, 10. 789. See 

Tra» adj, true, faithful, 7. 60. See 

Tpu, v. to trow, believe, 7. 413. 

See Trow. 
Truage, sb. tribute, i a, 346. 

O. F. truage, truaige, tribute, 

Trusse, v. to pack, pack off, to 

begone, 15. ii. 194. O. F. trosser, 

torsert F. trousser, to pack up, 

lit. to twist up ; formed from 

Lat. tortus, pp. of torquere, to 

Tmste, V. to trust, i a. ai ; pt. s. 

Tniste, trusted, i a. 12. See 

Trast, Tiiste, Trost. 
Trathes, sb. pi. pledges, 7. 60. 

A. S. tre6u/^, truth, a pledge. 
Tryste, v. to trust, believe, 18 a. 

148. See Trast, Triste. 
Tna, adj, two, 7. 50. A. S. twd. 
Tuelf, adj. S. twelve, I a. 19. 

A. S. tivelf, MoBso-Goth. twalif. 
Tuelft, adj. twelfth, 8 a, 137. 

A.S. twelfia. 
Tuelmonth, sb. twelvemonth, 7. 1 1. 
Tuelue» adj, twelve, 7. 31. See 

Tuengde, pt. s. pinched, i b. 8r. 

85. Cf. £. twinge, Sw. tvinga, 

to force, constrain ; G. zwingen, 

to constrain. 
Tueyne, adj. twain, two, 20. 214. 

VOL. n. H 

A. S. twigen, masc., twd, fem. and 

neut., two. 
Tuin, num. twain, two, 7. 278. 

See above. 
Tun, sb. town, 7. 71. A. S. 

Tung, sb, tongue, 2. xiv. 6. See 

Tug, adj, two, I a, 237. See 

Tume, V. to turn, i a. 120; pres. 

part. Turnand, tuniing, 2. ciii. 
- 69. F. toumer, Lat. tornare, to 

turn wood. 
TuTues, sb. pi, turfs, 20. 205. See 

Twa, adj. two, 2. xvii. 68 ; Twey, 

15. vii. 268. A. S. twd, G. zwei, 

Lat. duo. 
Twinging, sb. affliction, 2. xvii. 51. 

Sw. tvinga, to constrain, twinge. 

See Tuengde. 
Twist, sb. bough, 16. 188. Cf. E. 

twig; it lit. means a fork in a 

branch, the root being the word 

Iwo. See Twyn. 
Twyes, adv. twice, 6. 100. So also 

pries, q. v. 
Twyn, V. to part, part in twain, 10. 

1823; Twynne, to separate, 19. 

517; to part, 13. 402. A.S. 

twynian, to doubt, lit. to be in 

twain. See Tuin, Tueyne. 
Twynne ; in twynne ^ in twain, 

13. 966. See Tuin. 
Tyde, sb. hour, time, 16. 48 ; 20. 

135. See Tide, sb. 
Tyden, v. to befall, 19. 337; 

Tyde, 12. 326; pr. s. subj. Tyde, 

may happen, 3. 157. See Tide, 

Tyene, sb. sorrow, 9. 175. See 

Tylle, V. to prepare, 5. 5674. A. S. 

tilian, to till, prepare, assist, exer- 
cise; til, fit, suitable, excellent; 

tU, an aim, object; G. ziel, an 

aim, aelen, to aim at. 
Tyme, pr. t. subj, betide, I3. 279. 




A.S, getimian, to happen; tima, 

Tyne, v, to lose, lo. 702 ; 1 2. 358 ; 

16. 21; pr. s. Tynes, loses, 10. 

697 ; pp. Tynt, lost, 16. 45. See 

Tyzied» pt. s. fastened, 13. 498. 

A. S. tynan^ to fasten in, to hedge 

in, from /tin, a town, an enclo- 
sure, a hedge, G. zaun, a hedge, 

zduneUt to shut up. 
Tyred, pp, attired, dressed, 12. 

263. Cf. G. zier, an ornament, 

zieren, to adorn. 
Tysyk, s6. phthisic, phthisis, con- 
sumption, 10. 701. Gk. <f^iv€iv, 

to wane. 
Tyte, adv. soon, 10. 766; as tyt — 

as quickly as possible, 12. 238. 

See Tite. 
Tything, sb. tidings, 17. Mar. i. 28; 

pi. Tyl>ynges, 13. 458; 18 b. 64. 

See Titha«nd. 
Tyyly sb. tile (perhaps used as a pi. 

tiles), 18 a. 47. A. S. tigol^ G. 

ziegelf Lat. tegvla, from tegere, 

to cover, 

U, V. 

V, often used for w in Lowland 
Scotch, as in vorf, v///, . vattert for 
woody will, water. In Southern 
English, often put for /, as in vel, 
vure, for fellf firt. 

Vachit, pp. watched, 16. 421. See 

Uader, sb. father, 9. 3 ; gen. Uader, 

father's, 6. 59. 
Vading, s6. wading, 16. 56. 
Vair, adj. fair, i a. 80 ; Uair, I a. 

212. A . S. /(Bger, fair. 
Vaire, adj. well, properly, decently, 

I a. 198. 
Vald, pt, pi. would, i. e. wished to 

go, 16. 118. 
VaI6, sb. valley, 16. 4. 
Valeie, sb. F. valley, i a. 157. 
.Valk, V. to wake (us«</ transitively^ 

16. 179. A.S. W€Bctan, Moeso- 
Goth. wakan, Icel. vaka, to wake. 

Valknyt, pt. s: awoke, 16. a 10. 
Moeso-Goth. ga-waknan, to be 
awake, Icel. vc^na, to becomie 

Vantwarde, 56. vanguard, i a, 
155. F. avantf before; A, S. 
weard, a guard. 

Vanye, veins, 16. 173. 

Vanyssht, pp. vanished, 20. 1 33. 

Variand, pres, part, F. varying, 
10. 1413. 

Var)>, pr. pi. fare, do, act, i a. 283. 
A. S. farany to fare, go. 

Varyit (for Waryit), pt. s. cursed, 
16. 228. A. S. wyrgian, to curse. 

Vast, adj. waste, empty, 16. 151. 
A. S. weste, empty. 

Vast, v, to waste, 16. 50. A. S. 
westan, to waste. 

Uaste, adv. fast, quickly, i a. 78 ;